The Mark of Cain (band)
The Mark of Cain are a hard rock, alternative metal band from Adelaide, South Australia. Their style has been likened to that of Helmet and Rollins Band, yet this band pre-dates both groups and was influenced by the early work of Joy Division, Big Black and United States hardcore groups; the Mark of Cain were formed in mid-1984 by brothers and Kim Scott, with Rod Archer on vocals and Gavin Atkinson playing drums. Before long, Archer had left the group and John Scott took on the lead vocal role and the group has remained a trio since; the Scotts have been the core of the band. Since January 2001, former Helmet member John Stanier has been their drummer. Australian musicologist, Ian McFarlane, described the group's sound as "Gloomy, monotonous vocals and bleak slabs of metallic guitar did battle over a lurching rhythm section to arrive at a harsh sound." Rod Archer died on 26 February 2016. The Mark of Cain were formed as a punk rock group in Adelaide in mid-1984 by Rod Archer on lead vocals, their name references the Hermann Hesse's novel, which in turn recalls the Genesis story regarding the mark of Cain.
John had read Demian, which featured " a loner who thought his dark feelings were there for anyone to see as he walked down the street – the Mark Of Cain." Atchison and John's earlier group, Spiral Collapse, broke up as John was concentrating on his university course, he wanted a "new, harder sound" and disliked that band's lead singer. John assisted Kim to develop his bass guitar skill and met Archer at one of Spiral Collapse's last gigs. Ian McFarlane, an Australian musicologist, described "the band's penchant for militaristic imagery and lyric themes only added to the sense of desperation and solitude displayed in the band's music." By the end of 1985 Archer had left and John Scott added lead vocals to his guitar work. They replaced Archison with a succession of drummers: David Graham, Roger Crisp, John Rickert, Neil Guive and Campbell Robinson by late 1988. During 1987 they supported an Adelaide gig by United States group, Big Black, during their Australian tour; the band's first release was a single, "The Lords of Summer", issued on Sydney label, Phantom Records, in September 1988.
It was co-produced by the group with Anthony Bannister and was recorded at Adelaide's Soundtrack Australia studios in January of that year. They covered two tracks by former Phantom groups, "Journey by Sledge" and "Seein' Double" for a gig give-away album, Assorted Desecrations and Magnificent Mutations, in October, by various artists, to celebrate the label's tenth anniversary. Phantom's owners "had heard something different in the group than what they wanted to deliver, their progress was periodically interrupted as they kept changing drummers."The band signed with local label, Dominator Records, which issued their debut album, Battlesick in August 1989. It was co-produced by Stuart Sheldon and the group, recorded at Artec Studios, Adelaide in February and March of that year. Patrick Emery of i-94 Bar felt. On'You Are Alone' John Scott intones in his best Ian Curtis manner while Kim Scott's bass pounds with the relentless precision of artillery session captured on loop." Ox Fanzine's Joachim Hiller opined that it "combined gloomy early eighties sounds with brachial, bass-heavy Noiserock."Their second album, The Unclaimed Prize, followed in March 1991.
It was recorded at Artec Sound Vision Productions during January to May 1990. Emery described how it "opens with the pummelling beat of'Fire in Her Heart', complete with John Scott's semi-demented ranting. It's a style the band built on – and arguably perfected – on its Ill at Ease album released in 1995... The lyrics suggest a love song of sorts, yet this is no sappy Crosby, Stills and Young'Judy Blue Eyes' folkie-lust. It's as if the warmth and tenderness of the opposite sex serves to break down the narrator’s sense of self and internal emotional structure."Emery opined that the group's "style has been interpreted as misogynist, arrogant and just too bloody loud, but its potency has never been questioned, nor the Scott brothers’ commitment to duty. If there was a musical metaphor for human endurance, its TMOC; this music doesn't date not in the current security-constructed climate." McFarlane felt the album "offered up more sonic blasts of rough-hewn guitar riffs and booming drums." In 1995 the Dominator label issued both albums and The Unclaimed Prize, as a 2× CD set.
