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Sudden infant death syndrome

Sudden infant death syndrome known as cot death or crib death, is the sudden unexplained death of a child of less than one year of age. Diagnosis requires that the death remain unexplained after a thorough autopsy and detailed death scene investigation. SIDS occurs during sleep. Death occurs between the hours of 00:00 and 09:00. There is no noise or evidence of struggle; the exact cause of SIDS is unknown. The requirement of a combination of factors including a specific underlying susceptibility, a specific time in development, an environmental stressor has been proposed; these environmental stressors may include sleeping on the stomach or side and exposure to tobacco smoke. Accidental suffocation from bed sharing or soft objects may play a role. Another risk factor is being born before 39 weeks of gestation. SIDS makes up about 80 % of unexpected infant deaths; the other 20% of cases are caused by infections, genetic disorders, heart problems. While child abuse in the form of intentional suffocation may be misdiagnosed as SIDS, this is believed to make up less than 5% of cases.

The most effective method of reducing the risk of SIDS is putting a child less than one year old on their back to sleep. Other measures include a firm mattress separate from but close to caregivers, no loose bedding, a cool sleeping environment, using a pacifier, avoiding exposure to tobacco smoke. Breastfeeding and immunization may be preventive. Measures not shown to be useful include positioning devices and baby monitors. Evidence is not sufficient for the use of fans. Grief support for families affected by SIDS is important, as the death of the infant is sudden, without witnesses, associated with an investigation. Rates of SIDS vary nearly tenfold in developed countries from one in a thousand to one in ten thousand. Globally it resulted in about 19,200 deaths in 2015 down from 22,000 deaths in 1990. SIDS was the third leading cause of death in children less than one year old in the United States in 2011, it is the most common cause of death between one year of age. About 90% of cases happen before six months of age, with it being most frequent between two months and four months of age.

It is more common in boys than girls. Rates have decreased in areas with "safe sleep campaigns" by up to 80%. SIDS is a diagnosis of exclusion and should be applied to only those cases in which an infant's death is sudden and unexpected, remains unexplained after the performance of an adequate postmortem investigation, including: an autopsy. After investigation, some of these infant deaths are found to be caused by suffocation, hyperthermia or hypothermia, neglect or some other defined cause. Australia and New Zealand are shifting to the term "sudden unexpected death in infancy" for professional and coronial clarity; the term SUDI is now used instead of sudden infant death syndrome because some coroners prefer to use the term'undetermined' for a death considered to be SIDS. This change is causing diagnostic shift in the mortality data. In addition, the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has proposed that such deaths be called "sudden unexpected infant deaths" and that SIDS is a subset of SUID.

SIDS has a 4-parameter lognormal age distribution that spares infants shortly after birth — the time of maximal risk for all other causes of non-trauma infant death. By definition, SIDS deaths occur under the age of one year, with the peak incidence occurring when the infant is at 2 to 4 months of age; this is considered a critical period because the infant's ability to rouse from sleep is not yet mature. The cause of SIDS is unknown. Although studies have identified risk factors for SIDS, such as putting infants to bed on their stomachs, there has been little understanding of the syndrome's biological process or its potential causes. Deaths from SIDS are unlikely to be due to a single cause, but rather multiple risk factors; the frequency of SIDS does appear to be influenced by social and cultural factors, such as maternal education, race or ethnicity, poverty. SIDS is believed to occur when an infant with an underlying biological vulnerability, at a critical development age, is exposed to an external trigger.

The following risk factors contribute either to the underlying biological vulnerability or represent an external trigger: SIDS rates are higher in babies of mothers who smoke during pregnancy. Between no smoking and smoking 1 cigarette a day, on average, the risk doubles. About 22% of SIDS in the United States is related to mother's smoking. SIDS correlates with levels of nicotine and derivatives in the baby. Nicotine and derivatives cause alterations in neurodevelopment. Placing an infant to sleep while lying on the stomach or side rather than on their back increases the risk; this increased risk is greatest at two to three months of age. Elevated or reduced room temperature increases the risk, as does excessive bedding, soft sleep surfaces, stuffed animals. Bumper pads may increase the risk of SIDS due to the risk of suffocation, they are not recommended for children under one year of age as this risk of suffocation outweighs the risk of head bumping or limbs getting stuck in the bars of the crib.

