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Subtext is any content of a creative work, not announced explicitly by the characters or author, but is implicit or becomes something understood by the observer of the work as the production unfolds. Subtext has been used to imply controversial subjects without drawing the attention, or wrath, of censors; this has been true in comedy, but it is common in science fiction, where it can be easier and safer to make social critiques if it is set in a time other than the present. Subtext is content "under", hence, "sub", or hidden beneath, the actual dialog or text. To gather subtext the audience must "read between the lines"; this is crucial to a accurate understanding of the word. If it is stated explicitly, it is by definition not subtext. In fact, writers are criticized for the failure to artfully create and use subtext; such writing is faulted for being too "on the nose", meaning the characters always mean what they say. Among other things, this robs the text of dramatic tension and can make the whole thing too boring and obvious.

Subtext is also inserted in narratives where explicit themes are unable to be shown or expressed due to the desire to appeal to a general audience. Examples are other adult references in a story nominally marketed to children, their inclusion sails right over the kid's heads but the adults appreciate a chuckling nod to the fact that they too are in the audience. Subtext is not costumes, set pieces, or design, although these cultural cues may'set the table' for the understanding and interpretation of the subtext

Bahraini uprising of 2011

The Bahraini uprising of 2011 was a series of anti-government protests in Bahrain led by the Shia-dominant and some sunni minority Bahraini Opposition from 2011 until 2014. The protests were inspired by the unrest of the 2011 Arab Spring and 2011–12 Iranian protests and escalated to daily clashes after the Bahraini government repressed the revolt with the support of Gulf Cooperation Council and Peninsula Shield Force; the Bahraini protests were a series of demonstrations, amounting to a sustained campaign of non-violent civil disobedience and some violent resistance in the Persian Gulf country of Bahrain. As part of the revolutionary wave of protests in the Middle East and North Africa following the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi in Tunisia, the Bahraini protests were aimed at achieving greater political freedom and equality for the majority Shia population, expanded to a call to end the monarchy of Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa following a deadly night raid on 17 February 2011 against protesters at the Pearl Roundabout in Manama, known locally as Bloody Thursday.

Protesters in Manama camped for days at the Pearl Roundabout, which became the centre of the protests. After a month, the government of Bahrain requested troops and police aid from the Gulf Cooperation Council. On 14 March, 1,000 troops from Saudi Arabia and 500 troops from UAE entered Bahrain and crushed the uprising. A day King Hamad declared martial law and a three-month state of emergency. Pearl Roundabout was cleared of protesters and the iconic statue at its center was demolished. Occasional demonstrations have, continued since then. After the state of emergency was lifted on 1 June, the opposition party, Al Wefaq National Islamic Society, organized several weekly protests attended by tens of thousands. On 9 March 2012, over 100,000 attended and another on 31 August attracted tens of thousands. Daily smaller-scale protests and clashes continued outside Manama's business districts. By April 2012, more than 80 had died; the police response was described as a "brutal" crackdown on "peaceful and unarmed" protesters, including doctors and bloggers.

The police carried out midnight house raids in Shia neighbourhoods, beatings at checkpoints and denial of medical care in a campaign of intimidation. More than 2,929 people have been arrested, at least five died due to torture in police custody. In June, King Hamad established the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry composed of international independent figures to assess the incidents; the report was released on 23 November and confirmed the Bahraini government's use of systematic torture and other forms of physical and psychological abuse on detainees, as well as other human rights violations. It rejected the government's claims that the protests were instigated by Iran; the report was criticised for not disclosing the names of individual abusers and extending accountability only to those who carried out human rights violations. In early July 2013, Bahraini activists called for major rallies on 14 August under the title Bahrain Tamarod; the Bahraini uprising is known as 14 February uprising and Pearl uprising.

Although the majority of sources refer to it as an uprising, some have named it a revolution. The roots of the uprising date back to the beginning of the 20th century. Bahrainis have protested sporadically throughout the last decades demanding social and political rights. Demonstrations were present as early as the 1920s and the first municipal elections to fill half the seats on local councils was held in 1926; the country has been ruled by the House of Khalifa since the Bani Utbah invasion of Bahrain in 1783, was a British protectorate for most of the 20th century. In 1926, Charles Belgrave a British national operating as an "adviser" to the ruler became the de facto ruler and oversaw the transition to a modern state; the National Union Committee formed in 1954 was the earliest serious challenge to the status quo. Two year after its formation, NUC leaders deported by authorities. In 1965, a one-month uprising erupted by oil workers was crushed; the following year a new British "adviser" was appointed.

