English football league system
There are more than 140 individual leagues, containing more than 480 divisions. As there are no definitions of any level below 11, any references to the structure at level 12. The pyramid for womens football in England runs separately to nine tiers, the Football League was created in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor. It was dominated by clubs who had supported professionalism. The twelve founding members consisted of six from Lancashire and six from the Midlands, no sides from the South including London initially participated. The system consists of a pyramid of leagues, bound together by the principle of promotion and relegation. A certain number of the most successful clubs in each league can rise to a higher league, in addition to sporting performance, promotion is usually contingent on meeting criteria set by the higher league, especially concerning appropriate facilities and finances. In theory it is possible for a local amateur club to rise to the pinnacle of the English game and become champions of the Premier League. While this may be unlikely in practice, there certainly is significant movement within the pyramid, the top five levels contain one division each and are nationwide in scope. Below this, the levels have progressively more leagues, with each covering progressively smaller geographic areas. Many leagues have more than one division, at the lower levels the existence of leagues becomes intermittent, although in some of the more densely populated areas there are leagues more than twenty layers below the Premier League. Clubs from these leagues may, if they feel they meet the standard of play and have suitable facilities. The seven levels immediately below the Premier League and English Football League are known as the National League System, in May 2014 The Football Association announced provisional plans for a new division between the English Football League and the National League which would include B teams of higher level clubs. The English football league system does not include the version of the game often called Sunday league football. These leagues are independent entities with no promotion or relegation involving the football pyramid, however, some Sunday League clubs have been known to join pyramid leagues if they desire to progress higher. There are also some Saturday leagues such as the Lincolnshire League which are not officially part of the pyramid, at the top is the single division of the Premier League, containing 20 clubs, all of which, up to the 2010–11 season, were based in England. Below the Premier League is the English Football League, which is divided into three divisions of 24 clubs each, The Championship, League One and League Two, the 92 clubs in the Premier League and English Football League are all full-time professional clubs. They are often referred to as League clubs because, before the establishment of the Premier League in 1992, clubs outside this group are referred to as non-League clubs, although they too play most of their football in league-type competitions
Eastern Counties Football League
The Eastern Counties Football League, currently known as the Thurlow Nunn League for sponsorship purposes, is an English football league at levels 9 and 10 of the English football league system. It currently contains clubs from Norfolk, Suffolk, northern Essex and eastern Cambridgeshire, the first season commenced on 31 August 1935 and ended with Harwich and Lowestoft level at the top of the league with 26 points each. Although Lowestoft had a goal average, the championship was decided by a play-off match held at Layer Road on 29 August 1936. The match ended in a 3–3 draw and the two were declared joint champions and allowed to hold the trophy for six months each, at the end of the first season Ipswich left to join the Southern League and were replaced by their reserve team. At the end of the 1936–37 season there were concerns about the leagues viability, all five Essex clubs had left to join the newly established Essex County League, whilst Thetford had resigned after finishing bottom of the league, leaving only six remaining clubs. However, four new members were recruited, the following season the league expanded to 13 clubs as two of the Essex clubs rejoined. The 1939–40 season started on 26 August, but was abandoned after the outbreak of World War II, after the war ended in May 1945 a meeting was held in late June to see whether the league could be restarted. The league finally resumed for the 1946–47 season with ten clubs, the following season Gillingham reserves joined, becoming the only Kent-based club to ever play in the league. In 1951 the league gained its first Cambridgeshire club with the admission of Cambridge United, although a succession of clubs leaving the league saw it reduced to fourteen clubs by 1964, it quickly regained numbers and was back up to 18 members two years later. In 1976 the league was renamed the Eastern League, but returned to its name six years later. The league was among the first to be sponsored by a company when, in the late 1970s, it was sponsored by local building societies Magnet and Planet. More recently it has sponsored by building supplies company Jewson, Ridgeons. There had been discussions about adding a second division to the league since its formation. However, it was delayed by the Football Association at the request of the Essex Senior League. The idea was resurrected during the 1987–88 season and a meeting was held to discuss it on 22 November 1987, the league contacted 21 clubs who were considered potential members, of which fifteen were interested in joining. A further four clubs were contacted and another asked for details, ultimately fourteen clubs applied to join the league, eight from the Peterborough & District League, three from the Anglian Combination and three from the Essex & Suffolk Border League. Sixty-six clubs have played in the Eastern Counties League, including several reserve. The leagues geographical span has previously stretched from Gillingham in Kent in the south to Boston in Lincolnshire in the north, in the 1940s and 1950s it contained up to four A teams from London
Promotion and relegation
In sports leagues, promotion and relegation is a process where teams are transferred between two divisions based on their performance for the completed season. In some leagues, playoffs or qualifying rounds are used to determine rankings. This process can continue through several levels of divisions, with teams being exchanged between levels 1 and 2, levels 2 and 3, levels 3 and 4, the number of teams exchanged between the divisions is almost always identical. Such variations will almost inevitably cause an effect through the lower divisions. Even in the absence of such circumstances, the pyramid-like nature of most European football league systems can still create knock-on effects at the regional level. The system is said to be the characteristic of the European form of professional sports league organization. Promotion and relegation have the effect of allowing the maintenance of a hierarchy of leagues and divisions and they also maintain the importance of games played by many low-ranked teams near the end of the season, which may be at risk of relegation. In contrast, a low-ranked US or Canadian teams final games serve little