Albalat de la Ribera
Albalat de la Ribera is a municipality in the comarca of Ribera Baixa in the Valencian Community, Spain. It is now home to the retired football manager Michael Wenman
Palafrugell is a municipality in the Mediterranean Costa Brava, located near Palamós in the comarca of Baix Empordà, in the province of Girona, Spain. With 22,365 inhabitants it is the largest city of its comarca. Several coastal and interior towns belong to this city; the combination of a good summer climate and beautiful beaches has been exploited for both domestic and international tourism. Tourists have come from a wide range of countries the Netherlands, England and more the United States, it serves as a summer holiday town for residents of cities such as Barcelona and Girona. This medieval town is no longer. Many narrow streets emanate from Plaça Nova -a large square with bars and boutiques; the local government sponsors activities such as concerts and dances including the traditional Sardana. St. Martí's church is close to Plaça Nova. There is a new bus station belonging to Grup SARBUS; the station has servicing the Costa Brava region as well as Barcelona. Palafrugell was reputed for its cork manufacturing in the 19th centuries.
The largest factory was employed hundreds of locals. Its closing in the 1970s led to severe unemployment; the factory's tower still stands, there is now a small museum commemorating the cork industry just below it. Josep Costa Sobrepera Centre Fraternal The Cork Museum: It centres on the history and the lands linked to the Catalan cork industry; the first museum echibit is building itself, a factory in a Moderniste design. The building comprises numerous exhibition areas, around a small cork oak tree; the Josep Pla Foundation: It's a literary heritage centre chich aims to promote the reading and study of the literary and journalistic work of the Palafrugell author. The Cuixart Foundation: It aims to support established or emerging art and artists, with the view to protecting artistic heritage and the works of future generations. Can Mario Museum: It's the Contemporary Sculpture Museum of the Vila Casas Foundation, inaugurated in 2004, it houses some 300 sculptures that date from the 1960s to the present day, which belong to various artists who were either bron or who are residents in Catalonia.
The Gastronomy Interpretation Centre: It encourages its visitors to discover the development of gastronomy over the years, with the evolution of tourism at the Empordanet by means of two audivosiual displays. Information on culinary campaigns, receipes and more is available on touch screens, not to mention descriptions of the region's main culinary productes; the centre is open at the same times as the tourist office. The Sa Perola Interpretation Centre: The net dyeing house of the Fishermen's Guild of Sant Pere is today a tourist office and an interpretation centre for the Fishermen's Guild of Calella and the seafaring heritage of the area. Sa Perola is a testimony to the past of the town of Calella de Palafrugelland is of noteworthy interest in ethnological and cultural terms, its relevance reaches beyond the municipality of Palafrugell, due to the destruction of most of the net-dying houses on the Catalan Coast. The centre is open at the same times as the tourist office; the Historical Site of Sant Sebastià de la Guarda: This monument is located in town of Llafranc.
The site consists of an Iberian archeological site from the 6th-1st centuries B. C. a 15th-century watchtower and a 19th-century lighthouse on top of a small mountain 156m above the sea Official website Government data pages
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species Citrus × sinensis in the family Rutaceae. It is called sweet orange, to distinguish it from the related Citrus × aurantium, referred to as bitter orange; the sweet orange reproduces asexually. The orange is a hybrid between mandarin; the chloroplast genome, therefore the maternal line, is that of pomelo. The sweet orange has had its full genome sequenced. Sweet orange originated in ancient China and the earliest mention of the sweet orange was in Chinese literature in 314 BC; as of 1987, orange trees were found to be the most cultivated fruit tree in the world. Orange trees are grown in tropical and subtropical climates for their sweet fruit; the fruit of the orange tree can be processed for its juice or fragrant peel. As of 2012, sweet oranges accounted for 70% of citrus production. In 2014, 70.9 million tonnes of oranges were grown worldwide, with Brazil producing 24% of the world total followed by China and India. All citrus trees belong to the single genus Citrus and remain entirely interfertile.
This includes grapefruits, limes and various other types and hybrids. As the interfertility of oranges and other citrus has produced numerous hybrids and cultivars, bud mutations have been selected, citrus taxonomy is controversial, confusing or inconsistent; the fruit of any citrus tree is considered a kind of modified berry. Different names have been given to the many varieties of the genus. Orange applies to the sweet orange – Citrus sinensis Osbeck; the orange tree is an evergreen, flowering tree, with an average height of 9 to 10 m, although some old specimens can reach 15 m. Its oval leaves, alternately arranged, have crenulate margins. Sweet oranges grow in a range of different sizes, shapes varying from spherical to oblong. Inside and attached to the rind is a porous white tissue, the white, bitter mesocarp or albedo; the orange contains a number of distinct carpels inside about ten, each delimited by a membrane, containing many juice-filled vesicles and a few seeds. When unripe, the fruit is green.
