Falun is a city and the seat of Falun Municipality in Dalarna County, with 37,291 inhabitants in 2010. It is the capital of Dalarna County. Falun forms, together with Borlänge, a metropolitan area with close to 100,000 inhabitants. Falun was famous for its copper mine, is today an important service and industrial city though the mine is closed. Faluån is a river, flowing through the city. Falu copper mine is located on one of the sides which during many centuries was one of Sweden's main business; this side of the river was called "the mining side", where not many plants grew due to the toxic smoke which contaminated the soil. On the other side of the river, where the smoke did not reach, sets a large number of large villas, which made this side to be called "the delightful side"; the centre of Falun consists of classical pedestrian streets with small shops. In 1998, the city reclaimed the award of "the city centre of the year" in Sweden; the year 2001, the city, the copper mine and mining areas of Falun were added to the list of world heritage sites by the United Nations, which means that the city is worth preserving, as it is considered to be of interest for all of humanity.
Dalarna University, with its 18 000 students, has a campus located in Falun - close to the national ski stadium where the ski world championship has taken place a number of times, including the last one in 2015. The name of Falun has influenced the names of some Swedish items associated with the town, such as Falu red, Falu rågrut, Falu ättika and Falukorv; the town of Falun is known to have existed in the 14th century as a market place for the surrounding lands. Mining for copper had been a local business since the mid-13th century, or as early as 1000, the organisation for the extracting of copper and gold from Stora Kopparberget is believed to be the oldest still-existing enterprise in the world, proved active since 1347, when its charter was granted by King Magnus IV of Sweden; the first share in the company is dated as early as 1288. However, an enterprise at that time was nothing more than a cooperative among the owners, each contributing with a share of money for construction, etc. necessary to run the organisation.
Depending on their contributions they could use the facilities and share the profits in proportion to the relative sizes of their individual contributions. The city of Falun received its privileges in 1641. By Falun was one of the largest cities in Sweden, with about 6000 inhabitants. Soon, the importance of the copper mine began to decrease. In 1687, parts of the mine collapsed in a landslide. Though the mine remained in use for the next 300 years, the production diminished, until it closed down in 1992; the mining area of the Great Copper Mountain has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the name of the mining company of Falun, is today a part of Stora Enso. During World War II, Falun was the place where the authorities "interned" British and American airmen who happened to land in Sweden, or reached the country after landing in German-controlled territories. Unlike civilian refugees from Germany, who were kept in internment camps throughout the country and American airmen were placed in hotels and bed and breakfast establishments in the Falun area, enjoyed relative freedom.
Falun has a humid continental climate. Winter is the longest season lasting from mid-November until the end of March, although March daytime temperatures tend to be mild. With an average high temperature of 23 °C, July is the warmest month. However, the all-time heat record was set on August 2014 when 35.1 °C was measured. This was in turn the highest measured temperature of the intense heat wave that summer that affected most of Scandinavia; the climate of Falun is more continental than most of Sweden since it is far from large bodies of waters moderating temperatures. As a result, the highs of July in Falun are warmer than many areas much further south in the country. Winters, are cold but highly variable due to the proximity to some maritime influence that brings mild temperatures above freezing, moderating average temperatures; the most precipitation occurs during the summer months of August. The lowest temperature recorded in Falun is −40.0 °C. The weather station has however, not recorded below −37.2 °C according to the open data.
