2011 South Sudanese independence referendum
A referendum took place in Southern Sudan from 9 to 15 January 2011, on whether the region should remain a part of Sudan or become independent. The referendum was one of the consequences of the 2005 Naivasha Agreement between the Khartoum central government and the Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement. A simultaneous referendum was supposed to be held in Abyei on whether to become part of Southern Sudan but it was postponed due to conflict over demarcation and residency rights. On 7 February 2011, the referendum commission published the final results, with 98.83% voting in favour of independence. While the ballots were suspended in 10 of the 79 counties for exceeding 100% of the voter turnout, the number of votes were still well over the requirement of 60% turnout, the majority vote for secession is not in question; the predetermined date for the creation of an independent state was 9 July 2011. The prerequisites for the referendum included a census, used to define how wealth and political power will be apportioned between regions.
The census was the basis of a voter registration process, used for the national elections in 2010, which in turn set the stage for the referendum. The census was delayed three times. Problems included disagreements between the north and south over what they are obliged to do by the Naivasha Agreement, funding difficulties and an enormous logistical challenge. In the south, unmapped minefields from the war continue to make movement difficult, while up to five million Sudanese are nomadic. Up to two million internally displaced persons from the south remain in camps around Khartoum, in the center of the country, while refugees remain in Uganda and Kenya. A further complication results from the conflict in Darfur to the west, where civilians who have fled attacks refuse to take part in census out of fear that the government would use the results against them. Darfuri rebel groups are unanimous in their denunciation of the planned census, while the Justice and Equality Movement group has threatened to attack any census-taker.
There were disagreements between the National Congress Party and the SPLA/M about what proportion of voters will have to be in favour of independence, whether Southern Sudanese living in the north should be allowed to vote, the post-referendum separation process. Modest progress was made in early September 2010, it is envisaged that "popular consultations" in South Kordofan and Blue Nile, without a clear reference to referendums and/or independence, would raise concerns about the future of these regions. According to the terms of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, in October 2009, the central government of Sudan and the South Sudanese government agreed that turnout would have to be at least 60% of 3.8 million voters would be necessary to validate. In this case, a simple majority vote in favour of independence would result in secession for South Sudan. Sudanese officials have said throughout campaigning that, regardless of their pro-unity or pro-separatist stance, the ultimate aim was a peaceful transition.
Vice President Kiir acknowledged his administration had failed to deliver "the dividends of peace," and noted that a campaign to confiscate arms was a solution to maintaining stability. Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir said that the southern region had a right to choose to secede and that the referendum was helpful because unity "could not be forced by power." He said he would respect the outcome of the vote and support the south. However, he said that though secession was a right it may not resolve issues for the south: "The stability of the south is important to us because any instability in the south will have an impact on the north. If there is a war in your neighbour's house, you will not be at peace; the south suffers from many problems. It's been at war since 1959; the south does not have the ability to provide for its citizens or create a state or authority." Negotiations continue between the ruling parties in the north and south on potential post-referendum arrangements—looking at future issues such as citizenship, security and wealth sharing.
Minister of Petroleum Mr. Deng said he fears that an immediate budget cut for the north would ignite a war. "In order to avoid conflict, we could look to a phase-out arrangement whereby you provide the north some until they get an alternative.” The pipeline to export southern oil cuts through the north, the south has not begun construction on a pipeline that would avoid that route. In an article published by the Washington Post on 21 September 2010, Deng noted that an interim agreement could help both north and south and result in a “win-win”; the northern government said it would assume most of the country's $38bn debt if secession was voted upon. National campaigns were being held by both parties to address issues of potential clashes ahead of the referendum. President Al-Bashir wanted to reassure and assuage tension surrounding the issue of citizenship rights in the case of south Sudan secession, he said that if southerners opted for secession, "the sentimental unity and social relations between north and south Sudan will remain standing."