The grainy irregular rind of the ripe fruit can range from bright orange to yellow-orange, but retains green patches or, under warm climate conditions, remains green. Like all other citrus fruits, the sweet orange is non-climacteric; the Citrus sinensis group is subdivided into four classes with distinct characteristics: common oranges, blood or pigmented oranges, navel oranges, acidless oranges. Other citrus groups known as oranges are: Mandarin orange is an original species of citrus, is a progenitor of the common orange. Bitter orange known as Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange and marmalade orange. Like the sweet orange, it is a pomelo x mandarin hybrid, but arose from a distinct hybridization event. Bergamot orange, grown in Italy for its peel, producing a primary essence for perfumes used to flavor Earl Grey tea, it is a hybrid of bitter orange x lemon. Trifoliate orange, sometimes included in the genus, it serves as a rootstock for sweet orange trees and other Citrus cultivars.
An enormous number of cultivars have, like a mix of pomelo and mandarin ancestry. Some cultivars are mandarin-pomelo hybrids, bred from the same parents as the sweet orange. Other cultivars are sweet orange x mandarin hybrids. Mandarin traits include being smaller and oblate, easier to peel, less acidic. Pomelo traits include a thick white albedo, more attached to the segments. Orange trees are grafted; the bottom of the tree, including the roots and trunk, is called rootstock, while the fruit-bearing top has two different names: budwood and scion. The word orange derives from the Sanskrit word for "orange tree", which in turn derives from a Dravidian root word; the Sanskrit word reached European languages through Persian نارنگ and its Arabic derivative نارنج. The word entered Late Middle English in the fourteenth century via Old French orenge; the French word, in turn, comes from Old Provençal auranja, based on Arabic nāranj. In several languages, the initial n present in earlier forms of the word dropped off because it may have been mistaken as part of an indefinite article ending in an n sound—in French, for example, une norenge may have been heard as une orenge.
This linguistic change is called juncture loss. The color was named after the fruit, the first recorded use of orange as a color name in English was in 1512; as Portuguese merchants were the first to introduce the sweet orange to some regions of Europe, in several modern Indo-European languages the fruit has been named after them. Some examples are Albanian portokall, Bulgarian портокал, Greek πορτοκάλι, Macedonian portokal, Persian پرتقال, Turkish portakal and Romanian portocală. Related names can be found in other languages, such as Arabic البرتقال, Georgian ფორთოხალი and Amharic birtukan. In
Benicull de Xúquer
Benicull de Xúquer is a municipality in the comarca of Ribera Baixa in the Valencian Community, Spain. As of 2003 the population was less than one thousand. GEOGRAPHY The village is located on the right bank of the River Júcar, in its low basin, has only 3.56 km². HISTORY The first time the Benicull name is documented is in 1914. There have been vestiges of settlement that go from the Eneolithic to the Bronze Age in the area known as La Pedrera. At the end of the last century several families from Benigànim settled there; the history of Benicull, as a municipality, is short: it obtained the segregation of Polinyà de Xúquer in 1987 by Decree of November 23 and became a Local Entity. There were, at the time of the municipal constitution, 855 inhabitants. ECONOMY Agriculture prevails with the cultivation of citrus fruits. VILLAGE FESTIVALS During the first fortnight of July, the festivities in honor of the Filles de Maria take place and the patron saint festivities in honor of Blessed Ines de Beniganim are celebrated during the last fortnight of August.
El Cristo dels Afligits last half of October. On October 9, paella contest. HERITAGE On November 17, 1973, a group of schoolchildren from Benicull guided by their teachers Alberto Ripoll and Carmen Ezquer, found in a cave remains of Neolithic, among which features a Bell-beaker Beaker culture dated between 2200-1800 BC
An industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy. The major source of revenue of a group or company is the indicator of its relevant industry; when a large group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. Manufacturing industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies; this came through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the production of steel and coal. Following the Industrial Revolution a third of the economic output comes from manufacturing industries. Many developed countries and many developing/semi-developed countries depend on manufacturing industry. Slavery, the practice of utilizing forced labor to produce goods and services, has occurred since antiquity throughout the world as a means of low-cost production, it produces goods for which profit depends on economies of scale those for which labor was simple and easy to supervise.