Sharing a bed with parents or siblings increases the risk for SIDS. This risk is greatest in the first three months of life, when the mattress is soft, when one or more persons share the infant's bed when the bed partners are using drugs

Team Rensi Motorsports

Team Rensi Motorsports was a NASCAR Nationwide Series team owned by Ronnie Russell, Ed Rensi, Gary Weisbaum, Sam Rensi. The team has competed in the Winston Cup Series, Craftsman Truck Series, ARCA racing series. Ed Rensi, President and CEO of McDonald's USA from 1991 to 1997, has been Team Rensi Racing’s Chairman and CEO since October 1998. Jason Keller The No. 24 team debuted in 2005 as the No. 35 being driven by veteran Jason Keller with sponsorship from McDonald's. Despite a ninth-place finish in points, Keller struggled to run up front, he left for Phoenix Racing at the end of the season. Regan Smith Regan Smith took his place in 2006, had one top-ten finish. Smith departed from the ride for Ginn Racing. Hamilton returned to Rensi to drive the No. 35 for the 2007 season. Bobby Hamilton Jr. During the 2007–08 offseason, McDonald's ended its sponsorship of the No. 35 and David Gilliland took the FreeCreditReport.com sponsorship of the No. 25 car to the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series. Team Rensi signed Smithfield Foods as prime sponsor of the No. 25 car, allowing Hamilton to move to that team.

The 35 returned late in 2008 with Danny O'Quinn driving. Eric McClure The car made a return to full-time racing in 2009, with Eric McClure bringing both Hefty sponsorship and the No. 24 over from Front Row Motorsports. In 2010, McClure and Hefty remained with the team. After surgery on his foot, McClure was relieved by driver Chris Cook at Road America. DJ Kennington raced the car at Montreal to an 11th-place finish, as McClure sat out of the race due to a concussion the prior week from Bristol. McClure and Hefty will leave the team for 2011, citing performance issues and a lacking budget from Team Rensi. Kevin Lepage For 2011, Kevin Lepage drove the car for the first several races of the season. Lepage ran full races but was forced to withdraw from Bristol after a practice crash and did not arrive at Talladega. Early years The team known as Team Rensi Motorsports first joined the Busch Series in 1999, fielding the No. 25 Dura Lube Chevrolet Monte Carlo for Jeff Finley. They finished 13th at the season opening NAPA Auto Parts 300, but Finley failed to qualify for the next few races, he and the team drifted apart.

Kenny Wallace took over at Nashville, drove 18 races that season for the team, posting nine finishes of seventh or better. Rick Fuller, David Blankenship and Scott Lagasse drove two races a piece for the team as well, they finished eighteenth in owner's points that season. Wallace returned again in 2000 with new sponsor Lance Snacks, posted eight top-ten finishes, his best finish was 4th twice at Bristol races. Blankenship and Andy Santerre drove in the races that Wallace did not run, with Santerre finishing 3rd at Pikes Peak. Chad Chaffin In 2001, the U. S. Marines signed on as sponsor. Since Wallace had moved onto Innovative Motorsports, Chad Chaffin began the year with the team, but after he couldn't finish higher than 16th at Atlanta, he was released. Rookie David Donohue took over at the Pepsi 300 Presented by Mapco/Williams, but he too, struggled in the ride, was released after 12 starts. Randy Tolsma finished the season for the team. Bobby Hamilton Jr. After 2001, Rensi signed Bobby Hamilton Jr. to drive.