Al-Bashir vowed that the rights of southern citizens staying in the north after secession would be safeguarded, saying that his party would not allow anyone to infringe on the rights of southerners in the north, their properties and residence regardless of citizenship. The northern Justice and Peace Forum Party advocated separation of the country citing unity as a "bad forced marriage." Its chairman Al
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; the chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. Aluminium is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames; the oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium. Despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals; because of these salts' abundance, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, studies continue.
Of aluminium isotopes, only 27Al is stable. This is consistent with aluminium having an odd atomic number, it is the only aluminium isotope that has existed on Earth in its current form since the creation of the planet. Nearly all the element on Earth is present as this isotope, which makes aluminium a mononuclidic element and means that its standard atomic weight equates to that of the isotope; the standard atomic weight of aluminium is low in comparison with many other metals, which has consequences for the element's properties. All other isotopes of aluminium are radioactive; the most stable of these is 26Al and therefore could not have survived since the formation of the planet. However, 26Al is produced from argon in the atmosphere by spallation caused by cosmic ray protons; the ratio of 26Al to 10Be has been used for radiodating of geological processes over 105 to 106 year time scales, in particular transport, sediment storage, burial times, erosion. Most meteorite scientists believe that the energy released by the decay of 26Al was responsible for the melting and differentiation of some asteroids after their formation 4.55 billion years ago.
The remaining isotopes of aluminium, with mass numbers ranging from 21 to 43, all have half-lives well under an hour. Three metastable states are known, all with half-lives under a minute. An aluminium atom has 13 electrons, arranged in an electron configuration of 3s23p1, with three electrons beyond a stable noble gas configuration. Accordingly, the combined first three ionization energies of aluminium are far lower than the fourth ionization energy alone. Aluminium can easily surrender its three outermost electrons in many chemical reactions; the electronegativity of aluminium is 1.61. A free aluminium atom has a radius of 143 pm. With the three outermost electrons removed, the radius shrinks to 39 pm for a 4-coordinated atom or 53.5 pm for a 6-coordinated atom. At standard temperature and pressure, aluminium atoms form a face-centered cubic crystal system bound by metallic bonding provided by atoms' outermost electrons; this crystal system is shared by some other metals, such as copper. Aluminium metal, when in quantity, is shiny and resembles silver because it preferentially absorbs far ultraviolet radiation while reflecting all visible light so it does not impart any color to reflected light, unlike the reflectance spectra of copper and gold.
Another important characteristic of aluminium is its low density, 2.70 g/cm3. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight and malleable with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surface roughness, it is nonmagnetic and does not ignite. A fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation; the yield strength of pure aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has stiffness of steel, it is machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a face-centered cubic structure. Aluminium has a stacking-fault energy of 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a good thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper, both thermal and electrical, while having only 30% of copper's density. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a superconducting critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin and a critical magnetic field of about 100 gauss.
Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits. Aluminium's corrosion resistance can be excellent due to a thin surface layer of aluminium oxide that forms when the bare metal is exposed to air preventing further oxidation, in a process termed passivation; the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts in the presence of dissimilar metals. In acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, in alkaline ones to form aluminates—protective passivation under these conditions is negligible; because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium. However, because
The piastre or piaster is any of a number of units of currency. The term originates from the Italian for "thin metal plate"; the name was applied to Spanish and Hispanic American pieces of eight, or pesos, by Venetian traders in the Levant in the 16th century. These pesos, minted continually for centuries, were accepted by traders in many parts of the world. After the countries of Latin America had gained independence, pesos of Mexico began flowing in through the trade routes, became prolific in the Far East, taking the place of the Spanish pieces of eight, introduced by the Spanish at Manila, by the Portuguese at Malacca; when the French colonised Indochina, they began issuing the new French Indochinese piastre, equal in value to the familiar Spanish and Mexican pesos. In the Ottoman Empire, successive currency reforms had reduced the value of the Ottoman piastre by the late 19th century so as to be worth about two pence sterling. Hence the name piastre referred to two distinct kinds of coins in two distinct parts of the world, both of which had descended from the Spanish pieces of eight.
