The Succession to the Crown Act 2013 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that altered the laws of succession to the British throne in accordance with the 2011 Perth Agreement. The Act replaced male-preference primogeniture with absolute primogeniture for those in the line of succession born after 28 October 2011, which means the eldest child, regardless of sex, precedes his or her brothers and sisters; the Act repealed the Royal Marriages Act 1772, ended disqualification of a person who married a Roman Catholic from succession, removed the requirement of those outside the first six persons in line to the throne to seek the Sovereign's approval to marry. It came into force on 26 March 2015, at the same time as the other Commonwealth realms implemented the Perth Agreement in their own laws. Under the Act of Settlement 1701, the throne of the Kingdom of England was settled on the Electress Sophia of Hanover and the "heirs of her body", this phrase being understood under English common law to imply male-preference primogeniture, meaning that brothers would precede sisters in the line of succession.
This Act prevented a "papist" from inheriting the English throne and removed those who had married Roman Catholics from the line of succession. The treaties that created the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801 applied these provisions to the new British throne. Article II of the Acts of Union 1707 stated that the "Succession of the Monarchy" is settled by the Act of Settlement 1701 and that the ban of "Papists" from inheriting the throne was to continue according to that Act. Article 2 of Acts of Union 1801 again maintained that the succession rules in place in the new United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland should be "continued limited and settled in the same manner". Since the Acts of Union 1707, male preference primogeniture has operated twice to displace a female by a younger brother: when Princess Augusta's younger brother became King George III on the death of their grandfather King George II. Princess Anne is the younger sister of Prince Charles.
Her place in the line of succession is not affected by the provisions of the Act relating to male preference in that she remains head of the line following those headed by her younger brothers. Their lines continue to precede hers under male preference because all four siblings were born before 28 October 2011. In December 2011 the Statement of Friday 28 October 2011 issued at Perth was published in a House of Commons committee report, it stated that the prime ministers of the sixteen Commonwealth nations "of whom Her Majesty the Queen is Head of State" had "agreed in principle to work together towards a common approach to amending the rules on the succession to their respective Crowns", that they would wish "unanimously to advise The Queen of their views and seek her agreement." The statement continued: All countries wish to see change in two areas. First, they wish to end the system of male preference primogeniture under which a younger son can displace an elder daughter in the line of succession.
Second, they wish to remove the legal provision that anyone who marries a Roman Catholic shall be ineligible to succeed to the Crown. There are no other restrictions in the rules about the religion of the spouse of a person in the line of succession and the Prime Ministers felt that this unique barrier could no longer be justified; the Prime Ministers have agreed that they will each work within their respective administrations to bring forward the necessary measures to enable all the realms to give effect to these changes simultaneously. In a letter to the other realms' heads of government, prior to the Perth Agreement, British Prime Minister David Cameron had additionally proposed to limit the requirement to obtain the monarch's permission to marry to the first six people in line to the throne. On 4 December 2012, Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg announced: he Government has received final consent from all the Commonwealth realms to press ahead with a landmark bill to end the centuries-old discrimination against women in line to the British throne at the soonest possible opportunity.
This confirmation means that the Government will seek to introduce the Succession to the Crown Bill in the House of Commons at the earliest opportunity allowed by the parliamentary timetable. The bill was published on 13 December 2012, after passing both Houses of Parliament it received royal assent on 25 April 2013 before the prorogation of Parliament that day; the purpose of the Succession to the Crown Act is to give effect in the United Kingdom to the Perth agreement. The British government announced that the Act's provisions were not intended to come into force before the appropriate domestic arrangements were in place in the other Commonwealth realms. Males born after 28 October 2011 no longer precede their elder sisters in the line of succession; the first people in the line of succession to be affected by the changes on the date they came into force were the children of Lady Davina Lewis, her son Tāne and her daughter Senna, who were reversed in the order of succession, becoming 29th and 28th in line respectively.
