Tibet Autonomous Region
The Tibet Autonomous Region or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region in southwest China. It was formally established in 1965 to replace the Tibet Area, an administrative division the People's Republic of China took over from the Republic of China about five years after the dismissal of the Kashag by the PRC following the 1959 Tibetan uprising, about 13 years after Tibet's incorporation into the PRC in 1951; the current borders of the Tibet Autonomous Region were established in the 18th century and include about half of ethno-cultural Tibet. The Tibet Autonomous Region is the second-largest province-level division of China by area, spanning over 1,200,000 km2, after Xinjiang, due to its harsh and rugged terrain, is the least densely populated provincial-level division of the PRC. There is a politically-charged historical debate on the exact nature of relations between Tibet and the Chinese Ming dynasty and whether the Ming Dynasty had sovereignty over Tibet after the Mongol conquest of Tibet and Yuan administrative rule in the 13th and 14th centuries.
Qing dynasty rule in Tibet began with their 1720 expedition to the country when they expelled the invading Dzungars, Tibet was first controlled by central government. From 1912 to 1950 Tibet was under de jure suzerainty of the Republic of China, the difficulties of establishing a new government in the aftermath of the Xinhai Revolution, the fractious Warlord Era, the Chinese Civil War, the overwhelming Japanese invasion and occupation before and during World War II left the Republic unable to exert any effective administration. Other parts of ethno-cultural Tibet had been under de jure administration of the Chinese dynastic government since the mid-18th century. In 1950, the People's Liberation Army marched into Tibet and defeated the Tibetan local army in a battle fought near the city of Chamdo. In 1951, the Tibetan representatives signed a 17-point agreement with the Central People's Government affirming China's sovereignty over Tibet and the incorporation of Tibet; the agreement was ratified in Lhasa a few months later.
Although the 17-point agreement had provided for an autonomous administration led by the Dalai Lama, a "Preparatory Committee for the Autonomous Region of Tibet" was established in 1955 to exclude the Dalai Lama's government and create a system of administration along Communist lines. Under threat of his life from Chinese forces the Dalai Lama fled to India in 1959 and renounced the 17-point agreement. Tibet Autonomous Region was established in 1965, thus making Tibet a provincial-level division of China; the Tibet Autonomous Region is located on the highest region on earth. In northern Tibet elevations reach an average of over 4,572 metres. Mount Everest is located on Tibet's border with Nepal. China's provincial-level areas of Xinjiang and Sichuan lie to the north and east of the Tibet AR. There is a short border with Yunnan province to the southeast; the PRC has border disputes with the Republic of India over the McMahon Line of Arunachal Pradesh, known to the Chinese as "South Tibet". The disputed territory of Aksai Chin is to the west, its boundary with that region is not defined.
Doklam in Sikkim is disputed with Bhutan and India. The other countries to the south are Myanmar and Nepal. Physically, the Tibet AR may be divided into two parts, the lakes region in the west and north-west, the river region, which spreads out on three sides of the former on the east and west. Both regions receive limited amounts of rainfall as they lie in the rain shadow of the Himalayas, however the region names are useful in contrasting their hydrological structures, in contrasting their different cultural uses, nomadic in the lake region and agricultural in the river region. On the south the Tibet AR is bounded by the Himalayas, on the north by a broad mountain system; the system at no point narrows to a single range. As a whole the system forms the watershed between rivers flowing to the Indian Ocean − the Indus and Salween and its tributaries − and the streams flowing into the undrained salt lakes to the north; the lake region extends from the Pangong Tso Lake in Ladakh, Lake Rakshastal, Yamdrok Lake and Lake Manasarovar near the source of the Indus River, to the sources of the Salween, the Mekong and the Yangtze.