Stora Gruvstugan was designed by Eric Geisler and built between 1771-1785 in a Rococo Style referred to as Late Baroque. The building is used to be the main office to the copper mine. In 1882 the building was rebuilt into Berslagets museum. In the beginning of 1920, the mining came close to the structure which made it fragile and extensive repairs was made to the building. Västra Skolan was built based on a design by the city architect in Falun, Klas Boman; the building functioned as a school up until 2010. The tower was a replica of Kristine Kyrka. Egnellska Huset was designed by Falun's first city architect, Klas Boman; the building functioned as a modern residential building. The building was a light yellow color and later recolored in a more bright yellow color. After two separate fires in 2007 and 2008, the building was restored to its original appearance. Falugatan is a street in Falun and has since the 15th century functioned as a connection between eastern and western Falun. Thanks to its location by the river, this site became an important commerce site for city.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Charlottenborg manor house
For the former royal residence in Copenhagen, see Charlottenborg Palace. Charlottenborg Herrgård is a manor house in Motala, on the shores of Motala Stream, Östergötland, Sweden; the house was built in the mid 17th century by Ludvig Wierich Lewenhaupt and named in honour of his wife, Charlotte von Hohenlohe-Neuenstein. Charlottenborg has been home to both Adam Ludwig Daniel Fraser; the mid-seventeenth-century house, shown in an engraving in Erik Dahlberg's monumental topography, Suecia antiqua et hodierna, was rebuilt in more modern fashion in the eighteenth century. The house is haunted by the Lady in Black; the Lady in White is said to be the first owner Charlotte Lewenhaupt and she is seen by the staff and visitors. Today Charlottenborg houses the Motala Museum, with historical exhibitions. Motala Museum
Luleå is a city on the coast of northern Sweden, the capital of Norrbotten County, the northernmost county in Sweden. Luleå is the seat of Luleå Municipality. Luleå has the seventh biggest harbor in Sweden for shipping goods, it is a center for extensive research. Luleå University of Technology is one of Sweden’s three technology universities and the northernmost university in Sweden; the town's Royal charter was granted in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. The original town was situated; the town had to be moved in 1649 to the current site, due to the post-glacial rebound that had made the bay too shallow for ships to enter. The Gammelstad Church Town is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 1805, Luleå only had 947 inhabitants, but in 1865 Luleå succeeded Piteå as the county town in Norrbotten county and now had around 1400 residents. In the 1860s the industries started taking root in the city; the town has been plagued by fires in 1653, 1657 and in 1887, the fire in 1887 was a devastating fire that destroyed most of the town, sparing only a few buildings.
The Neo-Gothic Cathedral, dedicated in 1893, standing at 67 meters, is the tallest building in town. Luleå's commerce and industry are a mix of industry, education and services. Major employers in the city are the SSAB Luleå University of Technology. A Swedish Air Force wing, F 21, is stationed near Luleå at the neighbouring Luleå Airport. Other major employers include Gestamp HardTech; the information technology industry in Luleå has about 2000 employees. Luleå is the home of technological milestones. Broadcast radio: RDS, DAB, DARC The Luleå algorithm for routing Living Labs: leading European service testbed with 6000 users Marratech: pioneers in Internet-based E-meetings – acquired by Google, releasing in November 2008 video-chat support in Gmail Arena project, IT in Sports: sensors, handheld wireless video Estreet project: First large-scale mobile marketing experiment On 27 October 2011, Facebook announced it would locate its first data center outside of the United States in Luleå; the whole facility is made up by a set of three 28,000 m2 buildings.
The first building was to be operational in 2012. The establishment will help turn the Luleå region into a major node for European data traffic; the town's northern location and that it will become a hub for data traffic in Europe has generated a new epithet for the Luleå region – The Node Pole. The Node Pole region provides stable, low-cost electricity, 100-percent derived from renewable sources. In addition, they cite the benefits of low cooling expenses, given that the region is one of the coolest in Sweden. Sweden's long political stability is cited as another long-term benefit of the Node Pole's location. Facebook expands into Luleå The new European computer center in Luleå is Facebook's first investment outside of the US; some of the reasons that Facebook choose Luleå were because of natural cooling due to the climate, cheap electricity, reliable electrical networks, clean energy. The computer center is the largest in Europe, with 84,000 m2, comparable to 11 football fields; the computer center will process large amounts of data through thousands of computers working as one.
The establishment of Facebook in Luleå has led to other companies realizing the potential of establishing in Luleå. The positive effect has been noticeable at the university where the applications rate has risen with 18 percent- Luleå Science Park has had an increase with 25 percent of new established companies. Luleå has a subarctic climate, which borders on a continental climate with short, mild to warm summers and long, snowy winters. Due to the Gulf Stream, Luleå has a warmer climate than other cities on the same latitude and some that are further south in Canada, Northeast China, Siberia. During the summer in June and July the temperature in Luleå can some days rise to around +30 degrees Celsius. Summers are bright, with marginal twillight being the only exception during the summer solstice. Newspapers include: Norrbottens-Kuriren Norrländska Socialdemokraten Public transport in Luleå is operated by Luleå Lokaltrafik and consists of five main bus lines, an additional five bus lines, direct connection bus traffic and night bus service.
