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Subtractive synthesis

Subtractive synthesis is a method of sound synthesis in which partials of an audio signal are attenuated by a filter to alter the timbre of the sound. While subtractive synthesis can be applied to any source audio signal, the sound most associated with the technique is that of analog synthesizers of the 1960s and 1970s, in which the harmonics of simple waveforms such as sawtooth, pulse or square waves are attenuated with a voltage-controlled resonant low-pass filter. Many digital, virtual analog and software synthesizers use subtractive synthesis, sometimes in conjunction with other methods of sound synthesis; the basis of subtractive synthesis can be understood by considering the human voice. Consider the difference between singing "oooh" and "aaah", at the same pitch; the sound generated by the vocal folds is much the same in either case — a sound, rich in harmonics. The difference between the two comes from the filtering applied with the throat. By changing the shape of the mouth, the frequency response of the filter is changed, removing some of the harmonics.

The "aaah" sound has most of the original harmonics still present. By changing from "oooh" to "aaah" and back again, a spectral glide is created, emulating the "sweeping filter" effect, the basis of the "wah-wah" guitar effect. Humans are capable of generating something approximating white noise by making a "sshh" sound. If a person "synthesizes" a "jet plane landing" sound, this is achieved by altering the shape of the mouth to filter the white noise into pink noise by removing the higher frequencies; the same technique can be used to electronically synthesize the sound of ocean waves and wind, was used in early drum machines to create snare drum and other percussion sounds. For example, say the word "shoe" but keep making the "sh" throughout the entire word instead of just the beginning. Try making the "sh" sound, but with a smile expression, continue "sh" while changing to a puckered or kissing expression; the following is an example of subtractive synthesis. It was created with a personal computer program designed to emulate an analogue subtractive synthesizer.

This example will attempt to imitate the sound of a plucked string. Whilst the following example illustrates how a desired sound might be achieved in practice, only the final three stages are subtractive synthesis, the early stages could be considered to be a form of additive synthesis. First, two oscillators produce complex and harmonic-rich waveforms: Waveform #1 Waveform #2 This example will use pulse-width modulation for a dynamically changing tone: PWM waveform #1 PWM waveform #2 The two sounds are mixed. In this case they are combined at equal volume. Combined waveforms The combined wave is passed through a voltage-controlled amplifier connected to an ADSR envelope. In other words, its volume is changed according to a pre-set pattern; this is an attempt to emulate the envelope of a plucked string: Enveloped sound Then pass the sound through a shallow low-pass filter: Low-passed sound In this case, to better emulate the sound of a plucked string, the filter cutoff frequency should start in the mid-range and to low.

The effect is similar to an electric guitar's wah pedal. Final sound Some arpeggios In real music production, there is an additional step. An oscillator with a low frequency modulates one or more sounds over time, creating a dynamically changing sound. Additive synthesis Minimoog MicroKorg Modular synthesizer Korg MS-20 Novachord Steiner-Parker Synthacon AMS – A free software synthesis program for ALSA

Ballard Bunder Gatehouse

Ballar Bunder Gatehouse is a Grade I Heritage structure, converted into a maritime museum, located at Ballard Estate in the old Fort area of Mumbai, India. It was built in 1920 to commemorate the realignment of the harbour and is located where Ballard Pier, a small pier once existed with an approach jetty at right angles to the pier; the building was among the five entries from the Mumbai for the 2009 UNESCO Asia-Pacific Heritage Awards for Culture Heritage Conservation. It is one of the stops on Special tour of Museums in the city, a tour organised by BEST and MTDC as well as the Naval Dockyard Heritage Walk, conducted by the Naval Dockyard on the first Sunday of every month. In 1920 Ballard Bunder Gatehouse was built to commemorate Ballard pier being developed into Ballard Estate; this was a planned development by the Bombay Port Trust and was executed under a plan made by George Wittet, the chief architect of Bombay Port Trust between 1908 and 1914. After Independence from the British Raj, the gatehouse became part of the Naval Dockyard and fell into disuse, obscured from view for over 50 years.

In 2005, the Indian Navy restored the building. The Navy dedicated the new museum to the city of Mumbai; the contemporary triple arch gatehouse complements the architecture of Ballard Estate. The gatehouse design is similar to that of the Green Gate on the eastern waterfront; the museum collection includes giant 6 feet tall anchors and lights that are knee high and were once atop of a lighthouse. The museum houses old maps and photographs of Mumbai, rich in diversity from goldsmiths and policemen to mill workers and fisher folk along with scale models of ships and dhows