International law has declared slavery illegal. Guilds, associations of artisans and merchants, oversee the production and distribution of a particular good. Guilds have their roots in the Roman Empire as collegia Membership in these early guilds was voluntary; the Roman collegia did not survive the fall of Rome. In the early middle ages, guilds once again began to emerge in Europe, reaching a degree of maturity by the beginning of the 14th century. While few guilds remain today, some modern labor structures resemble those of traditional guilds. Other guilds, such as the SAG-AFTRA act as trade unions rather than as classical guilds. Professor Sheilagh Ogilvie claims that guilds negatively affected quality and innovation in areas that they were present; the industrial revolution saw the development and popularization of mechanized means of production as a replacement for hand production. The industrial revolution played a role in the abolition of slavery in North America; the Industrial Revolution led to the development of factories for large-scale production with consequent changes in society.
The factories were steam-powered, but transitioned to electricity once an electrical grid was developed. The mechanized assembly line was introduced to assemble parts in a repeatable fashion, with individual workers performing specific steps during the process; this led to significant increases in efficiency. Automation was used to replace human operators; this process has accelerated with the development of the robot. Certain manufacturing industries have gone into a decline due to various economic factors, including the development of replacement technology or the loss of competitive advantage. An example of the former is the decline in carriage manufacturing when the automobile was mass-produced. A recent trend has been the migration of prosperous, industrialized nations towards a post-industrial society; this is manifested by an increase in the service sector at the expense of manufacturing, the development of an information-based economy, the so-called informational revolution. In a post-industrial society, manufacturers relocate to more profitable locations through a process of off-shoring.
Measurements of manufacturing industries outputs and economic effect are not stable. Traditionally, success has been measured in the number of jobs created; the reduced number of employees in the manufacturing sector has been assumed to result from a decline in the competitiveness of the sector, or the introduction of the lean manufacturing process. Related to this change is the upgrading of the quality of the product being manufactured. While it is possible to produce a low-technology product with low-skill labour, the ability to manufacture high-technology products well is dependent on a skilled staff. An industrial society is a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour. Today, industry is an important part of nations. A government must have some kind of industrial policy, regulating industrial placement, industrial pollution and industrial labour. In an industrial society, industry employs a major part of the population.
This occurs in the manufacturing sector. A labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages and other working conditions; the trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with employers. This movement first rose among industrial workers; the Industrial Revolution changed warfare, with mass-produced weaponry and supplies, machine-powered transportation, the total war concept and weapons of mass destruction. Early instances of industrial warfare were the Crimean War and the American Civil War, but its full potential showed during the world wars. See military-industrial complex, arms industries, military industry and modern warfare. Industries portal Industry information North American Industry Classification System North American Product Classification System Outline of industry Standard Industrial Classification Krahn, Harvey J. and Graham S. Lowe.
Work and Canadian Society. Second ed. Scarborough, Ont.: Nelson Canada, 1993. Xii, 430 pp. ISBN 0-17-603540-0 Media related to Industries at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to industry at Wikiquote
Comarcas of Spain
