Choate Rosemary Hall
Choate Rosemary Hall is private, college-preparatory, boarding school located in Wallingford, Connecticut. It took its present name and began a system with the merger in 1971 of two single-sex establishments, The Choate School and Rosemary Hall. At the merger, the Wallingford campus was enlarged with a complex of modernist buildings on its edge to accommodate the students from Rosemary Hall. Choate is a member of the Eight Schools Association, begun informally in 1973–74 and formalized in 2006, the member schools are Choate, Exeter, Deerfield, St. Pauls, Hotchkiss and Northfield Mount Hermon. Among Choates alumni are President John F, see also, Rosemary Hall for its history before the 1971 re-affiliation with Choate. The schools that would eventually become Choate Rosemary Hall were begun by members of two prominent New England families, the Choates and Atwaters. Rosemary Hall was founded in 1890 by Mary Atwater Choate at Rosemary Farm in Wallingford, her girlhood home, Mary, an alumna of Miss Porters School, was the great-granddaughter of Caleb Atwater, a Connecticut merchant magnate who supplied the American forces during the Revolutionary War.
In 1775 General George Washington visited the Atwater store in Wallingford en route to assuming command of the Continental Army, on that occasion, Washington took tea with judge Oliver Stanley at the Red House, now Squire Stanley House on the Choate campus. In 1878 Mary Atwater Choate had co-founded a vocational organization for Civil War widows, the advertisement was answered by Caroline Ruutz-Rees, a 25-year-old Briton teaching in New Jersey. On October 3,1890, the New Haven Morning News reported, at the beautiful Rosemary Farms, which have been the property of Mrs. Choates family for five generations. Rev. Edward Everett Hale addressed the girls in his inimitable way, at once attractive. Never forget, said he, that it is an art to do what you do well. If you limp, limp well, and if you dance, dance well, the eight arriving girls occupied the original school building, old Atwater House, at the northwest corner of Christian and Elm streets, where new Atwater House now stands. They had the use of Atwater homestead, which stands at the center of the present day campus, on the northeast corner of Christian and Elm streets.
Caroline Ruutz-Rees, headmistress of Rosemary Hall until 1938, was a figure of extraordinary personality and influence, on the Wallingford golf course she wore bloomers, which shocked the locals, and on buggy rides to Wallingford station she carried a pistol. She quickly changed Rosemary Halls mission from domestic arts to that of a boys school. The Choate School was founded by William and Mary Choate in 1896. William Gardner Choate, Harvard class of 1852, was U. S. District Judge for the Southern Circuit of New York from 1878 to 1881, and afterward a partner of Shipman, Barlow and Choate
Squash is a racket sport played by two or four players in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball. The players must alternate in striking the ball with their racket, the game was formerly called squash rackets, a reference to the squashable soft ball used in the game. The governing body of Squash, the World Squash Federation is recognised by the International Olympic Committee, supporters continue to lobby for its incorporation in a future Olympic program. The use of stringed rackets is shared with tennis, which dates from the sixteenth century. In rackets, instead of hitting over a net as in such as tennis. Squash was invented in Harrow School out of the older game rackets around 1830 before the spread to other schools. The first courts built at this school were rather dangerous because they were near water pipes, chimneys, the school soon built four outside courts. Natural rubber was the material of choice for the ball, students modified their rackets to have a smaller reach to play in these cramped conditions.
The rackets have changed in a way to those used in tennis. Squash rackets used to be out of laminated timber. In the 1980s, construction shifted to materials with small additions of components like Kevlar, boron. Natural gut strings were replaced with synthetic strings. In the 19th century the increased in popularity with various schools and even private citizens building squash courts. The first squash court in North America appeared at St. Pauls School in Concord, in 1904 in Philadelphia, the earliest national association of squash in the world was formed as the United States Squash rackets Association, now known as U. S. Squash. In April 1907 the Tennis, rackets & Fives Association set up a sub committee to set standards for squash, the sport soon formed, combining the three sports together called “Squash”. In 1912, the RMS Titanic had a court in first class. The 1st-Class Squash Court was situated on G-Deck and the Spectators Viewing Gallery was on the deck above on F-Deck, to use the Court cost 50 cents in 1912.