When the Act came into force, the Duchess of Cambridge was expecting Princess Charlotte, upon whom the Act had no immediate practical effect. However, due to the provisions of the Act, she has retained her place in the succession ahead of Prince Louis of Cambridge
Lafitte was a French automobile manufactured in Paris from 1923–1928. The'SA de Construction de Voiturettes Th. Lafitte', owned by Theodore Laffitte, manufactured a light cyclecar, renowned for its innovative engineering, it incorporated a three-cylinder radial engine mounted in a hinged cage, tilted by the driver to engage and vary the ratio of the friction drive to the rear wheels. Uniquely, the friction drive consisted of a convex steel flywheel and a concave'clutch plate', faced by wound strips of paper or sometimes leather; the company began constructing automobiles in Paris in 1923 on The Quai. In 1926 Lafitte started using the manufacturing facility of the defunct Flandrin & Parant. In 1928 it ceased production; the Lafitte was an unconventional car. It was powered by 3 cylinder radial engine of 736cc capacity, enlarged to 895cc in 1928, its final year
Alan Paine Radebaugh, a contemporary American artist, was born May 2, 1952, in Boston, was raised in Maine and New York, moved to New Mexico in 1979. He grew up painting in oils. At the College of Wooster, where he enrolled to study premed, he spent his time taking photographs and designing jewelry, he left Wooster to become a jeweler spent ten years designing sculptural art furniture, received a BFA in printmaking from the University of New Mexico, returned to painting full time in 1988. Radebaugh's work has been shown in galleries in the United States and abroad. In 2004, he had a 20-year retrospective, Alan Paine Radebaugh: Chasing Fragments 1984–2004, in Albuquerque, NM. In 2007 Mass: Of Our World, exhibited at the Jonson Gallery of the University of New Mexico Art Museum, won an award for excellence in fine arts, he began his current artistic project, Ghost of Sea, in 2008. His artworks are housed in the collections of corporations and cultural institutions including Albuquerque Museum of Art and History.
David L. Bell, writing about Radebaugh's sculptural furniture, noted that it has "acute proportion, impeccable detailing."In critiquing New Mexico landscape artists, Wesley Pulkka commented, "Dappled by sunlight and rough textured as tree bark, Radebaugh's surfaces celebrate nature like a Gerard Manley Hopkins poem."In a analysis of Radebaugh's work, Douglas Kent Hall wrote, "Radebaugh is a landscape painter. Yet, he is a landscape painter of a different kind…. To a certain degree Radebaugh is doing what Jackson Pollock did as an artist…. Radebaugh, too, is an action painter…; the action he presents is in few drips, if any, but plenty of gesture. The painting is what he creates…. If Pollock and others from the abstract expressionist school freed line and form from their traditional roles in painting, Radebaugh has responded to their spontaneity and extended it with his self-conscious linear detailing."Jeanne Shoaf, curator of art at the Lincoln Center Art Gallery, wrote that "Radebaugh’s complex patterns of negative and positive space capture the stark shadow and light of the plains.
The resulting landscapes shape-shift between abstraction and representation, echoing the glints of sun off the shining sea. He makes visible the ghostlike imprint of the sea across the horizon of these Great Plains."According to Mary Tsiongas, professor of art, University of New Mexico, "Radebaugh re-members the geological past and encodes it in pigment and strokes in the surfaces of these works.... Radebaugh paints to translate the experience beyond light, beyond form, to somehow activate our senses and engage us, too, in the long and intricate history of the places he paints.” Douglas Kent Hall, "Art of Albuquerque 2002: A World of Paint and Polish," Art of Albuquerque, 4. The Collector's Guide, "Alan Paine Radebaugh," Art Journey New Mexico: 104 Painters' Perspectives, 162–63. Pamela Wissman and Stefanie Laufersweiler, eds. Sketchbook Confidential. Alan Paine Radebaugh official Web site
The Alberta Literary Awards, administered by the Writers’ Guild of Alberta, have been awarded annually since 1982 to recognize outstanding writing by Alberta authors. The awards honour fiction, poetry, children's literature. At the first public ALA Gala in 1994, the inaugural Golden Pen Lifetime Achievement Award was given to W. O. Mitchell; the children's literature category alternates yearly between chapter books. The 2019 award is presented to an Alberta author of a children’s picture book published in 2017 or 2018. Awarded for a novel or collection of short fiction by an Alberta author published in the previous year. Past recipients are W. P. Kinsella, Sam Selvon, Pauline Gedge, Aritha van Herk, Mary Walters Riskin, Helen Forrester, Jacqueline Dumas, Thomas King, Greg Hollingshead, Robert Hilles, Roberta Rees, Richard Wagamese, Marion Douglas, Kristjana Gunnars, Margie Taylor, Catherine Simmons Niven, Peter Oliva, Fred Stenson, Thomas Wharton, Thomas Trofimuk, Tim Bowling, Paul Anderson, Marie Jakober, Nina Newington, Jaspreet Singh, Michael Davie, Todd Babiak, Lynn Coady, Richard Van Camp, Ali Bryan, Rudy Wiebe, Bradley Somer, Gisèle Villeneuve and Deborah Willis.