Other lakes include Dagze Co, Pagsum Co. The lake region is a wind-swept Alpine grassland; this region is called the Chang Tang or'Northern Plateau' by the people of Tibet. It is some 1,100 km broad, covers an area about equal to that of France. Due to its great distance from the ocean it is arid and possesses no river outlet; the mountain ranges are spread out, disconnected, separated by flat valleys. The Tibet AR is dotted over with large and small lakes salt or alkaline, intersected by streams. Due to the presence of discontinuous permafrost over the Chang Tang, the soil is boggy and covered with tussocks of grass, thus resembling the Siberian tundra. Salt and fresh-water lakes are inter
Kumaon Kingdom was a Himalayan kingdom ruled by Many Himalayan dynasties in the Kumaon region of present-day Uttarakhand state of India The Kunindas was the first ruling dynasty of Kumaon and reigned from 500 BCE to CE 600. From the 7th to the 11th century, the Katyuri kings ruled the Kumaon region and built the 900-year-old sun temple of Katarmal, on a hilltop facing east. Kartikeyapura was the new capital and the Gomati Valley came to be known as the Katyur Valley after the ruling dynasty. Sometime in the 10th century, the Chand kingdom was established by Som Chand, who came from Kannuaj near Allahabad, displaced the Katyuri Kings, he continued to call his state Kurmanchal, established its capital in Champawat in Kali Kumaon. The Baleshwar and Nagnath temples were built in this former capital city during the 11th and 12th centuries. From the 13th to 18th centuries, Kumaon prospered under the Chand monarchs who had their origins in the plains of India. During this period and new forms of painting developed.
During 1591–1611 One of most powerful ruler of Chand dynasty was Baz Bahadur AD, who met Shahjahan in Delhi, in 1655 joined forces with him to attack Garhwal, under its king, Pirthvi Shah, subsequently captured the Terai region including Dehradun, hence separated from the Garhwal kingdom. Baz Bahadur extended his territory east to karnali river. In 1672, Baz Bahadur, started a poll tax, its revenue was sent to Delhi as a tribute. Baz Bahadur built the Golu Devta Temple, at Ghorakhal, near Bhimtal, he built famous Bhimeshwara Mahadev Temple at Bhimtal. Towards the end of the 17th century, Chand Rajas again attacked Garhwal kingdom, in 1688, Udyot Chand, erected several temples at Almora, including Tripur Sundari, Udyot Chandeshwar and Parbateshwar, to mark his victory over Garhwal and Doti, the Parbateshwar temple was renamed twice, to become the present Nanda Devi temple. Gyan Chand, the king of kumaon ascended the throne in 1698. In 1699 he attacked Garhwal, under the king Fateh Shah, he crossed Ramganga river and plundered Sabli and Sainchar.
In 1701, Fateh shah entered in Gewar vally as reply. The Kumaonis defeated the Garhwalis in the battle of Duduli. In 1707, the Kumaon forces annexed Juniyagarh in Bichla Chaukot, razed the old fort at Chandpur. Jagat Chand, defeated the Raja of Garhwal and pushed him away from Srinagar, his kingdom was given to a Brahmin. However, a subsequent king of Garhwal, Pradip Shah, regained control over Garhwal and retained Doon till 1757, when Rohilla leader, Najib-ud-Daula, established himself there, though he was ousted soon by Pradip Shah. In 1791, the Gorkhas of Nepal expanding their empire westwards across Kali River, invaded Almora, the seat of the Kumaon Kingdom and other parts of the kingdom; the Gorkhas were defeated by the East India Company in Anglo-Nepalese War and were forced to cede Kumaon to the British as part of the Treaty of Sugauli in 1816. The Kumaon region was joined with the eastern half of the Garhwal region and was governed as a chief-commissionership known as the Kumaon Province, on the non-regulation system.
In seventy years it was governed by three successive administrators: Mr. Traill, Mr J. H. Batten and Sir Henry Ramsay; the British set up a small administrative unit to govern the region, known as Patwari Halka. Kumaoni or Kumaoni are people from the Kumaon region of Uttarakhand, they are among the Pahari people which includes the indo Aryan Pahari people in the Himalayan hills India living in the six districts of Almora, Champawat, Pithoragarh and Udham Singh Nagar; the Kumaoni language is one of the Central Pahari languages. For a number of reasons, Kumaoni usage is shrinking rapidly. UNESCO’s Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger designates Kumaoni as a language in the unsafe category which requires consistent conservation efforts
Lamki Chuha Municipality
Lamki Chuha is a municipality in Kailali District of Nepal established on May 8, 2014 by merging Baliya, & Chuha, two existing village development committees. In March 5, 2017 Lamki Chuha Municipality was formed by merging all the wards of Pratappur VDC, it is the main door for the Sudurpashchim Nepal. Lamki Chuha lies 75 km east of Dhangadhi and 595 km west of the capital, is the major provider of education and employment opportunities in the eastern Kailali, it is Surrounded by Bardagoriya Rural Municipality the west, Bardiya District in the east, Mohanyal Rural Municipality in the North and Janaki Rural Municipality in the south. Mahadev bajgain is the Current Mayor Of Lamki Chuha Municipality; the Office of the Munucipality is located at Lamki chuha Municipality 02, Kailali. - Mayor: Mahadev Bajgain Deputy mayor: Tika Thapa Ward Chairman: Ward No.1: Janak Bam Ward No.2: Bishnu Dhakal Ward No.3: Bhakta Chalaune Ward No.4: Lal Bahadur Bogati Ward No. 5: Maya Bista Ward No. 6: Netra Sunakhari Magar Ward No. 7: Hari Ram Chaudhary Ward No. 8: Purna Bista Ward No. 9: Ram Prasad Chaudhary Ward No.10: Harka Kathariya Lamki Chuha is one of the main business centres of the Kailali District.