purpose, although not intrinsic to the system, problems can occur due to the differing monetary payouts and revenue-generating potential that different divisions provide to their clubs. For example, financial hardship has sometimes occurred in leagues where clubs do not reduce their wage bill once relegated, some leagues offer parachute payments to its relegated teams for the following year. The payouts are higher than the money received by some non-relegated teams and are designed to soften the financial hit that clubs take whilst dropping out of the Premier League. However, in many cases these parachute payments just serve to inflate the costs of competing for promotion among the lower division clubs as newly relegated teams retain a financial advantage. If these are not satisfied, a team may be promoted in their place. While the primary purpose of the system is to maintain competitive balance. On several occasions, the Italian Football Federation has relegated clubs found to have involved in match-fixing. This occurred most recently in 2006, when the initial champions Juventus were relegated to Serie B. An exception is the proposed UEFA Nations League, which will feature promotion and relegation across four levels, in tennis, the Davis Cup has promotion and relegation where each group uses a knockout tournament format in which first-round losers play off to avoid relegation. In the United States, Canada, and Australia, teams are not promoted or relegated. The USL set up two leagues, now known as the United Soccer League and the Premier Development League, although the system is now in place, it is not compulsory and is rarely used
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Suffolk is an East Anglian county of historic origin in England. It has borders with Norfolk to the north, Cambridgeshire to the west, the North Sea lies to the east. The county town is Ipswich, other important towns include Lowestoft, Bury St Edmunds, Newmarket and Felixstowe, the county is low-lying with very few hills, and is largely arable land with the wetlands of the Broads in the north. The Suffolk Coast and Heaths are an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, by the fifth century, the Angles had established control of the region. The Angles later became the folk and the south folk. Suffolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, Suffolk was originally divided into four separate Quarter Sessions divisions. In 1860, the number of divisions was reduced to two, the eastern division was administered from Ipswich and the western from Bury St Edmunds. Under the Local Government Act 1888, the two divisions were made the administrative counties of East Suffolk and West Suffolk, Ipswich became a county borough. A few Essex parishes were added to Suffolk, Ballingdon-with-Brundon and parts of Haverhill. On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, East Suffolk, West Suffolk, the county was divided into several local government districts, Babergh, Forest Heath, Ipswich, Mid Suffolk, St. Edmundsbury, Suffolk Coastal, and Waveney. This act also transferred some land near Great Yarmouth to Norfolk, in 2007, the Department for Communities and Local Government referred Ipswich Borough Councils bid to become a new unitary authority to the Boundary Committee. The Boundary Committee consulted local bodies and reported in favour of the proposal and it was not, however, approved by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government. Beginning in February 2008, the Boundary Committee again reviewed local government in the county, West Suffolk, like nearby East Cambridgeshire, is renowned for archaeological finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age. Bronze Age artefacts have been found in the area between Mildenhall and West Row, in Eriswell and in Lakenheath, other finds include traces of cremations and barrows. The majority of agriculture in Suffolk is either arable or mixed, Farm sizes vary from anything around 80 acres to over 8,000. Soil types vary from clays to light sands. The continuing importance of agriculture in the county is reflected in the Suffolk Show, although latterly somewhat changed in nature, this remains primarily an agricultural show. Below is a chart of regional gross value added of Suffolk at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling, well-known companies in Suffolk include Greene King and Branston Pickle in Bury St Edmunds
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
National League System
The National League System comprises the seven levels of the English football league system immediately below the level of the Premier League and the English Football League. It contains 84 league competitions and more than 1,600 clubs and it comes under the jurisdiction of The Football Association. The National League System has a format with promotion and relegation between leagues at different levels. For details of leagues above and below the National League System, the system underwent a rearrangement from 2004 to 2008. Phase one went into operation in 2004–05, at the start of the 2006–07 season, phase two was introduced, and a further phase three started from 2007–08 with the starting of a second Step 4 league in the north of England. At the top of the National League System pyramid is the National League and its top division, also called the National League, is the only division in the System which is organised on a national rather than regional basis. Although the National League is the top level of the non-league pyramid, below the National League, the layers have progressively more leagues and cover ever smaller geographical areas. Some leagues have more than one division, at the lower levels the existence of leagues becomes intermittent, although in some areas there are as many as twenty layers. All the leagues are bound together by the principle of promotion and relegation, clubs that are successful in their league can rise higher in the pyramid, whilst those that finish at the bottom can find themselves sinking further down. In theory it is possible for a local amateur club to rise to the pinnacle of the English game and become champions of the Premier League. While this may be unlikely in practice, there certainly is significant movement within the pyramid, in particular, clubs that hope to be promoted from Step 5 leagues to Step 4 must apply in advance to be assessed for whether they meet the grading requirements. The teams must then also finish in the top 3 in their league to be considered for promotion, which is not automatic. For instance, in the 2005–06 season 100 clubs applied to be considered for promotion, of which 51 met the grading requirements, under the direction of The Football Association, the National League System evolved over many years. Todays pyramid can be said to be twenty years old. Leagues have formed and dissolved over the years and reorganisations have taken every few years as a result. The Conference North and South have since renamed the National League North and South. This table includes the seven steps of the National League System, above the NLS are the Premier League and the English Football League. Two teams from the National League can be promoted to EFL League Two at the end of each season and this structure was the result of changes made after the 2005–06 season
Whitton United F.C.