Ian Henderson was known for ordering torture and assassinations in Kenya. He was tasked with developing the General Directorate for State Security Investigations. In 1971, Bahrain became an independent state and in 1973 the country held its first parliamentary election. However, only two years after the end of British rule, the constitution was suspended and the assembly dissolved by the Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa the Emir at the time; the state of human rights deteriorated in the period between 1975 and 2001, increased by repression. An alleged failed coup d'état was attempted in 1981. In 1992, 280 society leaders demanded the return of the parliament and constitution, which the government rejected. Two years a popular uprising erupted. Throughout the uprising large demonstrations and acts of violence occurred. Over forty people were killed including several detainees while in police custody and at least three policemen. In 1999, Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa succeeded his father, he ended the uprising in 2001 after introducing wide-ranging reforms, which 98.4 percent of Bahrainis voted in favour of in a nationwide referendum.

The following year, opposition associations "felt betrayed" after the government issued a unilateral new constitution. Despite earlier promises, the appointed Consultative Council, the upper house, of the National Assembly of Bahrain was given more powers than the elected Council of Representatives, the lower house; the Emir became a king with wide executive authority. Four opposition parties boycotted the 2002 parliamentary election, however in the 2006 election one of them, Al Wefaq won

William J. Borucki

William J. Borucki is a space scientist who worked at the NASA Ames Research Center. Upon joining NASA in 1962, Borucki designed the heat shields for Apollo program spacecraft, he turned his attention to the optical efficiency of lightning strikes in the atmospheres of planets, investigating the propensity that these lightning strikes could create molecules that would become the precursors for life. Subsequently, Borucki's attention turned to extrasolar planets and their detection through the transit method. In light of this work, Borucki was named the principal investigator for NASA's Kepler mission, launched on March 6, 2009 and dedicated to a transit-based search for habitable planets. In 2013, Borucki was awarded the United States National Academy of Sciences's Henry Draper Medal for his work with Kepler. In 2015 he received the Shaw Prize in Astronomy. Born in Chicago in 1939, Borucki grew up in Wisconsin, he studied physics at the University of Wisconsin, earning a master's degree in the subject 1962.

Following this, Borucki started work on Apollo program heat shields, which were designed to protect the spacecraft and their occupants from being destroyed by the heat of re-entry into the atmosphere. After his work for Apollo, Borucki studied meteorology at San Jose State University, earning a master's degree in 1982; that year, Borucki began studies at NASA into the nature of lightning, using satellites equipped with instrumentation he helped design in order to discover what fraction of the energy in this lightning went into the production of prebiotic molecules. As a part of this research, Borucki conducted analysis based on observations from space probes in order to find the frequency of lightning on other planets within the Solar System. By 1984, Borucki's attention had turned to the search for extrasolar planets by use of the transit method, which involves observing the periodic dimming of the star in order to detect the signature of a planet blocking some of its light as it passes in front.

In that year and subsequently in 1988, Borucki organized workshops of scientists in order to determine the best methods for achieving transit-based detections of exoplanets, worked with the National Institute of Standards and Technology to develop photometers that could achieve the sensitivity desired. At the Lick Observatory, Borucki demonstrated the techniques required for extrasolar planet detection by the transit method, constructed a ground-based proof-of-concept for a space telescope designed to hunt for planets; until his retirement in July 2015, Borucki was the chief investigator for the Kepler space telescope, designed to hunt for exoplanets with the transit method. The telescope has detected 105 confirmed planets and thousands of planet candidates as of January 9, 2012. For his work, he has received the NASA Outstanding Leadership Award, the Popular Mechanics Breakthrough Award in 2009, the NASA Systems Engineering Excellence Award in 2010, the Lancelot M. Berkeley Prize for Meritorious Work in Astronomy in 2011.

He received the 2013 Henry Draper Medal from the United States National Academy of Sciences "For his founding concept, unflagging advocacy, visionary leadership during the development of NASA's Kepler mission, which has uncovered myriad planets and solar systems with unforeseen and surprising properties." And the 2015 Shaw Prize in Astronomy for "his conceiving and leading the Kepler mission, which advanced knowledge of both extrasolar planetary systems and stellar interiors." In 2016, he was named as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. William Borucki married the former Josephine Julia Joyce in 1963, they met while both were students at the University of Wisconsin in Wisconsin. They have three daughters. 2016 Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 2016 Bower Award and Prize for Achievement in Science 2015 Frank Drake Award for Innovation in SETI 2015 Shaw Prize in Astronomy, Shaw Foundation 2015 Trophy for Current Achievement, National Air and Space Museum 2015 NASA Ames Fellow 2014 Robert H. Goddard Memorial Trophy, National Space Club 2013 Space Award, The World Technology Network 2013 Career Achievement Award, Samuel J. Heyman Service to America Medal given by U.