As a central point for connecting other main cities and villages of the Kailali district, it has the fastest-growing rate of infrastructure and public services. Availability of all infrastructure in Lamki Chuha has driven many people from urban and village areas to migrate to the district. Lamki Chuha is connected to the Mahendra Highway, the longest highway of Nepal, it is a central meeting point for Lamki Chuha -Tikapur Highway and Lamki Chuha-Achham Highway, where transport includes auto rickshaws, public minibuses and public city buses. Karnali River Yatayat and Sudurpachim Yatayat provides regular bus services From Kathmandu to Lamki Chuha Municipality and it provides regular service in Kailali District. There are about a dozen of large scale industries in Lamki Chuha Municipality. Thakur Baba Breeder & Hatchery PVT LTD, Dolfin Feeds, Chuha Sugar Mill are The famous and Biggest Industry Of Kailali District. Thakur Baba Breeder & Hatchery PVT LTD is one of the biggest hatchery in Nepal, it have two branches located at Lamki chuha Municipality 4 Baliya and Lamki chuha Municipality 7 Changabadi.
Mahadev Bajgain is the chairman of the Hatchery. Dolfin Feeds is one of the biggest seed industry in Sudurpashchim Pradesh or itself in whole couunty. Surya Bahadur Thapa is the chairman, it is located at lamki Bazar. Lamki Chuha has high schools. Ujyalo Shiksha Sadan secondary school is one of the leading educational institute of far western Nepal, established in 2048 B. S, it is located 500 meters western eastern from Lamki chock. Dhiraj Bahadur Khatri is principal of the school. Shree Nata Academy, one of the oldest and private secondary schools in Lamki Chuha, was founded in 2002 by lecturer Mr. Nand Lal Lamichhane and Mrs. Tika Lamichhane; the school is located in the eastern part of Lamki, where more than 500 students from Lamki and Chisapani receive high quality education. Kailali Public School is an educational community where students and staff of various nationalities and background live and work together in a congenial atmosphere. Lamki Pioneers Academy, one of the private partnership secondary level school, it is located in the heart of the city and has more than 800 students from all over Lamki.
It was founded in 2011 by entrepreneurs of Lamki. It has altogether 20 fonders till date Shree Adarsha Namuna Higher Secondary School is the older governmental higher secondary level school, established in 2052 B. S. as a governmental school educating thousands of students from all over Lamki and other areas. The school is located near the electricity power house. Lamki Multiple Campus is the newest government university level establishment, providing a wide selection of academic courses to thousands of students from urban area of the eastern Kailali district; the campus is located near the Matribhumi jungle. Kalika Higher Secondary School known as Tilkeni, is one of the oldest and biggest government high schools, located in the southern-eastern part of Lamki Chuha; the school teaches thousands of students from Lamki Chuha and Chisapani, offers a wide selection of management and education courses. Shree Golden Future Academy L. C. M.-7 kharaula founder/Principal Mr. Bhupendra Timilsena. Est.2064BS.