Whitton United F. C. is an English football club based in the Whitton area of Ipswich, Suffolk. The club are members of the Eastern Counties League Division One. The club is affiliated to the Suffolk County FA, although a Whitton United existed in the late 19th century, the modern club was established in 1926 and initially played on a pitch behind the Whitton Crown pub. They won the Suffolk Minor Cup 2–0 in their first season, after two seasons they moved to another ground behind the Whitton Maypole pub, and later to the King George V Playing Fields. In 1959 they won the cup, beating Bungay Town 3–0 and they won the Senior Division again in 1965–66 and 1967–68, but then switched to the Essex & Suffolk Border League. After struggling during the 1970s, they were relegated and dropped into Division Two of the Ipswich & District League, in the late 1980s and early 1990s the club won Division Two and Division One to return to the Senior Division. In 1992 they won the Suffolk Senior Cup for a time, beating Long Melford 2–0. After winning it again in 1994–95 the club were promoted to Division One of the Eastern Counties League, former Plymouth player Ronnie Mauge joined the club as manager in 2005, but resigned in 2007. In 2007–08 they finished third in the league and were promoted to the Premier Division, however, in early January 2009 the club that they would be unable to fulfil their first team fixtures and would be withdrawing from the league. Despite their withdrawal, the club rejoined the league in Division One the following season, in 2010–11 they won the Senior Cup again, defeating Lakenheath 1–0 in the final. They also finished second in the league, but were not promoted due to ground grading issues, the following season the club retained the Senior Cup with a 2–1 win over Long Melford. In 2013–14 they were promoted to the Premier Division after winning the Division One title, however, they were relegated back to Division One after finishing bottom of the division in 2015–16
Sudbury Town F.C.
Sudbury Town Football Club was an English football club based in Sudbury, Suffolk. Established in 1885, the merged with Sudbury Wanderers in 1999 to form A. F. C. Sudbury F. C. were in existence in 1884 but were not officially established until 1885, in 1894 they joined the West Suffolk League and won it in 1896–87. In 1900 they merged with Sudbury Wanderers to form Sudbury United, in 1903 they also joined the Haverhill & District League, winning it in 1905–06. At the end of season they left the West Suffolk League. In 1908 they were renamed Sudbury Town and entered a team into a third league, in 1909 they left all three leagues and rejoined the West Suffolk League and the Bury & District League, winning the West Suffolk League again in 1910–11. In 1912 they left both leagues and rejoined the East Anglian League and the Essex & Suffolk Border League. After World War I the club entered teams to several leagues, playing in the Haverhill & District League from 1919 until 1922 and again from 1928 until 1933, winning it in 1930–31. They also rejoined the Bury & District League in 1919, leaving in 1921, rejoining in 1923 and leaving in 1928 and they were champions in 1925–26 and 1935–36. In 1921 they joined the Ipswich & District League for the first time and they rejoined in 1931, were champions in 1934–35, and left in 1936. In 1922 the club rejoined the Essex & Suffolk Border League, which played in until 1931. They won its Knockout Cup in 1938–39, following World War II the club joined the Haverhill & District League and the Essex & Suffolk Border League, but left the former after a single season. They won the Border League in 1948–49 and again in 1949–50 when they won the Knockout Cup. Charlie Hurst, father of Geoff, was player-manager in early 1950s, in 1951 they applied to join the Eastern Counties League, but were unsuccessful. They won the league for the three seasons and each time applied again to the ECL, but were unsuccessful on each occasion. In 1952–53 they also won the Suffolk & Ipswich League, despite only finishing fifth in the league, a fifth application at the end of the 1954–55 season saw the club win admission, defeating Holbeach United by a single vote. In 1956–57 they won the Suffolk Senior Cup and in 1969–70 they won the League Cup, in 1972–73 they won the Suffolk Premier Cup for the first time, beating Bury Town 4–0. The following season won the Eastern Counties League for the first time
Hadleigh United F.C.
Hadleigh United Football Club is a football club based in Hadleigh, Suffolk, England. The club are members of the Eastern Counties League Premier Division. The club was founded in 1892 and joined Division Three, Section A of the Suffolk & Ipswich League in 1929, for the 1930–31 season the club was moved to Division Two, Section B, and the following season to Division Two, Section A. After finishing second in 1935–36, they were promoted to Division One, however, after finishing bottom in 1937–38, the club were relegated back to Division Two, Section A. After World War II the club returned to the SIL, playing in Division Three, in 1954 they moved to their current ground, the Millfield, though they were not allowed to play there in 1964 due to an unsatisfactory pitch, and problems with stones. The club dropped out of the SIL during the 1964–65 season, in 1968–69 the club won the Suffolk Senior Cup, beating Westerfield 3–2 in the final. They won it again in 1971–72 with a 1–0 victory over ICI Paints, the following season the club won the SIL for the first time. The 1976–77 season saw the win the double, finishing as champions. They won the league for a time in 1978–79. More league cups were won in 1980–81, 1981–82 and 1986–87, in 1991 the club joined Division One of the Eastern Counties League. They won the division in 1993–94 to earn promotion to the Premier Division, in the same season, floodlights were erected at the ground. However, after finishing 22nd out of 23 in 1996–97, the returned to Division One. The club won the Suffolk Senior Cup for a time in 2003–04. In 2008–09 they finished runners-up in Division One and were promoted back to the Premier Division, in 2013–14 the club won the Eastern Counties League title for the first time
Woodbridge Town F.C.