From Luleå Bus station, Länstrafiken i Norrbotten operates several regional bus lines within Norrbotten County. Luleå Airport, located 7 km south of the city centre, is the fifth largest airport in Sweden, with about 1.2 million yearly passengers. It is the largest airport in Norrland; the domestic route to Stockholm Arlanda Airport is the third busiest domestic route in Sweden with over 1 million passengers per year. Luleå Lokaltrafik operates connections to and from Luleå Airport via Line 4 and 104. In total, there are about 15 additional charter destinations; the Stockholm Arlanda Airport route is operated by Scandinavian Airlines and Norwegian Air Shuttle and serves the vast majority of passengers at the airport with about 16 daily connections each way. Scandinavian Airlines operates a direct connection to Göteborg Landvetter Airport. Nextjet operates connections to and from Göteborg Landvetter Airport
The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, painting, printmaking, crafts, video and architecture. Many artistic disciplines involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Included within the visual arts are the applied arts such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and decorative art. Current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term'artist' was restricted to a person working in the fine arts and not the handicraft, craft, or applied art media; the distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement, who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms. Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts, maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner of the arts; the increasing tendency to privilege painting, to a lesser degree sculpture, above other arts has been a feature of Western art as well as East Asian art.
In both regions painting has been seen as relying to the highest degree on the imagination of the artist, the furthest removed from manual labour – in Chinese painting the most valued styles were those of "scholar-painting", at least in theory practiced by gentleman amateurs. The Western hierarchy of genres reflected similar attitudes. Training in the visual arts has been through variations of the apprentice and workshop systems. In Europe the Renaissance movement to increase the prestige of the artist led to the academy system for training artists, today most of the people who are pursuing a career in arts train in art schools at tertiary levels. Visual arts have now become an elective subject in most education systems. Drawing is a means of using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques, it involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface using dry media such as graphite pencils and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, charcoals and markers.
Digital tools that simulate the effects of these are used. The main techniques used in drawing are: line drawing, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling and blending. An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a draughtsman. Drawing goes back at least 16,000 years to Paleolithic cave representations of animals such as those at Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain. In ancient Egypt, ink drawings on papyrus depicting people, were used as models for painting or sculpture. Drawings on Greek vases geometric developed to the human form with black-figure pottery during the 7th century BC. With paper becoming common in Europe by the 15th century, drawing was adopted by masters such as Sandro Botticelli, Raphael and Leonardo da Vinci who sometimes treated drawing as an art in its own right rather than a preparatory stage for painting or sculpture. Painting taken is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier and a binding agent to a surface such as paper, canvas or a wall. However, when used in an artistic sense it means the use of this activity in combination with drawing, composition, or other aesthetic considerations in order to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner.
Painting is used to express spiritual motifs and ideas. Like drawing, painting has its documented origins on rock faces; the finest examples, believed by some to be 32,000 years old, are in the Chauvet and Lascaux caves in southern France. In shades of red, brown and black, the paintings on the walls and ceilings are of bison, cattle and deer. Paintings of human figures can be found in the tombs of ancient Egypt. In the great temple of Ramses II, his queen, is depicted being led by Isis; the Greeks much of their work has been lost. One of the best remaining representations are the Hellenistic Fayum mummy portraits. Another example is mosaic of the Battle of Issus at Pompeii, based on a Greek painting. Greek and Roman art contributed to Byzantine art in the 4th century BC, which initiated a tradition in icon painting. Apart from the illuminated manuscripts produced by monks during the Middle Ages, the next significant contribution to European art was from Italy's renaissance painters. From Giotto in the 13th century to Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael at the beginning of the 16th century, this was the richest period in Italian art as the chiaroscuro techniques were used to create the illusion of 3-D space.