After a slow start, the two began to gain momentum, they picked up their first win at the Busch 200, finished eighth in points. This success carried over into the next season as well, as Hamilton won four races and finished fourth in points, they would not be able to win in 2004, after the Cabela's 250, Hamilton left to drive for PPI Motorsports at the Nextel Cup level, Mike McLaughlin took over for the rest of the season, finishing second at the Stacker 200 Presented by YJ Stinger. Ashton Lewis In 2005, Rensi signed Ashton Lewis to drive the 25 car. Lewis had a fourteenth-place finish in points. After many poor performances, Lewis was released and the Marines left as a sponsor. David Gilliland and Richard Johns For 2007, credit report site FreeCreditReport.com signed on as sponsor, with Nextel Cup driver David Gilliland and head engineer Richard Johns slated to share the ride. During the RoadLoans.com 200 weekend, Gilliland announced his departure from the No. 25, citing ride. Johns drove for the remainder of the season.

Bobby Hamilton Jr. The team returned Hamilton to the ride for the 2008 season in the newly renamed Nationwide Series, as his No. 35 team had folded. Smithfield Foods served as the sponsor for 30 races, Hamilton drove to a fifteenth-place points finish with two top-ten finishes. Boris Said drove the 25 for two road course races with No Fear sponsorship. Part-time The No. 25 returned for one race at ORP with Hamilton Jr. driving. In 2010, the No. 25 raced at Richmond and Chalotte with Kelly Bires behind the wheel and Raybestos as the sponsor. For 2011, the No. 25 team, with driver Kelly Bires, quailifed for the Daytona race, but lack of funding caused them to start and park, only completing a few laps. Team Rensi began fielding a Craftsman Truck team in 2000, after purchasing equipment from Dale Earnhardt, Inc.. Driver Jimmy Hensley drove the unsponsored No. 16 Chevrolet Silverado to a 13th-place finish in points. In 2001, Donohue began running the No. 16, but after three races, the team shut down due to sponsorship issues.

Randy Tolsma drove the No. 61 that year and was tenth in points when his team closed as well due to financial problems. He ran one final Truck race for Rensi in 2002, finishing 18th

2001–02 PAOK F.C. season

The 2001–02 season was PAOK Football Club’s 76th in existence and the club’s 43rd consecutive season in the top flight of Greek football. The team will enter the Greek Football Cup in the First round and will enter in UEFA Cup starting from the First round. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Players transferred inPlayers transferred out Win Draw Loss Win Draw Loss bye PAOK won 4-0 on aggregate. PAOK won 8–3 on aggregate. PAOK lose 6-4 on aggregate; as of 8 May 2002Appearances denote players in the starting lineup, with the numbers in parentheses denoting appearances as substitute. Source: Match reports in competitive matches, uefa.com, epo.gr, rsssf.com Source: Match reports in competitive matches, uefa.com, epo.gr, rsssf.com PAOK FC official website

Classification of finite simple groups

In mathematics, the classification of the finite simple groups is a theorem stating that every finite simple group is either cyclic, or alternating, or it belongs to a broad infinite class called the groups of Lie type, or else it is one of twenty-six or twenty-seven exceptions, called sporadic. Group theory is central to many areas of pure and applied mathematics and the classification theorem has been called one of the great achievements of modern mathematics; the proof consists of tens of thousands of pages in several hundred journal articles written by about 100 authors, published between 1955 and 2004. Simple groups can be seen as the basic building blocks of all finite groups, reminiscent of the way the prime numbers are the basic building blocks of the natural numbers; the Jordan–Hölder theorem is a more precise way of stating this fact about finite groups. However, a significant difference from integer factorization is that such "building blocks" do not determine a unique group, since there might be many non-isomorphic groups with the same composition series or, put in another way, the extension problem does not have a unique solution.