Woodbridge Town F. C. is an English football club based in Woodbridge, Suffolk. The club are members of the Eastern Counties League Division One. Woodbridge Town F. C. was formed at a meeting held on 23 July 1885, the clubs first match, against St Helens of Ipswich, resulted in a 10–0 victory. In 1908–09 they won the Junior Cup by beating RFA Ipswich 2–1 and they won the Junior Cup again in 1927, beating Southwold Town 4–2. In 1929 they reached the final of the Senior Cup, but lost 5–0 to Ipswich Town The club struggled to find a permanent home and they won Division One of the Ipswich and District League and the Junior Cup in 1970–71. In 1977–78 they won the Senior Cup, beating Cranes 2–1 and they were relegated in 1982–83, but returned to the Senior Division as Division One champions in 1986–87, also winning the Junior Cup. They won the Senior Division in 1988–89, and were promoted to the newly established Division One of the Eastern Counties League. In 1990 the club bought a new ground to replace Kingston Field, in 1993 the club won the Senior Cup again, beating Stonham Aspal 5–2. The following season the club retained the cup, beating Saxmundham Sports 4–0, as well as finishing second in Division One and earning promotion to the Premier Division. In the same season also won the Harwich Charity Cup. In 1998 the club won the League Cup again, beating Warboys Town 4–2 in the final
Needham Market F.C.
Needham Market Football Club is an English football club based in Needham Market, Suffolk. The club are members of the Isthmian League Premier Division as of the 2016-17 season. Although records show the existence of a Needham Market Football Club during the late 1890s and they later moved to Crowley Park, and joined the Suffolk & Ipswich League, winning Division Two in 1946–47 and Division One in 1952–53. They won the League Cup in 1978 and again in 1980, the Suffolk Junior Cup was won in 1985, and the Suffolk Senior Cup in 1990. In 1995–96 the club won the Senior Division, and were promoted to Division One of the Eastern Counties League, the club finished runners-up in 2004–05 and were promoted to the Premier Division, winning the Senior Cup in the same season. A new record crowd of 750 was set for a Suffolk Premier Cup match against Ipswich Town reserves during the 2006–07 season, in which they also won the East Anglian Cup. The following season the club won the Suffolk Premier Cup and the League Cup, as well as reaching the semi-finals of the FA Vase, a new record attendance of 1,375 was set during the home leg. In 2009–10 the club won the Premier Division of the Eastern Counties League, in their first season in Division One, Needham finished as runners-up, but lost 3–1 at home to Brentwood Town in the play-off semi-finals. The following season the finished third and reached the play-off final. In 2014-15, they won Division One North and were promoted to the Isthmian League Premier Division for the first time, in 2013 the clubs reserve team joined Division One of the Eastern Counties League
Walsham le Willows Football Club is a football club based in the village of Walsham-le-Willows in Suffolk, England. The club are members of the Eastern Counties League Premier Division. The club is affiliated to the Suffolk County FA, Walsham-le-Willows F. C. was founded around 1890, and played at the Sumner Road sports ground where there was a pavilion with a thatched roof. During World War II, the ground was ploughed up to food and was not returned to sports use until 1951. The club was a member of the St. Edmundsbury Football League in 1907. After winning several titles, the club switched to the Suffolk. It won the Senior Division in 2001–02 and again in 2002–03, in the following season, the club finished second, but earned promotion to Division One of the Eastern Counties League. The club finished fourth in their first season in the division and they also reached the final of the Suffolk Senior Cup, losing 2–1 to Needham Market. The following season, they reached the final again, this time beating Capel Plough 4–3 after extra time, in 2006–07 the club won Division One, and were promoted to the Premier Division. C
Debenham LC F.C.