Managawa Dam

Managawa Dam is a dam located in the city of Ōno in Fukui Prefecture. Japan. Managawa Dam was built as part of the Managawa River Comprehensive Development Project for the development of the Kuzuryū River basin in Fukui prefecture from 1950, for flood control, water for agriculture and to supply the cities of Fukui and Ōno and for hydroelectric power generation. During torrential rains in 1965, the capacity of Sasogawa Dam was overwhelmed, considerable damage occurred to the dam and to downstream settlements. Construction on Managawa Dam began in 1967 in response to this natural disaster, the dam was completed in 1977; the arch-shaped concrete dam has a height of 127.5 meters. The associated Managawa Power Station was operated by Fukui Prefecture, but in 2010 was transferred to Hokuriku Electric Power Company


BonBon-Land is a Danish amusement park located in Holme Olstrup in the South of Zealand, about 100 km from Copenhagen. This 34-acre park attracts about 450.000 each season. The history of theme park BonBon-land can be dated back to when the Danish sweets boiler Michael Spangsberg got an idea to produce wacky candy with such funny names as'mågeklatter','hundeprutter' and'tissebleer'. From early on the candy became popular, children wanted to visit the factory in Holme Olstrup to see how the cheeky and delicious pieces of candy were made. However, the production of the candy had to fulfil some strict regulations concerning hygiene, so the factory couldn´t continue to offer visiting tours; as a result, Michael Spangsberg came up with yet another good idea - to open a small Bonbon-land. In 1992, the theme park opened with a mini candy factory, a cinema, a shop and four small boats, shaped like a duck in a small pond; the park was an immediate success with children and over the years many rides and attractions have been added making, despite with adult-oriented contents and toilet humor throughout, Bonbon-Land one of Denmark´s most popular children´s parks.

In 2007, the Spanish-based entertainment company Parques Reunidos purchased the park. In total, Parques Reunidos owns 67 theme parks around the world. From the beginning BonBon-land has focused on experiences. Today, Bonbon-land has numerous activities on offer. Among the most popular rides in the park are the 4 roller coasters and the 2 water rides. There are a number of playgrounds and a pirate track. Up until 1998, BonBon-land had expanded its park to cover an area of 85.000 m². When the Beaver-Rafting course was finished in 1998, it was more than 110.000 m². In 2003, in connection with the opening of ’Vildsvinet’, the park expanded yet again to cover 130.000 m², now its current size. The most expensive amusements are the rafting course with a price of 32 million DKK,'Vildsvinet' from 2003, with an estimated price of 25 million DKK as well as'Hankatten' that had a price of 20 million DKK. New amusements in 2010 are'Svend a brand new 4D cinema. In 2012 it was ranked as one of the weirdest parks by Time.

Beaver Rafting - river rapids ride that opened in 1998. This 6-passenger raft ride is on a scenic 560m long course. Intamin; the Water Rat - log flume ride that opened in 1995. A 220m long ride that features 2 drops on the way. CB Design; the Albatross - diskO, opened in 2004. Zamperla; the Cobra Tower - drop tower that opened in 2001. Fabbri; the Crow Trees - hoist yourself up tower that opened in 2006. Premier Rides. Dillen - air swing ride that opened in 1999. Huss. 4D Film - theatre opened in 2010 showing The Little Prince. Hestorado - stationary 5D interactive laser shoot out that opened in 2011. Alterface. Klaptorsken - swinging ship that opened in 2002; the Octopus - octopus ride. Paradise - walkthrough Candy Store that opened in 1992. Søløven - dark boat ride that opened in 2005. CB Design. Svend The Swinging Arm - giant swing that opened in 2009. Zamperla; the Tortoise - wave swinger that opened in 1994. Zierer; the Worm - roundabout ride. The Dragon - himalaya style ride. Fantasy World - walkthrough with fantasy-like scenes and kiddie play area that opened in 2009.

Flying Insects - air spinner for kids. Hot Wheels - kids can operate cars, mini trucks, excavators. Hugo the Happy Horse - on track horse ride. Play Areas - the park has a number of play areas with various activities for kids; the Seagull - children´s monorail. The Shrimp - dinghy ride. Trampolines - trampolines. Walk the Plank - challenge course; the Wet Dolphin - water play ground that opened in 2007. The park has various Test-Your-Skill Games and a Kiddie Show. BonBon-Land's homepage


JSC "Khartron" is one of the leading design engineering bureaus in former Soviet states, which develops and produces spacecraft and missile control systems. Khartron Corp. was established in 1959 in Ukraine. Founded as a government enterprise, Khartron Corp. changed its names several times, albeit remaining an intact entity. The main trend of its activity was development and implementation of control systems for ballistic missiles, carrier-boosters and space vehicles, it is Khartron that developed control systems for the formidable missiles SS-18 and SS-19, for the all scientific and technical modules of the MIR Space Station, for the Zarya cargo module of the International Space Station. It was the main developer enterprise of the Energia rocket. Khartron is the only company in the world that provides automatic docking of the heavy 20-tons space vehicles in space environment. Under a radically changing economic environment, Khartron Corp. has had to adapt to civilian applications, thus executing the Government conversion Program.