S. President Obama 2013 Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, NASA Honor Award 2013 Henry Draper Medal, National Academy of Sciences 2012 Nelson B. Jackson Aerospace Award, National Space Club.


Voxan was a French motorcycle manufacturer established in Issoire, France, in 1995. Initiated by Jacques Gardette, the project was to build the first French motorcycle company in the global market involving different partners. Alain Chevallier designed the chassis; the first prototype was shown in 1997, the first production model released in 1999. All Voxan motorcycles use a 72 °, 996 cc V-twin. Founded by Jacques Gardette in 1995, financially backed by the Dassault Group in 1996, Voxan set out to become the first French motorcycle manufacturer in the modern era. In 1999, the first model, the limited production Roadster, was delivered to dealerships and sold 50 units; the company launched the Café Racer model in 2000, the Scrambler model a year later. Although Voxan had garnered support for its products within France, the company continued to struggle against the established Japanese and Italian brands. In June 2002, Didier Cazeaux and Société de Développement et de Participation bought Voxan to ensure its continuity, production restarted on April 1, 2003.

The Street Scrambler model was released in 2003, the Scrambler and Black Magic models in 2004. Voxan opened its 23rd dealership, its first in Luxembourg in May, 2005. In October, 2007, Voxan had an initial public offering on Euronext, with both Sodemo Moteurs, Fortune Terres Luxembourg considering takeover bids. On December 22, 2009, Voxan was forced into liquidation, is now a subsidiary of the Monaco-based Venturi Automobiles. Upon acquisition Voxan's manufacturing department ceased production, its engineering staff were relocated to Venturi's headquarters in Fontvieille, Monaco. In June 2010, Venturi announced Voxan's new eco-friendly corporate plan, evolving the creation of an electric motorcycle by 2013. In 2010, Venturi Automobiles announced the construction of an assembly plant for its electric vehicles in Sablé-sur-Sarthe; this was to allow production of three types of electric vehicle including the Wattman electric motorcycle. However the factory closed in 2015 without the Wattman reaching production status.

Official website Philippe Starck-designed Voxan Super Naked XV Café Racer

Coral trout

The coral trout, leopard coral grouper, or leopard coral trout is a species of fish in the family Serranidae. Native to the western Pacific Ocean, its natural habitat includes open seas and coral reefs. Coral trout are piscivorous. Coral trout are the favourite target fish for all sectors of the fishery because they are a good food fish and command high market prices locally and overseas; the total commercial catch of coral trout was reported at over 1500 tonnes in 1998. Described by French naturalist Bernard Germain de Lacépède in 1802, the coral trout belongs to the family Serranidae; this family includes groupers and coral cod, which are all characterised by having three spines on the gill cover and a large mouth lined with more than one row of sharp teeth. The Coral trout is found in the waters around American Samoa, Brunei, Cocos Islands, Hong Kong, Japan, Micronesia, New Caledonia, Northern Mariana Islands, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Thailand, Saudi Arabia, Egypt.

Its natural habitat includes open seas and coral reefs. Coral trout move around within a single reef, though no further than 500 m from it. Movement between neighboring reefs does not occur to a large extent. Much of this movement may be the result of fish moving towards or away from spawning sites. Documenting the size and age structures during reproduction of coral trout stocks have been a focus of the ELF experiment as a major indication of how fish stocks respond to various levels of fishing pressure. Like many Serranidae, coral trout are protogynous hermaphrodites, they start their lives as females, change sex in life. The trigger of this sex change is unknown. On average, sex change occurs when fish are between 62 cm in length; this is believed to happen most in the months following spawning. ELF research has determined that the sex ratio differs in different areas of the Great Barrier Reef, may differ between reefs opened and protected from fishing. Sex ratios are an important consideration for management, as changes could affect reproduction, thus the number of juveniles coming into the fishery in future years.