Passengers could use the court for 1 hour unless others were waiting, standard rackets are governed by the rules of the game
Cross country running
Cross country running is a sport in which teams and individuals run a race on open-air courses over natural terrain such as dirt or grass. Sometimes the runners are referred to as harriers, the course, typically 4–12 kilometres long, may include surfaces of grass, and earth, pass through woodlands and open country, and include hills, flat ground and sometimes gravel road. It is both an individual and a sport, runners are judged on individual times and teams by a points-scoring method. Cross country running is one of the disciplines under the sport of athletics. Although open-air running competitions are pre-historic, the rules and traditions of cross country racing emerged in Britain, the English championship became the first national competition in 1876 and the International Cross Country Championships was held for the first time in 1903. Since 1973 the foremost elite competition has been the IAAF World Cross Country Championships, Cross country courses are laid out on an open or woodland area.
The IAAF recommends that courses be grass-covered, and have rolling terrain with frequent, courses consist of one or more loops, with a long straight at the start and another leading to the finish line. Because of variations in conditions, international standardization of cross country courses is impossible, part of cross country runnings appeal is the natural and distinct characteristics of each venues terrain and weather. Terrain can vary from open fields to forest hills and even across rivers and it includes running down and up hills. According to the IAAF, a cross country course has a loop of 1,750 to 2,000 metres laid out on an open or wooded land. It should be covered by grass, as much as possible, while it is perfectly acceptable for local conditions to make dirt or snow the primary surface, courses should minimize running on roads or other macadamized paths. Parks and golf courses often provide suitable locations, a course at least 5 metres full allows competitors to pass others during the race.
Clear markings keep competitors from making wrong turns, and spectators from interfering with the competition, markings may include tape or ribbon on both sides of the course, chalk or paint on the ground, or cones. Some classes use colored flags to indicate directions, red flags for left turns, yellow flags for right turns, courses commonly include distance markings, usually at each kilometer or each mile. The course should have 400 to 1,200 m of level terrain before the first turn, to reduce contact, many courses at smaller competitions have their first turn after a much shorter distance. Courses for international competitions consist of a loop between 1750 and 2000 meters, athletes complete three to six loops, depending on the race. Senior men compete on a 12-kilometre course, senior women and junior men compete on an 8-kilometre course. Junior women compete on a 6-kilometre course, in the United States, college men typically compete on 8 km or 10 km courses, while college women race for 5 km or 6 km
Lacrosse is a contact team sport played between two teams using a small rubber ball and a long-handled stick called a crosse or lacrosse stick. The mens version is considered as a sport, with slashes and intense checks to the stick. The head of the stick is strung with loose mesh designed to catch. There are many different ways to put mesh on the head of the stick, known as stringing the stick. Offensively, the objective of the game is to score by shooting the ball into a goal past the goalie, using the lacrosse stick to catch, cradle. Defensively, the objective is to keep the team from scoring and to gain the ball through the use of stick checking. The sport has four types, mens field lacrosse, womens lacrosse. The sport consists of four positions, attack, long stick middies only play defense and come off of the field on offense. As a result of its origins, it is traditionally a Northeastern US, or east coast sport, but in recent years has grown into the South, Midwest. Lacrosse may have developed as early as 1100 AD among indigenous peoples on the North American continent.
By the seventeenth century, it was well-established and it was documented by Jesuit missionary priests in the territory of present-day Canada. The game has many modifications since that time. In the traditional aboriginal Canadian version, each consisted of about 100 to 1,000 men on a field that stretched from about 500 m to 3 km long. These games lasted from sunup to sundown for two to three days straight and these games were played as part of ceremonial ritual, a kind of symbolic warfare, to give thanks to the Creator or Master. Lacrosse played a significant role in the community and religious life of tribes across the continent for many years, early lacrosse was characterized by deep spiritual involvement, befitting the spirit of combat in which it was undertaken. Those who took part did so in the role of warriors, with the goal of bringing glory and honor to themselves, the game was said to be played for the Creator or was referred to as The Creators Game. The French Jesuit missionary Jean de Brébeuf saw Iroquois tribesmen play the game during 1637 in present-day New York and he was one of the first Europeans to write about the game.