SS-18 and SS-19 were converted into space launchers Dnepr and Eurokot to orbit Ukrainian and foreign satellites. Khartron boasts several joint ventures and projects with companies in the USA, Italy, providing successful launches of commercial satellites. In 1994, a joint venture between Westinghouse Electric Company and Khartron - Westron - was established. Westron JV has been operating from its inception to this day modernizing I&C systems for Ukrainian nuclear power plants. During his trip to Europe to Ukraine in June 2000, U. S. President Bill Clinton noted the importance of this particular cooperative effort to improve the safety of Ukraine's nuclear power plants. Khartron is one of Ukraine's enterprises for reconstruction of Instrumentation and Control systems for Ukrainian nuclear power plants. Today's Khartron is a mini-conglomerate. Meeting the requirements of the national economy, Khartron's business segments range from control systems for fossil-fuel power plants to gas and oil pipelines to sugar plants to air traffic to agriculture to railroad stations and cars.

Over ten years, Khartron has moved from an state-owned enterprise, to a joint stock company, whose products among others include commercial industrial control systems for fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants, transport and oil pipelines. Eight people died in a fire at the Khartron plant in Kharkiv on 8 January 2014. "Khartron-incorporated" - Official site "HARTRON-ARKOS" - Official site "HARTRON-PLANT" - Page "HARTRON-UKOM" - Page "HARTRON-INCOR" - Page "HARTRON-ENERGO" - Page "HARTRON-CONSAT" - Page "ELON-TT" - Page "HARTRON-EXPRESS" - Page "HARTRON-SIGMA" - Page Designed control systems for:Rockets: Energia Tsyklon Tsyklon-4 Strela SS-7'Saddler' SS-8'Sasin' SS-9'Scarp' SS-15'Scrooge' SS-18'Satan'/Dnepr SS-19'Stiletto'Orbital modules: Kvant-1 Kvant-2 Kristall Priroda SpektrSatellites: more than 150 satellites of the Kosmos series Khartron Corp. history

Alexander Toradze

Alexander Toradze is a classical concert pianist, best known for his classical Russian repertoire, with a career spanning over three decades. He was a professor of piano at Indiana University South Bend from 1991 to 2017. Born in Tbilisi, Georgian SSR, to parents David, a famous Georgian composer, Liana, a movie actress and ophthalmologist, Alexander Toradze entered Tbilisi's central music school at six and first played with orchestra at nine, he continued his studies at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory in Moscow at nineteen under Yakov Zak, Boris Zemliansky, Lev Naumov. In 1977, he finished second in the Fifth Van Cliburn International Piano Competition in Fort Worth, Texas. Toradze graduated from the Moscow conservatory in 1978. In 1983, while on tour with the Bolshoi Symphony Orchestra of Moscow, he requested asylum at the American Embassy in Madrid and has since made his home in the United States. In 1991, Toradze became the Martin endowed professor of piano at Indiana University South Bend; the members of the multi-national Toradze Piano Studio at IUSB have been active participants in summer festivals including Salzburg, White Nights Festival, London Proms, Ravinia, Rotterdam, Finland, Hollywood Bowl, Saratoga among others.

In the recent season the Studio appeared in Salzburg, New York, Florence, Ravenna, Ruhr Festival, among others. Toradze appears with world's leading orchestras such as Berlin Philharmonic, Kirov Orchestra, La Scala Philharmonic, Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, St. Petersburg Philharmonic, Orchestre National de France, City of Birmingham Symphony, London's Symphony and Philharmonia Orchestras, NHK in Japan, Hungarian, Rotterdam, Warsaw Philharmonics, the radio orchestras in Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden and Italy, he has performed with every major orchestra in the United States, including New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Houston, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and Washington D. C, he has appeared with the symphonies of Montreal and Toronto. Toradze is famous for his praying before he performs; when asked in a radio interview with renowned classical radio host Bruce Duffie, about what advice he could give to aspiring concert pianists, Toradze replied, "…Don't forget to pray to God before each performance and don't forget to give your soul enough air.

Believe in the right purpose of art and believe in being human". Toradze, who specializes in Russian composers such as Rachmaninoff, Prokofiev and Tchaikovsky has recorded for the Philips and Angel/EMI record labels. Amongst his most notable recordings is his 1998 Prokofiev's five piano concertos with Valery Gergiev and the Kirov Orchestra for the Philips record label. From this set, Prokofiev's Piano Concerto No. 3 was named by International Piano Quarterly as "historically the best on record" from among over seventy recordings. Other recordings, for Angel/EMI, include Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition, Prokofiev's Seventh Piano Sonata, Stravinsky's Three Scenes from Petrushka, Ravel's Miroirs and Gaspard de la nuit. List of Georgians Toradze Piano Studio David Dubal interview with Alexander Toradze, WNCN-FM, 3-Nov-1985