All length classes of fish may have both female individuals. However, small fish are females, while most large fish are males. Like many fish, coral trout spawning corresponds to an increase in water temperature during late spring. In the northern Great Barrier Reef, coral trout spawn between September and December, whereas in the southern regions where the water is cooler, spawning occurs between October and February; the beginning and end of spawning can vary from year to year. Coral trout crowd into a dense cluster to spawn; these aggregations are formed around reef slopes around 10 to 15 m peak at the new moon. Spawning occurs when the tidal flow is strong during ebb tides; this is thought to allow the newly released eggs to be transported well away from the reef and its associated predators. Spawning takes place at dusk, when the light levels make it difficult for predators to see and feed upon the eggs; as coral trout aggregate, males establish temporary territories. They try to entice females into their territories to spawn by means of elaborate courtship displays.

As part of this courtship ritual, male coral trout display their fins' darkened edges, which can be switched on and off instantly. The male approaches a female, close to the bottom, with his body tilted at 45–90° and quivering lengthwise and shaking his head from side to side, he passes close to the female's body with either the top or underside of his body. This process is repeated. Spawning rushes occur after this courtship behavior. During a spawning rush, the male and female swim towards the surface, where they release sperm and eggs into the water as they turn; the cloud of sperm and eggs released during a spawning rush is not seen, but its presence can sometimes be noted by the frantic feeding of small zooplankton-eating fish. The spawning of coral trout occurs over a 30-40 minute period during sunset; some coral trout spawn more than once during an evening. Like most reef fish, coral trout have a larval stage where the eggs and larvae develop within the water column, allowing them to disperse to nearby reefs.

Fertilisation takes place after spawning. The incubation period for coral trout eggs may be around 20 to 45 hours; the newly hatched larvae are not well developed and obtain nutrients from a yolk sac. As the develop, their spines, fins and other internal organs develop, as do their senses; the yolk sac is absorbed and the larvae begin to see and catch their own prey. The fastest period of growth in coral trout occurs in the first three years of life; the average daily growth of newly settled juveniles has been measured at 0.81 mm per day. This means they reach close to 14 cm in the first 6 months. Growth rates of coral trout are variable. To estimate growth, the age and size of a fish must

Madhur Temple

Madhur Sree Madanantheshwara-Siddhivinayaka Temple is a popular Shiva and Ganapathi temple located 7 km from Kasaragod town, on the banks of Mogral river, locally known as Madhuvahini. Though the main deity of this temple is Lord Shiva known as Madanantheshwara, meaning the god who killed Kama, the god of desires, more importance is given to Lord Ganapathi, installed facing south in the main sanctum itself. Priests of this temple belong to the Shivalli Brahmin community Madhur temple was Madanantheswara Temple and as the lore goes, an old women called Madaru from local Tulu Moger Community discovered an "Udbhava Murthy" of shiva linga; the Ganapathy picture was drawn by a boy, on the southern wall of the Garbhagriha while playing. Day by day it became fat; the legend of Kumble seme says Tipu Sultan wanted to demolish the temple like Adooru Mahalingeswara temple during his invasion of Coorg and Malabar. But after drinking water from the well of the temple, he changed his mind on attacking and demolishing the Garbhagudi and marched towards Malabar.

But to satisfy his soldiers and Islamic scholars he made a cut with his sword symbolizing the attack. The mark is still visible on the building, built around the temple well; the temple architecture is of 3-tiered gajaprishta type resembling the back of an elephant. One can find beautiful wooden carvings depicting scenes from the Ramayana; the vast spacious gopurams give good ambiance for the devotees to relax and enjoy the Ganapathi`s presence. This is one of the Ganapathi temples of six ganpathi temples of ancients Tulunadu, the other five are located at Mangalore, Hattiangadi and Gokarna. Devotees from all over throng during the various festivals that happen here; the temple is managed by the government. The temple offers veda classes to young vatus during summer vacation which included basics of Sanskrit; the accommodation and food for the vatus are arranged by the temple authorities. Devotees offer prayers to Mahaganapathi in the form of "Udayastamana". "Appa", Madhur's famous prasad, is a tasty preparation.

This is prepared daily and anyone offering prayers can avail these at the counters. Among the special poojas that are performed, "Sahasrappa" is prominent, it consists of making an offering of thousand appas and the devotees get to take home all these. Another special pooja that happens is Moodappam Seva which involves covering the Mahaganapathi statue with Appam; this is done on a community scale. Ganesh Chaturthi and Madhur Bedi are the occasions; the temple carries out special poojas on all the major festivals. Kanipura Sri Gopalakrishna Temple Ananthapura Lake Temple Temples of Kerala