Because of the debased values of the piastres in the Middle East, these piastres became subsidiary units for the Turkish and Egyptian pounds. Meanwhile, in Indochina, the piastre continued into the 1950s and was subsequently renamed the riel, the kip, the dong in Cambodia and Vietnam respectively. French Indochinese piastre 1⁄100 of the Egyptian pound 1⁄100 of the Jordanian dinar 1⁄100 of the Lebanese pound 1⁄100 of the Libyan pound 1⁄100 of the South Sudanese pound 1⁄100 of the Sudanese pound 1⁄100 of the Syrian pound 1⁄100 of the Turkish lira 1⁄180 of the Cypriot pound Early private bank currency issues in French-speaking regions of Canada were denominated in piastres; the term is still unofficially used in Quebec, Franco-Manitoban, Franco-Ontarian language as a reference to the Canadian dollar. When used colloquially in this way, the term is pronounced and spelled "piasse" or "pyahs", it was based on 120 units, a quarter of, "30 sous", still in slang use when referring to 25 cents.
Piastre was the original French word for the United States dollar, used for example in the French text of the Louisiana Purchase. Calling the US dollar a piastre is still common among the millions of speakers of Cajun French and New England French. Modern French uses dollar for this unit of currency as well; the term is still used as slang for US dollars in the French-speaking Caribbean islands, most notably Haiti. Many newcomers to Canada Quebec, mistakenly pronounce the term as "pièce" from pièce de monnaie but it is pronounced as "piasse" in French or "pyahs" in English pronunciation. Piastre is 1⁄100 of the Turkish new lira, as well as the old lira; the piastre is still used in Mauritius when bidding in auction sales to the way that guineas are used at racehorse auctions. It is equivalent to 2 rupees. Piastra Decaen piastre Eckfeldt, Jacob Reese. A manual of gold and silver coins of all nations, struck within the past century. Showing their history, legal basis, their actual weight and value chiefly from original and recent assays.
With which are incorporated treatises on bullion and plate, counterfeit coins, specific gravity of precious metals, etc. with recent statistics of the production and coinage of gold and silver in the world, sundry useful tables. Assay Office of the Mint. p. 132
Yei, South Sudan
Yei is a medium-sized city in South Sudan's southwest. It lies close to the borders of two of the country's trading partners and the Democratic Republic of Congo, it is a business hub, attracting customers from all three countries. Ivory Bank and Kenya Commercial Bank maintain a branches in the city. Yei is served by Yei Airport; the city of Yei is located in Yei County, Yei River State in southwestern South Sudan, close to the international borders with the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of Uganda. It is 170 kilometres, by road, southwest of Juba, the capital and largest city in South Sudan; the geographic coordinates of the city of Yei are: 4° 6' 0.00"N, 30° 40' 12.00"E. The name Yei was given to the location where the current city stands by (traditional chiefs of Kakwa- Chief Gbongale Dada Southern Kakwa, Chief Banja Aligo- Central Kakwa people, but not three traditional chiefs, from the mentioned communitiesPojulu and Azande ethnic groups. This area was named so because it used to be a center for collection of food products which were contributed in form of taxes by the chiefs from all over the territory farmers for facilitation of administrative services in the district.
People used to carry these collected food products from a long distances to take them to the main administrative center called'Laliok' in current Lainya County. The Purspose of changing the district center from Laliok to Yei Town was due to lack of adequate water sources in Lainya County; the same chiefs conferred the name to the river that flows through the area and is now called River Yei. The Kakwa ethnic group exists in the current three Countries namely Uganda, South Sudan and DRC, they were broken into these three countries by the colonial rulers interests. But they continue to co-exist because of traditional relationships; this coexistence is known as" Salia Musala". The Kakwa lived in co-eexistance with other smaller ethnicities without conflicts until politicians got into games of divide and rule, it was because of instigators which caused the people from different ethnicities in Yei to rival from time to time. In 1917, British missionaries built a small medical clinic on the northern bank of River Yei and established elementary schools as well as the government head offices.