The Scott brothers, each took sabbaticals from the band during 1990 and 1991 to undertake a "work-related project", including travelling to Chicago. In mid-1992 the group reconvened. Steve Albini produced a six-track extended play, Incoming. Albini had met the Scott brothers back in 1987; the EP was the recording debut for Robinson's replacement, Aaron Hewson, who had joined on drums, after the release of their second album, The Unclaimed Prize. The tracks were recorded at Artec Studios and Soundtrack and Chicago Recording Studios, from 1988 to 1991. Early in 1994 the group performed on the Big Day Out tour and followed, in February, with a non-album single, "Tell Me", on the Insipid Vinyl label. McFarlane felt "the band's influences had broadened to include Sonic Youth and Helmet." Do
An extended play record referred to as an EP, is a musical recording that contains more tracks than a single, but is unqualified as an album or LP. Contemporary EPs contain a minimum of three tracks and maximum of six tracks, are considered "less expensive and time-consuming" for an artist to produce than an album. An EP referred to specific types of vinyl records other than 78 rpm standard play and LP, but it is now applied to mid-length CDs and downloads as well. Ricardo Baca of The Denver Post said, "EPs—originally extended-play'single' releases that are shorter than traditional albums—have long been popular with punk and indie bands." In the United Kingdom, the Official Chart Company defines a boundary between EP and album classification at 25 minutes of maximum length and no more than four tracks. EPs were released in various sizes in different eras; the earliest multi-track records, issued around 1919 by Grey Gull Records, were vertically cut 78 rpm discs known as "2-in-1" records. These had finer than usual grooves, like Edison Disc Records.
By 1949, when the 45 rpm single and 331⁄3 rpm LP were competing formats, seven-inch 45 rpm singles had a maximum playing time of only about four minutes per side. As an attempt to compete with the LP introduced in 1948 by rival Columbia, RCA Victor introduced "Extended Play" 45s during 1952, their narrower grooves, achieved by lowering the cutting levels and sound compression optionally, enabled them to hold up to 7.5 minutes per side—but still be played by a standard 45 rpm phonograph. These were 10-inch LPs split onto two seven-inch EPs or 12-inch LPs split onto three seven-inch EPs, either sold separately or together in gatefold covers; this practice became much less common with the advent of triple-speed-available phonographs. Some classical music albums released at the beginning of the LP era were distributed as EP albums—notably, the seven operas that Arturo Toscanini conducted on radio between 1944 and 1954; these opera EPs broadcast on the NBC Radio network and manufactured by RCA, which owned the NBC network were made available both in 45 rpm and 331⁄3 rpm.
In the 1990s, they began appearing on compact discs. RCA had success in the format with their top money earner, Elvis Presley, issuing 28 Elvis EPs between 1956 and 1967, many of which topped the separate Billboard EP chart during its brief existence. During the 1950s, RCA published several EP albums of Walt Disney movies, containing both the story and the songs; these featured the original casts of actors and actresses. Each album contained two seven-inch records, plus a illustrated booklet containing the text of the recording so that children could follow along by reading; some of the titles included Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and what was a recent release, the movie version of 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, presented in 1954. The recording and publishing of 20,000 was unusual: it did not employ the movie's cast, years a 12 in 33⅓ rpm album, with a nearly identical script, but another different cast, was sold by Disneyland Records in conjunction with the re-release of the movie in 1963.