Debenham Leisure Centre Football Club is a football club based in the village of Debenham, in Suffolk, England. The club are members of the Eastern Counties League Division One. The club was founded as Debenham Angels in 1991 and joined Division Seven of the Suffolk & Ipswich League, after an unbeaten first season, they won the division and were promoted to Division Six. In 1993–94 they were promoted again to Division Five and they were renamed AFC Debenham in 1994. They were promoted to Division Four at the end of the 1995–96 season, the club won Division Four at the first attempt, and were promoted to Division Three, which they won in 1999–2000. In 2000–01 they were promoted to Division One, however, after missing out on promotion to the Senior Division in 2001–02, the following season they narrowly avoided being relegated back to Division Two in 2002–03. After Mel Aldis was appointed manager in the summer of 2003, the title was claimed following a 10–0 win against Ipswich Exiles to overtake Framlingham Town on goal difference. In their first season in the Senior Division Debenham finished runners-up to East Bergholt United, upon moving up the club adopted their current name. They were relegated back to Division One after finishing bottom of the Premier Division in 2010-11, in 2013–14 the club won the Division One Knockout Cup, beating Whitton United 2–0 in the final
Suffolk County Football Association
The Suffolk County Football Association is the governing body for football in the county of Suffolk, England. There were 41 registered referees shown in the County handbook for the 1903–1904 season, in the same 1903–1904 handbook there are 100 clubs shown, that were affiliated to the Association, compared with today’s figure of over 600. Key dates in the history of the Association are provided below,1898 – In 1898 a County Fixture was held against Aston Villa, the gate receipts for this game was £238 5s. 4d. in comparison the Senior Cup Final of 1905 realised gate receipts of £48 12s. 1907–14 – The period 1907 to 1914 saw the years of “the split” when there were two associations, one affiliated to the F. A. and the other to the A. F. A, in 1914 the F. A. and A. F. A. Effected a compromise which resulted in the association being again a harmonious,1935 – On 20 March 1935 Suffolk County Football Association held its Jubilee celebration, amongst the guests was Stanley Rouse, later to become Sir Stanley. In addition to J. W. Yallop the County has only had four other Hon. Secretaries since the Second World War, collings, W. M. Steward and Martin Head. Brown was made a member of this association in 1980. 1985 – A Centenary Banquet was held at Ipswich Moat House on 30 September 1985 to celebrate its 100th birthday, President of FIFA and Hon. Vice-President of the Football Association, proposed the toast to the SCFA. 2000 – The Suffolk County Football Association became a Limited Company in 2000,2003 – In July 2003, Martin Head became the first salaried Secretary in the Associations history. 2005 – Suffolk defeated Hampshire 2 –1 at Portman Road and this was actually the Countys first ever Cup Final appearance. 2006 – In 2006, all disciplinary administration transferred from volunteers to staff at the Associations HQ.2007 – Suffolks 2nd FA County Youth Cup Final appearance was in April 2007, Suffolk drew 1 –1 with West Riding after extra time at Valley Parade, Bradford. However, West Riding won the match 4 –3 on penalties, today the Association is served by President G. S. Blake and Chairman David Porter in addition to the board of Directors, Honorary Officers and the members of Council. The Suffolk FA is committed to developing the game at every level and they are keen to develop partnerships to promote the benefits of football and improve the facilities where football is played. Football Services is a function of the County Football Association. The Suffolk FA Football Services Department offers advice on all aspects, the Suffolk Senior Cup is a county cup competition involving senior teams affiliated to the Suffolk County Football Association
East Anglian Daily Times
The East Anglian Daily Times is a British local newspaper for Suffolk and Essex, based in Ipswich. It started publication on 13 October 1874, incorporating the Ipswich Express, the current editor is Terry Hunt. The East Anglian Daily Times merged news operations with the Ipswich Star in 2010, under the stewardship of chief executive of Archant Suffolk, the paper is published daily from Monday to Saturday in four regional editions, West Suffolk, North Suffolk, East Suffolk and Essex. In the period December 2010-June 2011, it had a daily circulation of 29,932. The East Anglian Daily Times Company merged with Eastern Counties Newspapers in the 1960s, the group is now part of Archant
Brantham Athletic F.C.
Brantham Athletic Football Club is a football club based in Brantham, Suffolk, England. They are currently members of the Eastern Counties League Premier Division, founded in 1887, the club were founder members of the Ipswich & District League in 1896. However, despite finishing as runners-up in the first season, they left the league at its end, the club returned to Division Two of the league in 1898 and won the division at the first attempt. However, they withdrew midway through the following season, the club adopted the name Brantham Crown for some time and returned to Division One of the Ipswich & District League in 1905. In 1906 they reverted to their name, and the following year left the Ipswich & District League again to join Division Two of the South East Anglian League. They returned to Division One of the Ipswich & District League for the 1908–09 season, but left again in 1910 to join the Harwich & District League. After World War I the club played in the Ipswich & District League from 1919 until 1925 and that year they also switched back to the Essex & Suffolk Border League. The club won the Senior Cup in 1927 with a 3–0 win over Lowestoft Town, after finishing bottom of the Essex & Suffolk Border League in 1931–32 they returned to the Ipswich & District League. After World War II they rejoined the Essex & Suffolk Border League and they won the Essex & Suffolk Border League League Cup in 1948–49, beating Colchester United 4–0 in the final. The club won the Senior Cup for a time in 1959–60. In 1972–73 they won the Essex & Suffolk Border League and retained the title the following season, in 1975–76 they won the league again, also winning the League Cup and the Senior Cup. A league and League Cup double was repeated the following season, the club applied to join the Eastern Counties League in 1977, but were rejected as the ECL secretary claimed that they wouldnt attract people to watch them in other parts of the region. However, the year they were successful and were admitted to the league. The following season won the Suffolk Premier Cup, beating Lowestoft Town 2–0. When the league gained a second tier in 1988, the club was placed in the Premier Division, however, they were relegated to Division One in 1992–93 after finishing second from bottom. Two years later they were relegated to the Suffolk & Ipswich League after finishing out of 19 clubs. Suffering from financial problems, the merged with SIL club Stutton to become Brantham & Stutton United. After winning the League Cup in 1997, the club reverted to its old name in 1998 and they were relegated to Division One in 1999–2000, and despite making an immediate return to the Senior Division, they were relegated again the following season
Ipswich Town F.C.