Goldstar English Boarding school LCM-5, Chaunri. Established in 2065 for better education in village. Gurkul English Medium school LCM - 2 Motipur. Shree Rastriya Higher Secondary School Shree Adarsha Namuna Secondary School Sarvodaya-Vidya-Mandir Shri Kalika Higher SecondRY School Deependra Secondary School Kailali Shree Sarswoti Higher secondary School Lamki Multiple College Shree Janta H. S. School Arunodaya higher secondary school Shree Jana Jariti Higher Secondery School Shree Nepal Rastriya Karnali Higher Secondary School Lamki Chuha has many hospitals and clinics, ranging from general treatment to operating labs for serious illnesses. Lal Ratna Medical is the biggest medical center in Lamki Chuha with more than 50 beds, its own pharmacy, several treatment and check-up areas and ambulance services, its central location pro
Doti known as Doti region, Dotigarh as used in the Jagar, the Farwestern region of Nepal, is a region situated between River Kali boarding to the Uttarakhand in the west and Karnali river on the east. Doti was one of eight different princely states Katyuri Kingdom was divided into Eight for their eight Prince and became different independent Kingdom. Doti division covers the nine districts of Seti and Mahakali Zone, four in Mahakali and five in Seti Zone respectively, they are: Darchula District Baitadi District Dadeldhura District Kanchanpur District Doti District Kailali District Bajhang District Bajura District Achham DistrictKailali and Kanchanpur District are Terai districts. The name Doti is believed to have originated from the word Dovati, which means the land area between the confluence of two rivers. Other view is. Doti was an ancient kingdom in far western region of Kumaon, formed after the disintegration of the Katyuri Kingdom of Kumaon around the 13th century. Doti was one of eight different princely states Katyuri Kingdom was divided into Eight for their eight Prince and became different independent Kingdom.
Baijnath-Katyuri Dwarahat Doti Baramandal Askot Sira Sora Sui Later on, the whole land between Ramganga on the west and the Karnali on the east, came under the Raikas after the origin of Raikas of Katyuris in Doti."Brahma Dev Mandi" at Kanchanpur District of Mahakali Zone was established by Katyuri king Brahma Dev. Niranjan Malla Dev was the founder of Doti Kingdom around the 13th century after the fall of the Katyuri Kingdom, he was the son of Last Katyuris of united Katyuris kingdom. Kings of Doti were called Raikas. On Raikas, after defeating the Khas Malla of Karnali Zone, were able to establish a strong Raikas Kingdom in Far Western Region and Kumaun, Doti. So far, the historical evidences of following Raikas have been discovered: Niranjan Malla Dev Nagi Malla Ripu Malla Nirai Pal: maybe of Askot his historical evidence of 1354 A. D has been found in Almora too Nag Malla Dhir Malla Ripu Malla Anand Malla Balinarayan Malla: not known Sansar Malla Kalyan Malla Suratan Malla Kriti Malla Prithivi Malla Medini Jay Malla Ashok Malla Raj Malla Arjun Malla/Shahi: not known but he was ruling Sira as Malla and Doti as Shahi Bhupati Malla/Shahi Sagaram Shahi Hari Malla/Shahi: last Raikas King of Sira Rudra Shahi Vikram Shahi Mandhata Shahi Raghunath Shahi Hari Shahi Hrishna Shahi Deep Shahi, Prithivi pati Shahi: he had fought against Nepali Ruler with British in 1814 A.
D. The historic place of war between the Doti Kingdom and Nepal during the period of Gorkha Expansion in 1790, according to the history of Nepal, is Nari-Dang which lies on the bank of the Seti River and Dumrakot was the base of the Doti Kingdom during the fighting against the Gorkhalis. In the war with the Gorkhalis, the Doti kingdom was defeated and Doteli King fled to Pilibhit. During the period of Akbar's rule in the 16th century, the Moguls had attacked the Raikas of Doti, they invaded capital of the Raika Kingdom. Ajemeru is now in Dadeldhura District of far western region of Nepal. Hussain Khan, army chief of Akbar residing in Lucknow had led the attack. According to `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni, Indo-Persian historian during Mughal Empire, Mughal Army chief of Lukhnow, Hussian Khan, lured by the wealth and treasures of the kingdom of the Raikas, wanted to plunder the state, this being the motive behind the assault. Raja Deep Shahi was expelled from Nepal in 1790 A. D and on arriving to Terai of Oudh he established Khairgarh-Singhai State in Khairigarh under British India.