Gorenstein and Solomon are publishing a simplified and revised version of the proof. The classification theorem has applications in many branches of mathematics, as questions about the structure of finite groups can sometimes be reduced to questions about finite simple groups. Thanks to the classification theorem, such questions can sometimes be answered by checking each family of simple groups and each sporadic group. Daniel Gorenstein announced in 1983 that the finite simple groups had all been classified, but this was premature as he had been misinformed about the proof of the classification of quasithin groups; the completed proof of the classification was announced by Aschbacher after Aschbacher and Smith published a 1221-page proof for the missing quasithin case. Gorenstein wrote two volumes outlining the low rank and odd characteristic part of the proof, Michael Aschbacher, Richard Lyons, Stephen D. Smith et al. wrote a 3rd volume covering the remaining characteristic 2 case. The proof can be broken up into several major pieces as follows: The simple groups of low 2-rank are groups of Lie type of small rank over fields of odd characteristic, together with five alternating and seven characteristic 2 type and nine sporadic groups.

The simple groups of small 2-rank include: Groups of 2-rank 0, in other words groups of odd order, which are all solvable by the Feit–Thompson theorem. Groups of 2-rank 1; the Sylow 2-subgroups are either cyclic, easy to handle using the transfer map, or generalized quaternion, which are handled with the Brauer–Suzuki theorem: in particular there are no simple groups of 2-rank 1. Groups of 2-rank 2. Alperin showed that the Sylow subgroup must be dihedral, wreathed, or a Sylow 2-subgroup of U3; the first case was done by the Gorenstein–Walter theorem which showed that the only simple groups are isomorphic to L2 for q odd or A7, the second and third cases were done by the Alperin–Brauer–Gorenstein theorem which implies that the only simple groups are isomorphic to L3 or U3 for q odd or M11, the last case was done by Lyons who showed that U3 is the only simple possibility. Groups of sectional 2-rank at most 4, classified by the Gorenstein–Harada theorem; the classification of groups of small 2-rank ranks at most 2, makes heavy use of ordinary and modular character theory, never directly used elsewhere in the classification.

All groups not of small 2 rank can be split into two major classes: groups of component type and groups of characteristic 2 type. This is because if a group has sectional 2-rank at least 5 MacWilliams showed that its Sylow 2-subgroups are connected, the balance theorem implies that any simple group with connected Sylow 2-subgroups is either of component type or characteristic 2 type. A group is said to be of component type if for some centralizer C of an involution, C/O has a component; these are more or less the groups of Lie type of odd characteristic of large rank, alternating groups, together with some sporadic groups. A major step in this case is to eliminate the obstruction of the core of an involution; this is accomplished by the B-theorem, which states that every component of C/O is the image of a component of C. The idea is that these groups have a centralizer of an involution with a component, a smaller quasisimple group, which can be assumed to be known by induction. So to classify these groups one takes every central extension of every known finite simple group, finds all simple groups with a centralizer of involution with this as a component.

This gives a rather large number of different cases to check: there are not only 26 sporadic groups and 16 families of groups of Lie type and the alternating groups, but many of the groups of small rank or over small fields behave differently from the general case and have to be treated separately, the groups of Lie type of and odd characteristic are quite different. A group is of characteristic 2 type if the generalized Fitting subgroup F* of every 2-local subgroup Y is a 2-group; as the name suggests these are the groups of Lie type over fields of characteristic 2, plus a handful of others that are alternating or sporadic or of odd characteristic. Their classification is divided into the small and large rank cases, whe

Innumerable Meanings Sutra

The Innumerable Meanings Sutra known as the Sutra of Infinite Meanings is a Mahayana buddhist text. According to tradition, it was translated from Sanskrit into Chinese by Dharmajātayaśas, an Indian monk, in 481, however Buswell and Muller describe it as an apocryphal Chinese text, it is part of the Threefold Lotus Sutra, along with the Lotus Sutra and the Samantabhadra Meditation Sutra. As such, many Mahayana Buddhists consider it the prologue to the Lotus Sutra, Chapter one of the Lotus Sutra states that the Buddha taught the Infinite Meanings just before expounding the Lotus Sutra. For Buddhists, the term "Innumerable Meanings" or "Infinite Meanings" is used in two senses; the first, used in the singular, refers to the true aspect of all things, the true nature of all forms in the universe. The second sense, used in the plural, refers to the countless appearances or phenomena of the physical, visible world. All of these countless appearances are brought forth by the one true, pure world – the true aspect of all things.