That is. After the end of the first civil, many people returned from exile back to Yei town. People coming from diaspora had different world views, they started to implement what they collected from East Africa from Uganda, Kenya and from Europe. The Yei people's behavior portrayed that of civilized and religious persons. Hard working and creative ethnic group of people developed in what became Greater Yei District. Most Yei people moved to cash crop farming. Coffee and Tea leaves were sold to the Arab world. Arab traders bring cars for sale in Yei, Kaya and Baazi; this made business people and expatriates who likes Yei weather and its forests to call the zone as "Small London" <Idoru Nyama: 2001> Before the onset of the Second Sudanese Civil War, Yei was a thriving urban, commercial center. Due to its location, at the borders of Uganda and DRC, the city handled a lot of commerce between the three neighboring countries. At that time, it attracted visitors, from as far away as Juba, about 170 kilometres, by road, to the north of Yei.
Civil servants and other Juba residents would flock to Yei on weekends to participate in the exchange of goods and services offered in the many bars and hotels. Yei became known as Small London because of its cosmopolitan nature. In course of the civil war, the area around Yei became the center of two Ugandan rebel movements that were supported by the Sudanese government, namely the WNBF and UNRF. Both waged an insurgency in Uganda, but fought alongside the Sudanese government against the Sudan People's Liberation Army rebels; the SPLA launched a major offensive against Yei in early 1997 destroying the WNBF and UNRF and capturing Yei itself in March. The town remained under SPLA control until the end of the civil war. Following its capture in 1997, the SPLA turned Yei into a garrison town; the presence of large numbers of SPLA in town attracted air raids and shelling from the Sudanese Armed Forces. The population fled and the SPLA brought in more troops, who started families and started to grow the population of the city again.
As the city became safer during the civil war, South Sudanese displacesd from other parts of the country from the Bahr el Ghazal Region, began flocking to Yei for safety, for humanitarian assistance. Following the cessation of major hostilities and the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, South Sudanese who had fled to Uganda and DRC began to return, many chose Yei as their entry point. Due to the relative safety in the city, the ready availability of International humanitarian aid, many of the returnees from other South Sudanese states chose to stay in Yei, instead of proceeding t
Abdallahi ibn Muhammad
Abdullah Ibn-Mohammed Al-Khalifa or Abdullah al-Khalifa or Abdullahi al-Khalifa known as "The Khalifa" was a Sudanese Ansar ruler, one of the principal followers of Muhammad Ahmad. Ahmad claimed building up a large following. After his death Abdallahi ibn Muhammad took over the movement, adopting the title of Khalifat al-Mahdi, he attempted to create a kingdom, which led to widespread discontent, his eventual defeat and death at the hands of the British. Abdullah was born into the Ta'aisha Baqqara tribe in around 1846 and was trained and educated as a preacher and holy man, he became a follower of Muhammad Ahmad "the Mahdi" around 1880 and was named Khalifa by the Mahdi in 1881, becoming one of his chief lieutenants. He married a woman by the name of Hafsa Abdelsalam. After he died she remarried; the other Khalifas were Ali wad Muhammad Sharif. He was given command of a large part of the Mahdist army, during the next four years led them in a series of victories over the Anglo-Egyptians, he fought at the Battle of El Obeid, where William Hicks's Anglo-Egyptian army was destroyed, was one of the principal commanders at the siege of Khartoum.
After the unexpected death of the Mahdi in June 1885, Abdullah succeeded as leader of the Mahdists, declaring himself "Khalifat al-Mahdi", or successor of the Mahdi. He faced internal disputes over his leadership with the Ashraf and he had to suppress several revolts in 1885-1886, 1888-1889, 1891 before emerging as sole leader. At first the Mahdiyah was run on military lines as a jihad state, with the courts enforcing Sharia law and the precepts of the Mahdi, which had equal force; the Khalifa established a more traditional administration. He felt the best course of action to keep internal problems to a minimum was to expand into Ethiopia and Egypt; the Khalifa invaded Ethiopia with 60,000 Ansar troops and sacked Gondar in 1887, destroying nearly every church in the city. He refused to make peace, he repulsed the Ethiopians at the Battle of Metemma on March 9, 1889, where the Ethiopian emperor Yohannes IV was killed. He created workshops to manufacture ammunition, but the Khailfa underestimated the strength of the Anglo-Egyptian forces and suffered a crushing defeat in Egypt.