Painters in northern Europe too were influenced by the Italian school. Jan van Eyck from Belgium, Pieter Bruegel the Elder from the Netherlands and Hans Holbein the Younger from Germany are among the most successful painters of the times, they used the glazing technique with oils to achieve luminosity. The 17th century witnessed the emergence of the great Dutch masters such as the versatile Rembrandt, remembered for his portraits and Bible scenes, Vermeer who specialized in interior scenes of Dutch life; the Baroque started from the late 16th century to the late 17th century. Main artists of the Baroque included Caravaggio. Peter Paul Rubens was a flemish painter who studied in Italy, work
Matthäus Merian der Ältere was a Swiss-born engraver who worked in Frankfurt for most of his career, where he ran a publishing house. He was a member of the patrician Basel Merian family. Born in Basel, Merian learned the art of copperplate engraving in Zürich, he next worked and studied in Strasbourg and Paris, before returning to Basel in 1615. The following year he moved to Oppenheim, Germany where he worked for the publisher Johann Theodor de Bry, the son of renowned engraver and traveler Theodor de Bry. In 1617, Merian married Maria Magdalena de Bry, daughter of the publisher, was for a time associated with the de Bry publishing house. In 1620, when Oppenheim was destroyed by fire during the Spanish occupation, they moved back to Basel, but three years returned to Germany, this time to Frankfurt, they had three sons, including Matthäus Merian the Younger. Maria Magdalena de Bry died in the following year Matthäus married Johanna Catharina Hein. Five years Matthäus died, leaving his wife with two small children, Anna Maria Sibylla Merian who became a pioneering naturalist and illustrator and a son, who died before his third birthday.
In 1623 Merian took over the publishing house of his father-in-law after de Bry's death. In 1626 he could henceforth work as an independent publisher, he spent most of his working life in Frankfurt. Early in his life, he had created detailed town plans in his unique style, e.g. a plan of Basel and a plan of Paris. With Martin Zeiler, a German geographer, with his own son, Matthäus Merian, he produced a series of Topographia; the 21-volume set was collectively known as the Topographia Germaniae. It includes numerous town plans and views, as well as maps of most countries and a World Map—it was such a popular work that it was re-issued in many editions, he took over and completed the parts and editions of the Grand Voyages and Petits Voyages started by de Bry in 1590. Merian's work inspired the Suecia Hodierna by Erik Dahlberg; the German travel magazine Merian is named after him. He was noted for the finesse of his alchemical illustrations, in books such as the Musaeum Hermeticum and Atalanta Fugiens.
Matthäus Merian died after several years of illness in 1650 near Wiesbaden. After his death, his sons Matthäus Caspar took over the publishing house, they continued publishing the Topographia Germaniae and the Theatrum Europaeum under the name Merian Erben. Topographia Galliae Lucas Heinrich Wüthrich: Das druckgraphische Werk von Matthäus Merian d.Ä.. Vol.1 and 2: Basel 1966, vol.3 Hamburg 1993, vol.4: Hamburg 1996. Catalog zu Ausstellungen im Museum für Kunsthandwerk Franckfurt am Mayn und im Kunstmuseum Basel als unsterblich Ehren-Gedächtnis zum 400. Geburtstag des hochberühmten Delineatoris, Incisoris et Editoris Matthaeus Merian des Aelteren. Museum für Kunsthandwerk, Frankfurt am Main 1993, ISBN 3-88270-065-3. Ulrike Valeria Fuss: Matthaeus Merian der Ältere. Von der lieblichen Landschaft zum Kriegsschauplatz – Landschaft als Kulisse des 30jährigen Krieges. Frankfurt am Main, 2000, ISBN 3-631-35558-0. Jörg Diefenbacher: Die Schwalbacher Reise. Mannheim 2002, ISBN 3-00-008209-3. Ulrike Valeria Fuss: Momentaufnahme und Monumentalansicht.
Ein Vergleich zwischen Valentin Wagner und Matthäus Merian d. Ä. In: Valentin Wagner: Ein Zeichner im Dreißigjährigen Krieg. Aufsätze und Werkkatalog. Darmstadt 2003, ISBN 3-921254-92-2. Lucas Heinrich Wüthrich: Matthaeus Merian d. Ä. Eine Biographie. Hoffmann und Campe, Hamburg 2007 Götz J. Pfeiffer: Bild-Zeitung und Moral-Büchlein - der Dreissigjährige Krieg in Druckgraphiken von Matthäus Merian und Abraham Hogenberg, Jacques Callot und Hans Ulrich Franck, in: Der Dreissigjährige Krieg in Hanau und Umgebung, hrsg. vom Hanauer Geschichtsverein, Hanau, 2011, pp. 255–275. Media related to Matthäus Merian at Wikimedia Commons Pictures and texts of Topographia Helvetiae, Rhaetiae et Valesiae by Matthäus Merian can be found in the database VIATIMAGES. Works by Matthäus Merian, Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa America noviter delineata, 1633 map by Matthäus Merian, Portal to Texas History, University of Texas Merian maps and engravings
Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard flat surface by cutting grooves into it with a burin. The result may be a decorated object in itself, as when silver, steel, or glass are engraved, or may provide an intaglio printing plate, of copper or another metal, for printing images on paper as prints or illustrations. Engraving is one of the oldest and most important techniques in printmaking. Wood engraving is not covered in this article. Engraving was a important method of producing images on paper in artistic printmaking, in mapmaking, for commercial reproductions and illustrations for books and magazines, it has long been replaced by various photographic processes in its commercial applications and because of the difficulty of learning the technique, is much less common in printmaking, where it has been replaced by etching and other techniques. "Engraving" is loosely but incorrectly used for any old black and white print. Many old master prints combine techniques on the same plate, further confusing matters.