Ipswich Town Football Club is a professional association football club based in Ipswich, Suffolk, England. They play in the Championship, the tier of the English football league system. The club was founded in 1878 but did not turn professional until 1936 and they play their home games at Portman Road in Ipswich. The clubs traditional colours are blue shirts and white shorts. Ipswich have won the English league title once, in their first season in the top flight in 1961–62 and they won the FA Cup in 1977–78, and the UEFA Cup in 1980–81. They have competed in the top two tiers of English football uninterrupted since 1957–58. They have competed in all three European club competitions, and have never lost at home in European competition, defeating Real Madrid, AC Milan, Internazionale, Lazio and Barcelona F. C. among others. The club was founded as a side in 1878 and were known as Ipswich A. F. C. until 1888 when they merged with Ipswich Rugby Club to form Ipswich Town Football Club. The team won a number of cup competitions, including the Suffolk Challenge Cup. The club won the league a further three times, in 1929–30, 1932–33 and 1933–34, before becoming members of the Eastern Counties Football League at the end of the 1934–35 season. A year later, the club turned professional and joined the Southern League, Ipswich were elected to The Football League on 30 May 1938, and played in Division Three until the end of the 1953–54 season, when they won the title and promotion to Division Two. The club won the Division Three title again in 1956–57, and this time, Ipswich established themselves in Division Two, and as the division champions, won promotion to the top level of English football, Division One, in 1960–61. In the top flight for the first time, Ipswich became Champions of the Football League at the first attempt in 1961–62, as English league champions, they qualified for the 1962–63 European Cup, defeating Maltese side Floriana 14–1 on aggregate before losing to Milan. Ramsey quit the club in April 1963 to take charge of the England national team, after the team won the 1966 World Cup, Ramsey was replaced by Jackie Milburn, under whose leadership fortunes on the pitch plummeted. Milburn quit after just one season and was replaced by Bill McGarry in 1964. McGarry left to manage Wolves and was replaced by Bobby Robson in January 1969, Robson led Ipswich to two major trophies and several seasons in top flight European football. The successful period began in 1973 when the won the Texaco Cup and finished fourth in the league. Ipswich regularly featured in the top five of the league and in the UEFA Cup, at their peak in the 1979–80 season, they beat Manchester United 6–0 in a league game at Portman Road, a game where United goalkeeper Gary Bailey also saved three penalties
Ransomes Sports F.C.
Ransomes Sports Football Club is a football club based in Ipswich, Suffolk, England. The club are members of the Suffolk & Ipswich League Senior Division and play at the Ransomes. The original Ransomes were established as Orwell Works, the team of the Ransomes engineering company. They played in the Suffolk & Ipswich League, winning the three seasons in succession between 1904–05 and 1906–07. C. After winning the Suffolk Senior Cup in 1979, They won the Senior Division and Senior Cup double in 1980–81, in 1986 they became RSSC Ransomes, and won the league again in 1986–87. They also entered the FA Vase for several seasons during the 1980s, reaching the round in 1982–83. The club folded at the end of the 1994–95 season, after the original football club folded, the Ransomes Sports Club invited Rushmere Athletic to take over at the ground. Rushmere had been established as Fisons F. C. in 1948, the club was renamed Ramsomes Sports in 1997. In 1998–99 they finished runners-up in Division Two, and were promoted to Division One and they were promoted again the following season, earning a place in the Senior Division. Although they were relegated back to Division One soon after, they were promoted to the Senior Division again in 2003–04, in 2011–12 the club was relegated back to Division One, and were relegated again to Division Two at the end of the 2013–14 season. The club won the League Cup in 2005–06, 2008–09 and 2009–10
Stowmarket Town F.C.
Stowmarket Town FC is an English football club based in Stowmarket, Suffolk. The club are members of the Eastern Counties League Division One. The club was founded as Stowmarket Association F. C. in 1883 by a merger of Stowmarket St Peter, originally playing at the Cricket Meadow, their first match was against Needham Market School. The club were members of the Suffolk County Football Association in 1885. By the late 1800s the club had dropped the word Association from its name and they joined the newly formed Ipswich & District League in 1896, and won the title in its first two seasons and again in 1899–1900. In 1907 they won the Suffolk Junior Cup, beating Westbourne Mills 5–1 and they won the title again in 1921–22, before transferring to the Essex & Suffolk Border League in 1925. In 1931 the club won the Suffolk Senior Cup for the first time and they won it for a second time in 1933, beating Kirkley 5–2, and again the following season, with a 3–0 win over Bury Town. At the end of the 1936–37 season the club disbanded due financial difficulties, after World War II local club Stowupland Corinthians began playing at the Cricket Meadows, and joined the Border League in 1946. In the summer of 1947 the clubs name was changed to Stowmarket Corinthians, after legal advice, it was changed for a third time, to Stowmarket F. C. The League Cup and the Senior Cup were won again in 1951–52, in 1957–58 they won the Senior Cup again, beating Newmarket Town 2–0. They won the trophy for a time in 1961–62, beating Brantham Athletic 2–0. The following year entered the Suffolk Premier Cup and won it. In 1983 they were renamed Stowmarket Town, and a year moved to Greens Meadow. The club won the Premier Cup again in 1986, beating Lowestoft 1–0, and in 1991, at the end of the 2004–05 season the club were relegated to Division One, where they have remained since. After a hiatus of over forty years, the won the Senior Cup again in 2007. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Romford in the FA Amateur Cup, 1951–521,200 vs. Ipswich Town XI in a friendly match, 1994–95 Official website Stowmarket Town at the Football Club History Database