Kanchanpur Praganna was the parts of his State or Zamindari. He succeeded in defeating the Banjaras rulers of Khairigarh and establishing himself not only in that Pargana but in parts of Bhur, his state was merged with India In 1947 after Indian Independence. The Far-Western Development Region has the Mid-Western Development Region to the east, Uttar Pradesh to the south, Uttarakhand to the west and the Tibet Autonomous Region to the north; the highest mountain in the region is the Api Peak, with 7,132 m high. Other high mountain is Saipal, 7,031 m high, in the Bajhang district; the most important rivers in the Far-Western Development Region are the Seti and the Mahakali rivers. It is the smallest Development Region of Nepal with an area of 19,539 km2 and with the lowest population with 2,552,517 people living there. Main ethnic group are chhetris 76% Dotiyali or Dotyali and Kumauni is the local language spoken in Doti region or far western region of Nepal. Dotiyali, similar to Kumauni language is one of language of Indo-European family.
According to Rahul Sankrityayan, Dotiyali is the dialect of Kumauni language, brought in Doti by section of Katyuri dynasty of kumaoun which had ruled over Doti till 1790. Therefore, It is an offs
Api is the highest peak in the Yoka Pahar Section of Gurans Himal, part of the Himalayas in the extreme northwest corner of Nepal, near the borders of Tibet. It is a little-known peak in a visited part of the Himalayas, but it rises over the low surrounding terrain. Although low in elevation among the major mountains of Nepal, Api is exceptional in its rise above local terrain. Api peak's south face rises 3,300 m above its base; the Api region was visited by Westerners in 1899, 1905 and 1936, but the peak was not attempted until 1953 on a visit by W. H. Murray a Scottish Mountaineer with John Tyson; this attempt was unsuccessful, as was another, by Italians, in 1954 which resulted in the death of two expedition members. The first ascent of Api occurred in 1960; the Doshisha Alpine Society of Japan completed the Northwest Face route attempted by the 1954 party. In 1980 a British Army Mountaineering Association expedition made an attempt to climb the peak by the south face reaching within a few hundred meters of the summit.
On 24 December 1983 Polish climbers Tadeusz Piotrowski and Andrzej Bieluń made the first winter ascent. The Himalayan Index lists three more ascents of the peak, in 1978, 1996 and 2001
Dictionaries traditionally define literacy as the ability to read and write. In the modern world, this is one way of interpreting literacy. One more broad interpretation sees literacy as competence in a specific area; the concept of literacy has evolved in meaning. The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, images and other basic means to understand, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture; the concept of literacy is expanding across OECD countries to include skills to access knowledge through technology and ability to assess complex contexts. A person who travels and resides in a foreign country but is unable to read or write in the language of the host country would be regarded by the locals as illiterate; the key to literacy is reading development, a progression of skills which begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, which culminates in the deep understanding of text.
Reading development involves a range of complex language-underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds, spelling patterns, word meaning and patterns of word formation, all of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency and comprehension. Once these skills are acquired, a reader can attain full language literacy, which includes the abilities to apply to printed material critical analysis and synthesis; the inability to do so is called "illiteracy" or "analphabetism". Experts at a United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization meeting have proposed defining literacy as the "ability to identify, interpret, create and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts"; the experts note: "Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, to participate in their community and wider society". Literacy emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices as early as 8000 BCE.
Script developed independently at least five times in human history Mesopotamia, the Indus civilization, lowland Mesoamerica, China. The earliest forms of written communication originated in Serbia, followed by Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia about 3500-3000 BCE. During this era, literacy was "a functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production". Writing systems in Mesopotamia first emerged from a recording system in which people used impressed token markings to manage trade and agricultural production; the token system served as a precursor to early cuneiform writing once people began recording information on clay tablets. Proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but ideograms depicting objects being counted. Egyptian hieroglyphs emerged from 3300-3100 BCE and depicted royal iconography that emphasized power amongst other elites; the Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values.
Writing in lowland Mesoamerica was first put into practice by the Olmec and Zapotec civilizations in 900-400 BCE. These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems; the earliest written notations in China date back to the Shang Dynasty in 1200 BCE. These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, animals hunted, which were activities of the elite; these oracle-bone inscriptions were the early ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script and numerals. Indus script is pictorial and has not been deciphered yet, it may not include abstract signs. It is thought that the script is thought to be logographic; because it has not been deciphered, linguists disagree on whether it is a complete and independent writing system. These examples indicate that early acts of literacy were tied to power and chiefly used for management practices, less than 1% of the population was literate, as it was confined to a small ruling elite.