Line engraving and steel engraving cover use for reproductive prints, illustrations in books and magazines, similar uses in the 19th century, not using engraving. Traditional engraving, by burin or with the use of machines, continues to be practised by goldsmiths, glass engravers and others, while modern industrial techniques such as photoengraving and laser engraving have many important applications. Engraved gems were an important art in the ancient world, revived at the Renaissance, although the term traditionally covers relief as well as intaglio carvings, is a branch of sculpture rather than engraving, as drills were the usual tools. Other terms used for printed engravings are copper engraving, copper-plate engraving or line engraving. Steel engraving is the same technique, on steel or steel-faced plates, was used for banknotes, illustrations for books and reproductive prints and similar uses from about 1790 to the early 20th century, when the technique became less popular, except for banknotes and other forms of security printing.
In the past, "engraving" was used loosely to cover several printmaking techniques, so that many so-called engravings were in fact produced by different techniques, such as etching or mezzotint. "Hand engraving" is a term sometimes used for engraving objects other than printing plates, to inscribe or decorate jewellery, trophies and other fine metal goods. Traditional engravings in printmaking are "hand engraved", using just the same techniques to make the lines in the plate; each graver has its own use. Engravers use a hardened steel tool called a burin, or graver, to cut the design into the surface, most traditionally a copper plate. However, modern hand engraving artists use burins or gravers to cut a variety of metals such as silver, steel, gold and more, in applications from weaponry to jewellery to motorcycles to found objects. Modern professional engravers can engrave with a resolution of up to 40 lines per mm in high grade work creating game scenes and scrollwork. Dies used in mass production of molded parts are sometimes hand engraved to add special touches or certain information such as part numbers.
In addition to hand engraving, there are engraving machines that require less human finesse and are not directly controlled by hand. They are used for lettering, using a pantographic system. There are versions for the insides of rings and the outsides of larger pieces; such machines are used for inscriptions on rings and presentation pieces. Gravers come in a variety of sizes that yield different line types; the burin produces a unique and recognizable quality of line, characterized by its steady, deliberate appearance and clean edges. The angle tint tool has a curved tip, used in printmaking. Florentine liners are flat-bottomed tools with multiple lines incised into them, used to do fill work on larger areas or to create uniform shade lines that are fast to execute. Ring gravers are made with particular shapes that are used by jewelry engravers in order to cut inscriptions inside rings. Flat gravers are used for fill work on letters, as well as "wriggle" cuts on most musical instrument engraving work, remove background, or create bright cuts.
Knife gravers are for line engraving and deep cuts. Round gravers, flat gravers with a radius, are used on silver to create bright cuts, as well as other hard-to-cut metals such as nickel and steel. Square or V-point gravers are square or elongated diamond-shaped and used for cutting straight lines. V-point can be anywhere depending on purpose and effect; these gravers have small cutting points. Other tools such as mezzotint rockers and burnishers are used for texturing effects. Burnishing tools can be used for certain stone setting techniques. Musical instrument engraving on American-made brass instruments flourished in the 1920s and utilizes a specialized engraving technique where a flat graver is "walked" across the surface of the instrument to make zig-zag lines and patterns; the method for "walking" the graver may be referred to as "wriggle" or "wiggle" cuts. This technique is necessary due to the thinness of metal used to make musical instruments versus firearms or jewelry. Wriggle cuts are found on