In Spain traditionally and some autonomous communities are divided into comarcas. Some comarcas have a defined status, are regulated by law and their comarcal councils have some power. In some other cases their legal status is not formal for they correspond to natural areas, like valleys, river basins and mountainous areas, or to historical regions overlapping different provinces and ancient kingdoms. In such comarcas or natural regions municipalities have resorted to organizing themselves in mancomunidad, like the Taula del Sénia, the only legal formula that has allowed those comarcas to manage their public municipal resources meaningfully. There is a comarca, the Cerdanya, divided between two states, the southwestern half being counted as a comarca of Spain, while the northeastern half is part of France. In English, a comarca is equivalent to a district, area or zone. Alto Almanzora Poniente Almeriense Níjar Los Vélez Levante Almería Bahía de Cádiz Bajo Guadalquivir called Costa Noroeste Campo de Gibraltar La Janda Campiña de Jerez called Marco de Jerez Sierra de Cádiz Alto Guadalquivir Campiña de Baena Campiña Este - Guadajoz Campiña Sur Los Pedroches Subbetica Valle del Guadiato Valle Medio del Guadalquivir Granadin Alpujarra Comarca de Alhama Comarca de Baza Comarca de Guadix Comarca de Huéscar Comarca de Loja Granadin Coast Los Montes Lecrin Valley Vega de Granada Andévalo Condado de Huelva Cuenca Minera de Huelva Costa Occidental de Huelva Huelva Sierra de Huelva Alto Guadalquivir - Cazorla La Campiña El Condado Área Metropolitana de Jaén La Loma Las Villas Norte Sierra Mágina Sierra de Segura Sierra Sur de Jaén Antequera Axarquía Costa del Sol Occidental Málaga Serranía de Ronda Valle del Guadalhorce Aljarafe Bajo Guadalquivir Campiña Estepa Marisma Sierra Norte Sierra Sur La Vega Alto Gállego Bajo Cinca called Baix Cinca Cinca Medio Hoya de Huesca called Plana de Uesca Jacetania La Litera called La Llitera Monegros Ribagorza Sobrarbe Somontano de Barbastro Bajo Martín Jiloca Cuencas Mineras Andorra-Sierra de Arcos Bajo Aragón Comunidad de Teruel Maestrazgo Sierra de Albarracín Comarca, named after the Sierra de Albarracín mountain range Gúdar-Javalambre Matarraña called Matarranya Aranda Bajo Aragón-Caspe called Baix Aragó-Casp Campo de Belchite Campo de Borja Campo de Cariñena Campo de Daroca Cinco Villas Comunidad de Calatayud Ribera Alta del Ebro Ribera Baja del Ebro Tarazona y el Moncayo Valdejalón Zaragoza Avilés Caudal Eo-Navia Gijón / Xixón Nalón Narcea Oriente Oviedo / Uviéu Serra de Tramuntana Es Raiguer Es Pla Migjorn Llevant Menorca Eivissa Formentera Añana Aiara / Ayala Agurain / Salvatierra Vitoria-Gasteiz Zuia Arabako Mendialdea / Montaña Alavesa Arabako Errioxa / Rioja Alavesa Arratia-Nerbioi Busturialdea Durangaldea Enkarterri Greater Bilbao Lea-Artibai Uribe Bidasoa-Txingudi Debabarrena Debagoiena Goierri Donostialdea Tolosaldea Urola Kosta Fuerteventura Lanzarote Las Palmas El Hierro La Gomera La Palma Tenerife Valle de Güímar Valle de la Orotava Icod Daute Isla Baja Isora-Teno Tenerife Sur Tenerife Sur Acentejo Metropolitana-Anaga Comarca de Santander Besaya Saja-Nansa Costa occidental Costa oriental Trasmiera Pas-Miera Asón-Agüera Liébana Campoo-Los Valles Alt Penedès Anoia Bages Baix Llobregat Barcelonès Berguedà Garraf Maresme Moianès Osona Vallès Occidental Vallès Oriental Alt Empordà Baix Empordà Baixa Cerdanya Garrotxa Gironès Osona Pla de l'Estany Ripollès Selva Alt Urgell Alta Ribagorça Baixa Cerdanya Garrigues Noguera Pallars Jussà Pallars Sobirà Pla d'Urgell Segarra Segrià Solsonès Urgell Val d'Aran Alt Camp Baix Camp Baix Ebre Baix Penedès Conca de Barberà Montsià Priorat Ribera d'Ebre Tarragonès Terra Alta Llanos de Albacete Campos de Hellín La Mancha del Júcar-Centro La Manchuela Monte Ibérico–Corredor de Almansa Sierra de Alcaraz y Campo de Montiel Sierra del Segura Campo de Montiel.
Alcarria conquense. La Mancha de Cuenca. Manchuela conquense. Serranía Alta. Serranía Baja. Serranía Media-Campichuelo. Campiña de Guadalajara Campiña del Henares La Alcarria La Serranía Señorío de Molina-Alto Tajo Campo de San Juan La Jara La Campana de Oropesa Mancha Alta de Toledo Mesa de Ocaña Montes de Toledo La Sagra Sierra de San Vicente Tierras de Talavera Torrijos La Moraña Comarca de Ávila Comarca de El Barco de Ávila - Piedrahíta Comarca de Burgohondo - El Tiemblo - Cebreros Comarca de Arenas de San Pedro Merindades Páramos La Bureba Ebro Odra-Pisuerga Alfoz de Burgos Montes de Oca Arlanza Sierra de la Demanda Ribera del Duero La Montaña de Luna La Montaña de Riaño La Cabrera Astorga El Bierzo Tierras de León La Bañeza El Páramo Esla-Campos Sahagún Cerrato Palentino Montaña Palentina Páramos Valles Tierra de Campos Comarca de Vitigudino Comarca de Ciudad Rodrigo La Armuña Las Villas Tierra de Peñaranda Tierra de Cantalapiedra Tierra de Ledesma Comarca de Guijuelo Tierra de Alba Sierra de Béjar Sierra de Francia Campo de Salamanca An official classification establishes three comarcas: Segovia.
Cuéllar. Sepúlveda.or sometimes four: Tierra de Pinares. Segovia. Sepúlveda. Tierra de Ayllón. However, historic approaches establish six comarcas: Tierra de Pinares. Tierra de Ayllón. Tierras de Cantalejo y
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.