The name seems to be originated from the French term for field hockey, a crosse in French is any stick curved at its end In 1855, William George Beers, a Canadian dentist, founded the Montreal Lacrosse Club
The Hotchkiss School is a private, coeducational, college preparatory boarding school in Lakeville, founded in 1891. The school offers an education with grades 9–12 and a postgraduate option. Hotchkiss has a highly competitive 18% admit rate, and one of the largest private school endowments in the country, in 1891, Maria Harrison Bissell Hotchkiss, with guidance from Yale President Timothy Dwight V, founded the school to prepare young men for Yale University. In 1892, Hotchkiss opened its doors to 50 male boarding students for $600, hotchkisss endowment precipitated scholarship aid to deserving students. In 1974, the school became coeducational, george Van Santvoord, a headmaster hailed as the Duke with an honorary dorm, claimed there was only one school rule, Be a gentleman. In 1954, TIME recognized in Education, The Duke Steps Down, Maria Hotchkiss was uninterested in establishing “a school for the pampered sons of rich gentlemen. ”The school has enrolled international students since 1896.
In 1928, the joined the English-Speaking Union and established the International Schoolboy Exchange. Established by the Class of 1948, the Fund for Global Understanding enables student participation in service projects across the world. In 1953, Hotchkiss alumnus Eugene Van Voorhis incorporated the Ulysses S, the school has a 43% diverse student body, offers a School Year Abroad program, and is a member of the Global Education Benchmark Group, Round Square, and Confucius Institute International Division. In 2010, Hotchkiss partnered with Peking University High School to establish its study abroad, operating on a semester schedule, the Hotchkiss School offers a classical education,224 courses,7 foreign languages, and study abroad programs. The year prior, the Deerfield Scroll featured that many consider the Hotchkiss School to be the leader in environmental awareness among the top schools in the country. The school has a 100% college matriculation rate, and among the Classes of 2011-14,33 enrolled at Yale,19 at Harvard, and 16 at Princeton.
In 2007, the Wall Street Journal listed Hotchkiss as among the schools with a success rate in matriculation at Harvard, Princeton. Its colors are Yale Blue and white, with the mascot being the bearcat, in 1933, Samuel Gottscho photographed the Hotchkiss baseball team, which appears in the Library of Congress Gottscho-Schleisner Collection. Similar boarding school include the Andover–Exeter rivalry and Choate-Deerfield rivalry. The school overlooks the Berkshires on a rural,827 acres campus featuring 13 single-sex dorms,2 lakes, and 1 forest. The Main Building serves as the academic and social center, featuring 30 SmartBoard classrooms, the Edsel Ford Memorial Library with 87, 000-volumes occupying 25,000 square feet, the school renovation project earned Robert A. M. Stern Architects the 2010 Palladio Award, with Paul Rudolph and Butler Rogers Basket contributing elements of modern architecture, when completed, farm trails will add an estimated three to five miles to the six or more that already traverse the Hotchkiss Woods
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe.
The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established and episkyros were Greek ball games.
An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Golf is a club and ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games and does not utilize a standardized playing area, the game is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes. Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, there are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, sand traps, and hazards but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement. Stroke play is the most commonly seen format at all levels, while the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the games ancient origins are unclear and much debated. Some historians trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica, one theory asserts that paganica spread throughout Europe as the Romans conquered most of the continent, during the first century BC, and eventually evolved into the modern game. Others cite chuiwan as the progenitor, a Chinese game played between the eighth and 14th centuries, the game is thought to have been introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages.
Another early game that resembled modern golf was known as cambuca in England, the Persian game chaugán is another possible ancient origin. In addition, kolven was played annually in Loenen, beginning in 1297, to commemorate the capture of the assassin of Floris V, a year earlier. The modern game originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James IIs banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery. James IV lifted the ban in 1502 when he became a golfer himself, with golf clubs first recorded in 1503-1504, to many golfers, the Old Course at St Andrews, a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage. In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes. Golf is documented as being played on Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, which is certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records. The oldest surviving rules of golf were compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers, renamed The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, Andrews Golf Club in Yonkers, New York.
The levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty, or to allow for putting in the case of the green, while many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing area to the green, some holes may bend either to the left or to the right. This is commonly called a dogleg, in reference to a dogs knee, the hole is called a dogleg left if the hole angles leftwards and dogleg right if it bends right. Sometimes, a holes direction may bend twice, this is called a double dogleg, a regular golf course consists of 18 holes, but nine-hole courses are common and can be played twice through for a full round of 18 holes. Early Scottish golf courses were laid out on links land. This gave rise to the golf links, particularly applied to seaside courses
Alpine skiing, or downhill skiing, is the sport or recreation of sliding down snow-covered hills on skis with fixed-heel bindings. It is typically practiced at ski resorts which provide such as ski lifts, artificial snow making and grooming, first aid. Back-country skiers use alpine skiing equipment to ski off the marked pistes, in cases with the assistance of snowmobiles. Alpine skiing has been an event at the Winter Olympic Games since 1936, as of 1994, there were estimated to be 55 million people worldwide, who engaged in Alpine skiing. Approximately 30 million of these were in Europe,15 million in the US, as of 1996, there were reportedly 4,500 ski areas, operating 26,000 ski lifts and enjoying skier visits. The preponderant region for downhills skiing was Europe, followed by Japan, a skier following the fall line will reach the maximum possible speed for that slope. A skier with skis pointed perpendicular to the line, across the hill instead of down it. The speed of descent down any given hill can be controlled by changing the angle of motion in relation to the fall line, downhill skiing technique focuses on the use of turns to smoothly turn the skis from one direction to another.
Good technique results in a motion from one descent angle to another one. This looks more like a series of Ss than turns followed by straight sections. The oldest and still form of alpine ski turn is the stem. In doing so, the ski pushes snow forward and to the side, the force backwards directly counteracts gravity, and slows the skier. The force to the sides, if unbalanced, will cause the skier to turn, carving is based on the shape of the ski itself, when the ski is rotated onto its edge, the pattern cut into its side causes it to bend into an arc. The contact between the arc of the ski edges and the snow naturally causes the ski to tend to move along that arc, slowing the skier, modern alpine skis are shaped to enable carve turning, and have evolved significantly since the 1980s. During the 1930s, the Kandahar binding was introduced, which could be locked down at the heel for the downhill portions, the Kandahar remained in widespread use until the 1960s. As more skiers took up the sport, especially in the 1950s, dr.
Richard Spademan saw 150 spiral fractures pass through his emergency department near Squaw Valley in three days, an event that led to the development of the Spademan binding. By the early 1950s, several safety bindings were on the market allowed the ski to come off when the ski twisted to the side. This helped reduce the incidence of spiral fractures, originally boots were cut low, just over the ankle, and soft laterally, both of which limited the amount of sideways rotating force that could be applied
Swimming is an individual or team sport that involves using arms and legs to move the body through water. Typically, the takes place in pools or in open-water. Competitive swimming is one of the most popular Olympic sports, with events in butterfly, breaststroke, freestyle, in addition to these individual events, swimmers take part in relays. Swimming each stroke requires specific techniques, and in competition, there are specific regulations concerning the form for different strokes. There are put in place to regulate what types of swimsuits are allowed at competitions. Although it is possible for competitive swimmers to incur several injuries from the sport, evidence of recreational swimming in prehistoric times has been found, with the earliest evidence dating to Stone Age paintings from around 10000 years ago. Written references date from 2000 BC, with some of the earliest references to swimming including the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Bible, the Quran and others. In 1538, Nikolaus Wynmann, a German professor of languages, wrote the first swimming book, Swimming emerged as a competitive recreational activity in the 1830s in England.
In 1828, the first indoor swimming pool, St Georges Baths was opened to the public, by 1837, the National Swimming Society was holding regular swimming competitions in six artificial swimming pools, built around London. In 1844 two Native American participants at a competition in London introduced the front crawl to a European audience. Sir John Arthur Trudgen picked up the stroke from some South American natives and successfully debuted the new stroke in 1873. His stroke is still regarded as the most powerful to use today, captain Matthew Webb was the first man to swim the English Channel, in 1875. Using the breaststroke technique, he swam the channel 21.26 miles in 21 hours and 45 minutes and his feat was not replicated or surpassed for the next 36 years, until T. W. Burgess made the crossing in 1911. Other European countries established swimming federations, Germany in 1882, France in 1890, the first European amateur swimming competitions were in 1889 in Vienna. The worlds first womens swimming championship was held in Scotland in 1892, mens swimming became part of the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens.