The Egyptians failed to counter up the Nile. The Ashraf, in November 1891, were put down one final time. During the next four years, Khailfa strengthened the financial situation of the Sudan. In 1896, an Anglo-Egyptian army under General Herbert Kitchener began the reconquest of the Sudan. Following the loss of Dongola in September 1896 Berber and Abu Hamed to Kitchener's army in 1897, the Khalifa Abdullah sent an army, defeated at the Battle of Atbara River on April 8, 1898, afterwards falling back to his new capital of Omdurman. At the Battle of Omdurman on September 2, 1898, his army of 52,000 men was destroyed; the Khalifa fled south and went into hiding with a few followers but was caught and killed by Sir Reginald Wingate's Egyptian column at Umm Diwaikarat in Kordofan on November 25, 1899. Devout, an able general and administrator, the Khalifa was unable to overcome tribal dissension to unify Sudan, was forced to employ Egyptians to provide the trained administrators and technicians he needed to maintain his self-proclaimed Islamist military caliphate.
Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan 1896-99 Khalifa House Museum Sources
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, reflectivity of any metal; the metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold and zinc refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many bullion coins, sometimes alongside gold: while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal, its purity is measured on a per-mille basis. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had an enduring role in most human cultures. Other than in currency and as an investment medium, silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialised confectionery.
Its compounds are used in X-ray film. Dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings and other medical instruments. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two vertical neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold, its 47 electrons are arranged in the configuration 4d105s1 to copper and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with a single electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell, accounts for many of the singular properties of metallic silver. Silver is an soft and malleable transition metal, though it is less malleable than gold. Silver crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12, where only the single 5s electron is delocalized to copper and gold. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are weak; this observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of silver.
Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high polish, and, so characteristic that the name of the metal itself has become a colour name. Unlike copper and gold, the energy required to excite an electron from the filled d band to the s-p conduction band in silver is large enough that it no longer corresponds to absorption in the visible region of the spectrum, but rather in the ultraviolet. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm. At wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silver's reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm. High electrical and thermal conductivity is common to the elements in group 11, because their single s electron is free and does not interact with the filled d subshell, as such interactions lower electron mobility; the electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater than copper, but it is not used for this property because of the higher cost.
An exception is in radio-frequency engineering at VHF and higher frequencies where silver plating improves electrical conductivity because those currents tend to flow on the surface of conductors rather than through the interior. During World War II in the US, 13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium because of the wartime shortage of copper. Pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity of any metal, although the conductivity of carbon and superfluid helium-4 are higher. Silver has the lowest contact resistance of any metal. Silver forms alloys with copper and gold, as well as zinc. Zinc-silver alloys with low zinc concentration may be considered as face-centred cubic solid solutions of zinc in silver, as the structure of the silver is unchanged while the electron concentration rises as more zinc is added. Increasing the electron concentration further leads to body-centred cubic, complex cubic, hexagonal close-packed phases. Occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being more abundant.
This equal abundance is rare in the periodic table. The atomic weight is 107.8682 u. Both isotopes of silver are produced in stars via the s-process, as well as in supernovas via the r-process. Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a half-life of 7.45 days, 112Ag with a half-life of 3.13 hours. Silver has numerous nuclear isomers, the most stable being 108mAg, 110mAg and 106mAg. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than an hour, the majority of these have half-lives of less than three minutes. Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 92.950 u
Second Sudanese Civil War
The Second Sudanese Civil War was a conflict from 1983 to 2005 between the central Sudanese government and the Sudan People's Liberation Army. It was a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil War of 1955 to 1972. Although it originated in southern Sudan, the civil war spread to the Nuba mountains and the Blue Nile, it is one of the longest civil wars on record. The war resulted in the independence of South Sudan. Two million people died as a result of war and disease caused by the conflict. Four million people in southern Sudan were displaced at least once during the war; the civilian death toll is one of the highest of any war since World War II and was marked by a large number of human rights violations. These include mass killings; the Sudanese war is characterized as a fight between the central government expanding and dominating peoples of the periphery, raising allegations of marginalization. Kingdoms and great powers based along the Nile River have fought against the people of inland Sudan for centuries.