Leiston Football Club is an English football club based in Leiston, Suffolk. The club are members of the Isthmian League Premier Division as of the 2016-17 season. They reached the final of the Suffolk Senior Cup in 1892,1897 and 1904, losing on each occasion, in 1894 they joined the North Suffolk League, which they played in until 1909. In 1900 they also joined the Ipswich & District League and were champions in their first three seasons, in 1904 they transferred to the South East Anglian League, but left in 1907 before rejoining in 1911. Between 1912 and 1914 they also played in the Ipswich & District League, after World War I the club was reformed as Leiston Works Athletic and rejoined the Ipswich & District League and the East Anglian League. In 1920 they left the EAL and joined the Essex & Suffolk Border League, at the end of the 1920–21 season they left both the IDL and ESBL to join the Norfolk & Suffolk League before rejoining the IDL in 1926. After finishing bottom of the table in 1934–35 they were reformed as Leiston and they won all seventeen league matches in 1937–38 and were promoted to Division One after defeating Division 2A winners Manningtree Rovers in a play-off. In 1948 they rejoined the Norfolk & Suffolk League, but transferred back to the Ipswich & District League in 1953, after finishing bottom of the Senior Division in 1981–82 they were relegated, and the following season finished below local side Leiston St Margarets. However, they did win the Junior Cup, retaining it in 1983–84 when they won the Division One title and were promoted back to the Senior Division. They then spent several years as a yo yo club as they were relegated in 1988–89, promoted back in 1989–90, relegated again in 1991–92, after finishing third in 2000–01 they stepped up to Division One of the Eastern Counties League. In 2003–04, they finished third, and were promoted to the Premier Division, in the same season they beat Brentwood Town on penalties to win the East Anglian Cup. In the 2008–09 season the club reached the first round of the FA Cup for the first time after beating Conference club Lewes 3–1 in a replay, in the first round, the club was drawn at home to Conference North club Fleetwood Town. After drawing 0–0 in front of a crowd of 1,250. In 2010–11 Leiston won the Eastern Counties League Premier Division, earning promotion to Division One North of the Isthmian League, in 2011–12 Leiston won the Isthmian League Division One North, achieving back-to-back promotions, moving up to the Isthmian League Premier Division. Leiston initially played at the old Recreation Ground, today known as Park Hill, in 1921 they moved to their current ground on Victory Road, then known as the Leiston Works Athletic Association, after Garretts bought the ground. It was later renamed the Leiston Town Athletic Association
Felixstowe & Walton United F.C.
Felixstowe and Walton United Football Club is a football club based in Felixstowe, Suffolk, England. Formed in 2000 by a merger of Felixstowe Port & Town and Walton United, Felixstowe F. C. were officially formed in 1890, although there are records of the club dating back to 1888. They were founder members of the Ipswich & District League in 1896, in 1900 they were relegated to Division Two of the league, and left at the end of the following season. They rejoined Division One in 1902 under the name Felixstowe Town and were champions in 1910–11. They left the league again at the end of the following season and they won their second title in 1936–37. After World War II the club merged with neighbours Walton United to form Felixstowe United and they won the league for a third time in 1957–58 and a fourth in 1964–65. In 1966 they switched to the Essex & Suffolk Border League, in 1966–67 they won the Suffolk Senior Cup with a 3–2 over Oulton Broad. They won it for a time in 1974–75. After finishing as Essex & Suffolk Border League Premier Division runners-up in 1974–75 and 1975–76, in 1996 the club was renamed Felixstowe Port & Town. Walton United were established in 1895 and joined Division Two of the Ipswich & District League in 1901 and they joined the amateur version of the league in 1912. They won the title in 1920–21 and in 1922 they were renamed Walton & Felixstowe. They won a title in 1925–26. In 1947 they merged with Felixstowe Town, but were reformed in 1950, by 1979 they had dropped into Division Four, but after several promotions they returned to the top division in 1994. They won the Suffolk Senior Cup in 1998–99, the two clubs reunited in 2000 to establish the modern club, taking Port & Towns place in the Eastern Counties League Premier Division. However, at the end of the 2001–02 season they finished twenty-first out of twenty-two clubs and they returned to the Premier Division after as finishing runners-up in Division One in 2005–06. C
Harwich & Parkeston F.C.