In 1902, the Australian Richmond Cavill introduced the front crawl to the Western world, in 1908, the world swimming association, Fédération Internationale de Natation, was formed. Womens swimming was introduced into the Olympics in 1912, the first international tournament for women outside the Olympics was the 1922 Womens Olympiad, Butterfly was developed in the 1930s and was at first a variant of breaststroke, until it was accepted as a separate style in 1952. Competitive swimming became popular in the 19th century, the goal of competitive swimming is to break personal or world records while beating competitors in any given event
Williston Northampton School
The 125-acre campus offers a range of extra-curricular activities in the arts and athletics. Located in the Pioneer Valley, the school is within 15 miles of Amherst, Mount Holyoke, the idea of opening a new academy in the neighborhood had been in the air ever since the closing in 1834 of the Round Hill School in nearby Northampton. In its early days, there was no arrangement of studies by terms, luther Wright, its principal from 1841 to 1849, believed it was desirable to have his pupils study together in a single room under his direction. However, the student population grew rapidly and the one-room schoolhouse scheme was soon no longer practicable, as more instructors. By the 1850s the schools campus was dominated by three buildings, North Hall, Middle Hall and South Hall. For many years the school was co-educational, with the divided and taught separately in male and female departments. The Seminary comprised two faculties and scientific, Samuel Williston remained the dominant influence in the schools growth until his death in 1874.
In the late 19th century the dual curricula had evolved into a modern comprehensive course. Williston Northampton encompasses the school and the upper school. The school had 535 students in the 2009-2010 academic year, including 78 in the middle school, the boarding students come from 25 states and 20 countries around the world. International students come from eastern Asia, the Middle East and Europe, every year, a dozen or so post-graduate students – students who have graduated from another high school but take an extra year before college – matriculate into the 12th grade. Williston employs 114 teachers, making for a ratio of approximately 4.75,1. The average class consists of 13 students, most teachers take on the roles of dorm parents and athletics coaches, fostering deep relationships with students. As of the 2013–14 academic year, the student body currently represents 22 different countries and 25 different states, many of the schools buildings and dorms are situated around the main quad.
In 1996, the gymnasium, originally built in 1924, was transformed into the Reed Campus Center. The Dodge room is the setting for many guest speakers and instrumental and choral concerts, after a fire destroyed the school’s theater in 1994, it was rebuilt adjacent to the science laboratories, Scott Hall. The Williston Theatre is a 288-seat performance space, among the improvements is the new theaters flexibility, the seating and stage areas can be moved to create a traditional theater with stage, a thrust-stage, or a theater-in-the-round. The theater boasts a fly system, high-tech computerized lighting system, upgraded sound system, downstairs are the new theater studio, costume shop, and dressing rooms
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to points by grounding a ball on the other teams court under organized rules. It has been a part of the program of the Summer Olympic Games since 1964. The receiving team must not let the ball be grounded within their court, the team may touch the ball up to 3 times but individual players may not touch the ball twice consecutively. The team that wins the rally is awarded a point, the ball is usually played with the hands or arms, but players can legally strike or push the ball with any part of the body. A number of consistent techniques have evolved in volleyball, including spiking and blocking as well as passing, the game took some of its characteristics from tennis and handball. Another indoor sport, was catching on in the area, having been invented just ten miles away in the city of Springfield, only four years before. Mintonette was designed to be a sport, less rough than basketball, for older members of the YMCA.
The first rules, written down by William G Morgan, called for a net 6 ft 6 in high, a 25 ft ×50 ft court, and any number of players. A match was composed of nine innings with three serves for each team in each inning, and no limit to the number of contacts for each team before sending the ball to the opponents court. In case of an error, a second try was allowed. Hitting the ball into the net was considered a foul —except in the case of the first-try serve, Volleyball rules were slightly modified by the International YMCA Training School and the game spread around the country to various YMCAs. The first official ball used in volleyball is disputed, some say that Spalding created the first official ball in 1896. In 1917, the game was changed from 21 to 15 points, in 1919, about 16,000 volleyballs were distributed by the American Expeditionary Forces to their troops and allies, which sparked the growth of volleyball in new countries. The first country outside the United States to adopt volleyball was Canada in 1900, an international federation, the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball, was founded in 1947, and the first World Championships were held in 1949 for men and 1952 for women.
The sport is now popular in Brazil, in Europe, in Russia, and in countries including China. Beach volleyball, a variation of the played on sand. Volleyball is a sport at the Paralympics managed by the World Organization Volleyball for Disabled, nudists were early adopters of the game with regular organized play in clubs as early as the late 1920s