Since at least the 18th century, central governments have attempted to regulate and exploit the undeveloped southern and inland Sudan. Some sources describe the conflict as an ethnoreligious one where the Muslim central government's pursuits to impose sharia law on non-Muslim southerners led to violence, to the civil war. Douglas Johnson has pointed to an exploitative governance as the root cause; when the British governed Sudan as a colony they administered the northern and southern provinces separately. The south was held to be more similar to the other east-African colonies — Kenya and Uganda — while northern Sudan was more similar to Arabic-speaking Egypt. Northern Arabs were prevented from holding positions of power in the south with its African traditions, trade was discouraged between the two areas. However, in 1946, the British gave in to northern pressure to integrate the two areas. Arabic was made the language of administration in the south, northerners began to hold positions there.
The southern elite, trained in English, resented the change as they were kept out of their own government. After decolonization most power was given to the northern elites based in Khartoum, causing unrest in the south; the British moved towards granting Sudan independence, but they failed to give enough power to Southern leaders. Southern Sudanese leaders weren't invited to negotiations during the transitional period in the 1950s. In the post-colonial government of 1953, the Sudanization Committee only included 6 southern leaders, though there were some 800 available senior administrative positions; the second war was about natural resources. Between the north and the south lie significant oil fields and thus significant foreign interests; the north wanted to control these resources because they are situated on the edge of the Sahara desert, unsuitable for agricultural development. Oil revenues make up about 70% of Sudan's export earnings, contribute to the development of the country which, unlike the south, does not depend on international aid.
Due to numerous tributaries of the Nile river and heavier precipitation in the south of Sudan they have superior water access and fertile land. There has been a significant amount of death from warring tribes in the south. Most of the conflict has been between Nuer and Dinka but other ethnic groups have been involved; these tribal conflicts have remained after independence. For example, in January 2012 3,000 Murle people were massacred by the Nuer; the first civil war ended with the Addis Ababa Agreement. Part of the agreement gave cultural autonomy to the south; the Addis Ababa Accords were incorporated in the Constitution of Sudan. The first violations occurred when President Jaafar Nimeiry attempted to take control of oil fields straddling the north-south border. Oil had been discovered in Bentiu in 1978, in southern Kurdufan and Upper Blue Nile in 1979, the Unity oilfields in 1980 and Adar oilfields in 1981, in Heglig in 1982. Access to the oil fields meant significant economic benefit to. Islamic fundamentalists in the north had been discontented with the Addis Ababa Agreement, which gave relative autonomy to the non-Islamic majority Southern Sudan Autonomous Region.
The fundamentalists continued to grow in power, in 1983 President Nimeiry declared all Sudan an Islamic state, terminating the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region. The Sudan People's Liberation Army was founded in 1983 as a rebel group, to reestablish an autonomous Southern Sudan by fighting against the central government. While based in Southern Sudan, it identified itself as a movement for all oppressed Sudanese citizens, was led by John Garang; the SPLA campaigned for a United Sudan, criticizing the central government for policies that were leading to national "disintegration". In September 1985 announced the end of the state of emergency and dismantled the emergency courts but soon promulgated a new judiciary act, which continued many of the practices of the emergency courts. Despite Nimeiry's public assurances that the rights of non-Muslims would be respected and other non-Muslims remained suspicious. On 6 April 1985, senior military officers led by Gen. Abdul Rahman Suwar ad-Dahhab mounted a coup.
Among the first acts of the new government was to suspend the 1983 constitution, rescind the decree declaring Sudan's intent to become an Islamic state, disband Nimeiry's Sudan Socialist Union. However, the "September laws" instituting Islamic Sharia law were not sus