This is the first chapter of the Innumerable Meanings Sūtra. It begins with the Buddha, staying at the City of Royal Palaces on Mount Gṛdhrakūṭa, or Vulture Peak, with a great assemblage of twelve thousand bhikṣus, eighty thousand bodhisattva-mahāsattvas, as well as gods, yakṣas, animals. Along with all these beings were bhikṣuṇīs, upāsakas, upāsikās, princes, rich people, ordinary people and women alike; the Bodhisattvas are thus called mahāsattvas in the Threefold Lotus Sutra, because they have a great goal of obtaining supreme enlightenment and attaining Buddhahood by enlightening all beings. This chapter is called "Virtues" because all the beings in the assembly, no matter what "state" they were in, desired to praise the Buddha for his virtues and excellence. In doing so, they could sow their knowledge of the Buddha deep into their minds. In this chapter, the Buddha addresses the Great Adornment Bodhisattva and the other eighty thousand bodhisattvas in the assembly and explains to them that this sutra makes unawakened bodhisattvas accomplish perfect enlightenment "quickly".

If a bodhisattva wants to learn and master this doctrine of Innumerable Meanings, he "should observe that all were will be, are in themselves void in nature and form. By realizing this, one can realize that all laws remain settled for a vast number of eons, but after a vast amount of time, they change; the essence of this chapter is the urgent advice to master and practice the teaching of the sutra for the spiritual merit to be gained from it, the good life it leads to, the usefulness to mankind and the world that it makes possible. Mentioned earlier in this sutra, the teachings of the Buddha are the truth of the universe, it is no wonder, no miracle, that if one lives according to the truth, his life works out well. Once again, Great Adornment Bodhisattva is present in the assembly and questions the Buddha about where the teaching comes from, its dwelling place, what purpose it serves; the Buddha said that the teaching originates in the innermost mind of all the buddhas. Buddhist texts Lotus Sutra Mahayana sutras Nichiren Buddhism Sutra of Meditation on the Bodhisattva Universal Virtue Tiantai

South Africa Conciliation Committee

The South Africa Conciliation Committee was a British anti-war organisation opposed to the Second Boer War. The committee was formed in 1899 in response to the outbreak of the war, for the "dissemination of accurate information", to seek an early "peaceable settlement between this country and the Boer Republics"; the Conciliation Committee campaigned chiefly for formal negotiations to end the war. Among other movements, the Conciliation Committee was seen to be taking the centre ground, aiming to keep South Africa in the British Empire rather than pressing for the British to withdraw unilaterally, making non-partisan appeals to reason. Founded by Catherine Courtney, its president was the veteran politician Leonard Courtney. Courtney recruited Emily Hobhouse as secretary. Jane Cobden Unwin, daughter of the Radical and Liberal statesman Richard Cobden, was a founder member, as was the suffragist Elizabeth Maria Molteno, daughter of the first Cape Prime Minister, John Molteno. Other prominent members included John Clifford, president of the Stop the War Committee,Allan Heywood Bright MP, Sir Wilfrid Lawson MP, publisher Thomas Fisher Unwin, left-wing journalist Henry Brailsford, Robert Spence Watson, author of The History of English Rule and Policy in South Africa.

There was a considerable overlap with the members of the Society of Friends of Russian Freedom. The 1900 general election was considered a "khaki election", candidates such as Bright and Lawson, who were identified as "anti war", were defeated. Against this background the Committee drew considerable public opposition to its campaigning when it organised a women's demonstration against the war in the same year. However, the antagonism was not as strong as that provoked by the Stop the War Committee, with its religiously inspired utopian approach; the Conciliation Committee's distinctive role was seen by The Spectator as providing authentic information about the war. Emily Hobhouse visited South Africa in 1900–1; the South African branch of the Conciliation Committee was founded in Cape Town in early 1900, under the chairmanship of prominent parliamentarian John Molteno. It fought a long-running battle against martial law. Notes Bibliography