Awarded for a nonfiction book by an Alberta author published in the previous year. Awarded to a play written by an Alberta author published or produced in the previous year. Awarded for a collection of poetry by an Alberta author published in the previous year. Awarded to an outstanding literary short nonfiction piece by an Alberta author on any topic published in the previous year. Awarded to an outstanding single short story by an Alberta author published in the previous year. Past recipients are Cecelia Frey, Merna Summers, Diane Schoemperlen, W. O. Mitchell, J. Jill Robinson, Greg Hollingshead, Martin Sherman, Rosemary Nixon, Fred Wah, Sally Ito, Barbara Scott, Caterina Edwards, Gloria Sawai, Sarah Murphy, Jacqueline Baker, Thomas Wharton, Laura J. Cutler, Leslie Greentree, Roberta Rees, Barb Howard, Ben Lof, Rudy Wiebe, Amy Bright, Lee Kvern, Jasmina Odor, Katie Bickell, Laurie MacFayden and Norma Dunning. Awarded to an outstanding unpublished essay by an Alberta author; the Robert Kroetsch City of Edmonton Book Prize was established by the City Council in 1995 and is administered by the Writers' Guild of Alberta.
The prize was renamed in 2011 after the late Robert Kroetsch, best known for his Governor General's Award-winning novel, The Studhorse Man. Given out as part of the Calgary Awards, the City of Calgary W. O. Mitchell Book Prize is awarded in honour of acclaimed Calgary writer W. O. Mitchell and recognizes literary achievement by Calgary authors; the prize was established in 1996 and is coordinated through a partnership between The City of Calgary and the Writers' Guild of Alberta. Past recipients include: Lisa Chistensen, Elspeth Cameron, Richard Harrison, Barbara Scott, JoAnn McCaig, Andrew Nikiforuk, Paula da Costa, W. Mark Giles, Jan Lars Jensen, Christopher Wiseman, Rona Altrows, Diane Guichon, Gordon Pengilly, Clem Martini and Olivier Martini, Suzette Mayr, Marcello Di Cintio, Tyler Trafford, Chris Turner, Eugene Stickland, Joan Crate, Taylor Lambert; the Golden Pen Lifetime Achievement Award is presented to acknowledge the lifetime achievements of outstanding Alberta writers. The 2019 recipient is Bob Stallworthy.
Past recipients are Cecelia Frey, W. O. Mitchell, Grant MacEwan, Rudy Wiebe, Myrna Kostash, Robert Kroetsch, Merna Summers, Aritha van Herk, Fred Stenson, George Melnyk, Alice Major, Betty Jane Hegerat, Greg Hollingshead and Candas Jane Dorsey. Since 2018, The Writers' Guild of Alberta has awarded three annual scholarships to support First Nations, Métis and Inuit Mothers in their writing careers. Alberta Screenwriters Initiative Amber Bowerman Memorial Travel Writing Award Henry Kreisel Award for Best First Book Sharon Drummond Chapbook Prize Youth/Emerging Writing Contest The Writers’ Guild of Alberta. Official website
Florian Hrebnicki was a bishop of the Ruthenian Uniate Church, Metropolitan bishop of Kiev and all Ruthenia. On 14 March 1716 Hrebnicki was ordained by Primate of the Uniate church Leo Kiszka as a archbishop of Polock. On 16 December 1748 he was confirmed as the Metropolitan bishop of Kiev and all Ruthenia, he consecrated following bishops Maksymilian Rylo and Theodosius Godebski. Hrebnicki died in 1762 at a residence of the Polotsk Archbishops that he built in village of Strunie. Florian Hrebnicki at the catholic-hierarchy.org Sas, P. Florian Hrebnicki. Encyclopedia of History of Ukraine. 2004
The National Union of Knitwear and Apparel Trades was a trade union in the United Kingdom. The National Union of Knitwear and Apparel Trades was formed in 1991 through the amalgamation of the National Union of Hosiery and Knitwear Workers and the National Union of the Footwear and Allied Trades, it had 82,303 members. KFAT organised a range of clothing-related workers and was strong in areas of the East Midlands including Nottinghamshire and Northamptonshire, with other members in Lancashire textile regions and the Yorkshire leather-producing industry, it absorbed the Rossendale Union of Boot and Slipper Operatives in the mid 1990s. The union was notable for its high proportion of female members - half of its members in 2004 being women. After considering amalgamation with the National Union of Tailors and Garment Workers KFAT merged with the Iron and Steel Trades Confederation in 2004 to form Community. 1991: David Lambert 1994: Helen McGrath 1999: Tony Hallam 1991: George Browett 1992: Helen McGrath 1994: Paul Gates Catalogue of the KFAT archives, held at the Modern Records Centre, University of Warwick