According to social anthropologist Jack Goody, there are two interpretations that regard the origin of the alphabet. Many classical scholars, such as historian Ignace Gelb, credit the Ancient Greeks for creating the first alphabetic system that used distinctive signs for consonants and vowels, but Goody contests, "The importance of Greek culture of the subsequent history of Western Europe has led to an over-emphasis, by classicists and others, on the addition of specific vowel signs to the set of consonantal ones, developed earlier in Western Asia". Thus, many scholars argue that the ancient Semitic-speaking peoples of northern Canaan invented the consonantal alphabet as early as 1500 BCE. Much of this theory's development is credited to English archeologist Flinders Petrie, who, in 1905, came across a series of Canaanite inscriptions located in the turquoise mines of Serabit el-Khadem. Ten years English Egyptologist Alan Gardiner reasoned that these letters contain an alphabet, as well as references to the Canaanite goddess Asherah.
In 1948, William F. Albright deciphered the text using additional evidence, discovered subsequent to G
A male organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm. Each spermatozoon can fuse with ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot reproduce sexually without access to at least one ovum from a female, but some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Most male mammals, including male humans, have a Y chromosome, which codes for the production of larger amounts of testosterone to develop male reproductive organs. Not all species share a common sex-determination system. In most animals, including humans, sex is determined genetically, but in some species it can be determined due to social, environmental, or other factors. For example, Cymothoa exigua changes sex depending on the number of females present in the vicinity; the existence of two sexes seems to have been selected independently across different evolutionary lineages. The repeated pattern is sexual reproduction in isogamous species with two or more mating types with gametes of identical form and behavior to anisogamous species with gametes of male and female types to oogamous species in which the female gamete is much larger than the male and has no ability to move.
There is a good argument that this pattern was driven by the physical constraints on the mechanisms by which two gametes get together as required for sexual reproduction. Accordingly, sex is defined operationally across species by the type of gametes produced and differences between males and females in one lineage are not always predictive of differences in another. Male/female dimorphism between organisms or reproductive organs of different sexes is not limited to animals. In land plants and male designate not only the female and male gamete-producing organisms and structures but the structures of the sporophytes that give rise to male and female plants. A common symbol used to represent the male sex is the Mars symbol, ♂ — a circle with an arrow pointing northeast; the symbol is identical to the planetary symbol of Mars. It was first used to denote sex by Carl Linnaeus in 1751; the symbol is called a stylized representation of the Roman god Mars' shield and spear. According to Stearn, all the historical evidence favours that it is derived from θρ, the contraction of the Greek name for the planet Mars, Thouros.
The sex of a particular organism may be determined by a number of factors. These may be genetic or environmental, or may change during the course of an organism's life. Although most species with male and female sexes have individuals that are either male or female, hermaphroditic animals, such as worms, have both male and female reproductive organs. Most mammals, including humans, are genetically determined as such by the XY sex-determination system where males have an XY sex chromosome, it is possible in a variety of species, including humans, to be XXY or have other intersex/hermaphroditic qualities, though one would still be considered genotypically male so long as one has a Y-chromosome. During reproduction, a male can give either an X sperm or a Y sperm, while a female can only give an X egg. A Y sperm and an X egg produce a male, while an X egg produce a female; the part of the Y-chromosome, responsible for maleness is the sex-determining region of the Y-chromosome, the SRY. The SRY activates Sox9, which forms feedforward loops with FGF9 and PGD2 in the gonads, allowing the levels of these genes to stay high enough in order to cause male development.
The ZW sex-determination system, where males have a ZZ sex chromosome may be found in birds and some insects and other organisms. Members of the insect order Hymenoptera, such as ants and bees, are determined by haplodiploidy, where most males are haploid and females and some sterile males are diploid. In some species of reptiles, such as alligators, sex is determined by the temperature at which the egg is incubated. Other species, such as some snails, practice sex change: adults start out male become female. In tropical clown fish, the dominant individual in a group becomes female while the other ones are male. In some arthropods, sex is determined by infection. Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia alter their sexuality. In those species with two sexes, males may differ from females in ways other than the production of spermatozoa. In many insects and fish, the male is smaller than the female. In seed plants, which exhibit alternation of generations, the female and male parts are both included within the sporophyte sex organ of a single organism.
In mammals, including humans, males are larger than females. In birds, the male exhibits a colorful plumage that attracts females. Boy Female Gender Male plant Male pregnancy Man Masculinity Gentleman Wedgwood, Hensleigh. "On False Etymologies". Transactions of the Philological Society: 68