Because of the popularity of 7" and other formats, SP records became less popular and the production of SPs in Japan was suspended in 1963. In the 1950s and 1960s, EPs were compilations of singles or album samplers and were played at 45 rpm on seven-inch discs, with two songs on each side. Other than those published by RCA, EPs were uncommon in the United States and Canada, but they were sold in the United Kingdom, in some other European countries, during the 1950s and 1960s. Record Retailer printed the first EP chart in 1960; the New Musical Express, Melody Maker and Music Echo and the Record Mirror continued to list EPs on their respective singles charts. The Beatles' Twist and Shout outsold most singles for some weeks in 1963; when the BBC and Record Retailer commissioned the British Market Research Bureau to compile a chart it was restricted to singles and EPs disappeared from the listings. In the Philippines, seven-inch EPs marketed as "mini-LPs" were introduced in 1970, with tracks selected from an album and packaging resembling the album they were taken from.
This mini-LP format became popular in America in the early 1970s for promotional releases, for use in jukeboxes. Stevie Wonder included a bonus four-song EP with his double LP Songs in the Key of Life in 1976. During the 1970s and 1980s, there was less standardization and EPs were made on seven-inch, 10-inch or 12-inch discs running either 331⁄3 or 45 rpm; some novelty EPs used odd shapes and colors, a few of them were picture discs. Alice in Chains was the first band to have an EP reach number one on the Billboard album chart, its EP, Jar of Flies, was released on January 25, 1994. In 2004, Linkin Park and Jay-Z's collaboration EP, Collision Course, was the next to reach the number one spot after Alice in Chains. In 2010, the cast of the television series Glee became the first artist to have two EPs reach number one, with Glee: The Music, The Power of Madonna on the week of May 8, 2010, Glee: The Music, Journey to Regionals on the week of June 26, 2010. In 2010, Warner Bros. Records revived the format with their "Six-Pak" offering of six songs on a compact disc.
The first EPs were seven-inch vinyl records with more tracks than a normal single. Although they shared size and speed with singles, they were a recognizably different format than the seven-inch single. Alth
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Triple J is a government-funded, national Australian radio station intended to appeal to listeners of alternative music, which began broadcasting in January 1975. The station places a greater emphasis on broadcasting Australian content compared to commercial stations. Triple J is a division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2JJ commenced broadcasting at 11:00 am, Sunday 19 January 1975, at 1540 kHz on the AM band. The new Australian Broadcasting Corporation station was given the official call-sign 2JJ, but soon became known as Double J; the station was restricted to the greater Sydney region, its local reception was hampered by inadequate transmitter facilities. However, its frequency was a clear channel nationally, so it was heard at night throughout south-eastern Australia. After midnight the station would use ABC networks – during their off air time slot – to increase its broadcasting range, its first broadcast demonstrated a determination to distinguish itself from other Australian radio stations.
The first on-air presenter, DJ Holger Brockmann, notably used his own name. Owing to 2SM's restrictive policies at the time, whose real name was considered "too foreign-sounding", had been forced to work using the pseudonym "Bill Drake" in prior positions. After an introductory audio collage that featured sounds from the countdown and launch of Apollo 11, Brockmann launched the station's first-ever broadcast with the words, "Wow, we're away!", cued The Skyhooks' You Just Like Me'Cos I'm Good in Bed. The choice of a Skyhooks song to introduce the station was significant, as it represented several important features of the Double Jay brand at the time. Choosing an Australian band reflected Double J's commitment to Australian content at a time when American acts dominated commercial pop stations. Most notably, the song was one of several tracks from the Skyhooks' album, banned from airplay on commercial radio by the industry's peak body; because Double J was a government-funded station operating under the umbrella of the ABC, it was not bound by commercial-radio censorship codes, was not answerable to advertisers or the station owners.
In contrast, their Sydney rival, 2SM, was owned by a holding company controlled by the Catholic Archdiocese of Sydney, resulting in the ban or editing of numerous songs.2JJ was a product of the progressive media policies of the Whitlam Government of 1972–75, combined influences from several earlier ABC programs, such as "Room to Move", as well as the freewheeling programming policies of British pirate radio and BBC Radio 1, created to target the pirate radio audience. The inspiration gained from the UK led to Double J adopting the tradition of weekly, live-in-the-studio performances by pop and rock bands. Gough Whitlam was unable to fulfill his aspiration for the establishment of a "National Youth Radio Network", as he was controversially sacked.2JJ presenter, the first female DJ on Australian pop radio, Gayle Austin, completing a Master of Arts on Triple J's first 16 years in 2005, explained that 2JJ staff had heard of other motivations for the founding of the station: Word was the Whitlam government wanted to set the station up to woo young voters.
We heard that the ABC was worried about its audience dying off and wanted a station for young people who would grow up to be ABC listeners. Additionally, the station was one of a series of innovations that stemmed from the recommendations in the McLean Report of 1974; these included expanding radio broadcasting onto the FM band, issuing a new class of broadcasting license which permitted the establishment of community radio stations, the creation of two new stations for the ABC — 2JJ in Sydney and the short-lived 3ZZ in Melbourne. By the time 2JJ went to air, the Whitlam government was in its final months of office. Marius Webb, one of the station's co-ordinators recalls an ABC executive informing him: "You'll be on the air by January. Thank you much, I've got another meeting." On 11 November 1975, Whitlam's commission was revoked by Governor-General Sir John Kerr, sparking a double dissolution of parliament. In the subsequent 1975 federal election, Labor was defeated by the Liberal-National Party coalition, led by Malcolm Fraser.
During the more conservative media climate that emerged in the Fraser years, 2JJ staff were accused of left-wing bias. 2JJ was intended to be the first link in Whitlam's planned national youth network. It was a historic moment in Australian radio, when the station decided to hire a female disc jockey and, excluding the first experimental FM licences, was granted the first new radio licence issued in any Australian capital city since 1932. In its early years 2JJ's on-air staff were recruited from either commercial radio or other ABC stations. In another first, the roster featured presenters who did not come from a radio industry background, including singer-songwriters Bob Hudson and John J. Francis, actor Lex Marinos. Francis commenced broadcasting in the Saturday midnight-to-dawn shift in 1975, the program became so popular that it was expanded to include Friday and Sunday nights two years later; the foundation staff of January 1975 were: Webb and Ron Moss, Ros Cheney, David Ives, Sam Collins, Holger Brockman, Caroline Pringle, Bob Hudson, Mike Parker, Iven Walker, Arnold Frolows, Di Auburn, Margot Edwards, George "
Sic Squared Records
Sic Squared Records is an Australian independent record label established in 1999 to promote Western Australian heavy rock bands. Founded by Adam Scott, the label's debut release was by local band T-cells, the label gained nation recognition with the release of the hugely successful Heavy Weight Champ debut EP, Two Triple Zero in mid 2000. With over a dozen releases so far, Sic Squared Records has assisted the musical careers of bands such as Local Pricks and Karnivool, releasing the band's Persona EP in March 2001, as well as putting out compilation albums featuring an array of unsigned local acts. Sic Squared Records are internationally by MGM Distribution. 2004 saw new life breathed into Sic Squared Records with the appointment of a new manager for the label, Lukas Best, with a number of releases, Still Life Portrait by Antistatic, Ballbaring by Subtruck and 451 by Headshot. In April the label issued The Sic Sessions, Volume One, by Various Artists. In 2005 and 2007 the label received nominations for'Best WA Record Label' at the West Australian Music Industry Awards.
Antistatic Subtruck Headshot Heavy Weight Champ List of record labels Official website MySpace website
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. It is named after the city of Perth, Scotland and is the fourth-most populous city in Australia, with a population of 2.04 million living in Greater Perth. Perth is part of the South West Land Division of Western Australia, with the majority of the metropolitan area located on the Swan Coastal Plain, a narrow strip between the Indian Ocean and the Darling Scarp; the first areas settled were on the Swan River at Guildford, with the city's central business district and port both founded downriver. Perth was founded by Captain James Stirling in 1829 as the administrative centre of the Swan River Colony, it gained city status in 1856 and was promoted to the status of a Lord Mayorality in 1929. The city inherited its name due to the influence of Sir George Murray Member of Parliament for Perthshire and Secretary of State for War and the Colonies; the city's population increased as a result of the Western Australian gold rushes in the late 19th century.
During Australia's involvement in World War II, Fremantle served as a base for submarines operating in the Pacific Theatre, a US Navy Catalina flying boat fleet was based at Matilda Bay. An influx of immigrants after the war, predominantly from Britain, Greece and Yugoslavia, led to rapid population growth; this was followed by a surge in economic activity flowing from several mining booms in the late 20th and early 21st centuries that saw Perth become the regional headquarters for several large mining operations located around the state. As part of Perth's role as the capital of Western Australia, the state's Parliament and Supreme Court are located within the city, as is Government House, the residence of the Governor of Western Australia. Perth came seventh in the Economist Intelligence Unit's August 2016 list of the world's most liveable cities and was classified by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network in 2010 as a Beta world city; the city hosted the 1962 Commonwealth Games.
Perth is divided into 30 local government areas and 250 suburbs, stretching from Two Rocks in the north to Singleton in the south, east inland to The Lakes. Outside of the main CBD, important urban centres within Perth include Joondalup. Most of those were established as separate settlements and retained a distinct identity after being subsumed into the wider metropolitan area. Mandurah, Western Australia's second-largest city, has in recent years formed a conurbation with Perth along the coast, though for most purposes it is still considered a separate city. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Perth area for at least 38,000 years, as evidenced by archaeological remains at Upper Swan; the Noongar people lived as hunter-gatherers. The wetlands on the Swan Coastal Plain were important to them, both spiritually and as a source of food; the Noongar people know the area. Boorloo formed part of the territory of the Mooro, a Noongar clan, which at the time of British settlement had Yellagonga as their leader.
The Mooro was one of several Noongar Indigenous clans based around the Swan River known collectively as the Whadjuk. The Whadjuk themselves were one of a larger group of fourteen tribes that formed the south-west socio-linguistic block known as the Noongar sometimes called the Bibbulmun. On 19 September 2006, the Federal Court of Australia brought down a judgment recognising Noongar native title over the Perth metropolitan area in the case of Bennell v State of Western Australia FCA 1243; the judgment was overturned on appeal. The first documented sighting of the region was made by the Dutch Captain Willem de Vlamingh and his crew on 10 January 1697. Subsequent sightings between this date and 1829 were made by other Europeans, but as in the case of the sighting and observations made by Vlamingh, the area was considered to be inhospitable and unsuitable for the agriculture that would be needed to sustain a settlement. Although the Colony of New South Wales had established a convict-supported settlement at King George's Sound on the south coast of Western Australia in 1826 in response to rumours that the area would be annexed by France, Perth was the first full-scale settlement by Europeans in the western third of the continent.
The British colony would be designated Western Australia in 1832 but was known informally for many years as the Swan River Colony after the area's major watercourse. On 4 June 1829, newly arriving British colonists had their first view of the mainland, Western Australia's founding has since been recognised by a public holiday on the first Monday in June each year. Captain James Stirling, aboard Parmelia, said that Perth was "as beautiful as anything of this kind I had witnessed". On 12 August that year, Helen Dance, wife of the captain of the second ship, cut down a tree to mark the founding of the town, it is clear that Stirling had selected the name Perth for the capital well before the town was proclaimed, as his proclamation of the colony, read in Fremantle on 18 June 1829, ended "given under my hand and Seal at Perth this 18th Day of June 1829. James Stirling Lieutenant Governor"; the only contemporary information on the source of the name comes from Fremantle's diary entry for 12 August, which records that they "named the town Perth according to the wishes of Sir George Murray".
Murray was born in Perth and was in 1829 Secretary of State for the Colonies and Member for Perthshire in the British House of Commons. The town was named after the Scottish Pert