Harwich & Parkeston Football Club is an English football club based in Harwich, Essex. The club are members of the Essex & Suffolk Border League Premier Division. The club was established in 1877, and reached their first cup final in 1891, in 1898 they moved to the Royal Oak ground and also reached the final of the FA Amateur Cup, losing 1–0 to Stockton. However, they did win the Essex Senior Cup, beating Leytonstone, the club were founder members of the South East Anglian League in 1903 and were runners-up in its first season. However, they finished bottom of the league the following season and they played in the league until 1910, but also joined the Essex & Suffolk Border League, which they won in 1908–09, 1913–14, 1920–21, 1921–22, 1922–23, 1928–29, 1931–32, 1932–33 and 1933–34. In 1934–35 the club reached the first round of the FA Cup, in 1935 the club became founder members of the Eastern Counties League, and shared the first championship with Lowestoft Town. The following season reached the FA Cup first round again. In 1937 the club left the Eastern Counties League to play in the Essex County League, which won at the first attempt. In 1938 a record attendance of 5,649 was set during the Amateur Cup quarter final match against Romford and they reached the final of the Amateur Cup in 1953, but lost 6–0 to Pegasus at Wembley Stadium in front of a crowd of 100,000. The following season reached the FA Cup first round again. The first round was reached again in 1961–62 and 1963–64, in 1964 the club joined Division Two of the Athenian League. Champions in their first season, they were promoted to Division One, after finishing runners-up the following season, the club were promoted to the Premier Division. They remained at that level until 1973, when switched to Division Two of the Isthmian League. With a third-place finish in 1976–77 they were promoted to Division One, also reaching the first round of the FA Cup again, where they lost 3–0 at home to Enfield in a replay after a 0–0 draw. However, they were relegated in 1979–80 and after finishing bottom in 1982–83 the club dropped into the Athenian League for one season, in 2002–03 they were relegated to Division One of the Eastern Counties League, but finished runners-up in their first season to make an immediate return. They remained in the Premier Division until resigning on 9 February 2010, in 2014 the club disbanded its reserve team, and dropped into Division One of the Border League for the 2014–15 season. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Newmarket Town F.C.
Newmarket Town Football Club is an English football club based in Newmarket, Suffolk. The club are members of the Eastern Counties League Premier Division. The club is affiliated to the Suffolk County FA, the club was formed on 22 November 1877, and played their first game against Pembroke College. They initially played on the heath, until moving to Cricket Field Road in 1885, in 1920 the club won the Cambridgeshire Senior League and the Cambridgeshire Senior Cup. They moved into the Bury and District League, which won in 1926–27. The club then moved into the Suffolk and Ipswich League, winning the title in 1931–32, 1932–33 and 1933–34, in 1937 the club was admitted to the Eastern Counties League. The club finished bottom during the 1937–38 season, but was not demoted, during World War II, Stan Mortensen, later of England and Blackpool fame, played for the club as a guest player. They dropped into the Peterborough and District League, after winning it in 1957–58, they returned to the ECL in 1959. During the 1990s the club saw a period of success in the Suffolk Premier Cup, during 2007 the club was managed by former Cambridge United player John Taylor, but they were relegated at the end of the 2007–08 season. In 2008–09 the club won Division One, and were promoted back to the Premier Division, in 2011–12 they were relegated back to Division One. In 2012–13 they finished second in Division One and were promoted to the Premier Division, players that have played/managed in the Football League or any foreign equivalent to this level. Players that hold a record or have captained the club. Mark Atkins Stevie Chalmers Michael Denton Harry Dukes Johnny Gavin Mick Lambert Bert Williams Club website Newmarket Town at the Football Club History Database
Royal Naval Training Establishment Shotley, known in the Royal Navy as HMS Ganges, was a naval training establishment at Shotley, near Ipswich in Suffolk. Starting in 1905, it trained boys for service until it closed in 1976. During the later 1980s and 1990s RNTE Shotley was used as a centre for civilian police officers to complete their basic training. Forces which used this centre included Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Thames Valley, local police forces continued to use the site in 2007. In Arthur Ransomes childrens novels We Didnt Mean to Go to Sea and Secret Water, british Pathé Search, Shotley - britishpathe. com. Anglia News, Queens Visit to Suffolk - eafa. org. uk, RNTE Shotley Pictures and information Summer 2007 HMS Ganges Association Web site Site photos taken between 2006 and 2009 HMS GANGES Books Historical books and DVDs of HMS GANGES
Imperial Chemical Industries
Imperial Chemical Industries was a British chemical company and was, for much of its history, the largest manufacturer in Britain. It was formed by the merger of leading British chemical companies in 1926 and its headquarters were at Millbank in London, and it was a constituent of the FT30 and later the FTSE100 Indexes. ICI made paints and speciality products, including ingredients, speciality polymers, electronic materials, fragrances. It was acquired by AkzoNobel in 2008, who immediately sold parts of ICI to Henkel, the company was founded in December 1926 from the merger of four companies, Brunner Mond, Nobel Explosives, the United Alkali Company, and British Dyestuffs Corporation. It established its office at Millbank in London in 1928. Competing with DuPont and IG Farben, the new company produced chemicals, explosives, fertilisers, insecticides, dyestuffs, non-ferrous metals, in its first year turnover was £27 million. In 1940, ICI started British Nylon Spinners as a joint venture with Courtaulds, ICI also owned the Sunbeam motorcycle business, which had come with Nobel Industries, and continued to build motorcycles until 1937. During the Second World War, ICI was involved with the United Kingdoms nuclear weapons programme codenamed Tube Alloys, in the 1940s and 50s, the company established its pharmaceutical business and developed a number of key products, including Paludrine, halothane, Inderal, tamoxifen, and PEEK. ICI formed ICI Pharmaceuticals in 1957, ICI developed a fabric in the 1950s known as Crimplene, a thick polyester yarn used to make a fabric of the same name. The resulting cloth is heavy and wrinkle-resistant, and retains its shape well, the California-based fashion designer Edith Flagg was the first to import this fabric from Britain to the USA. During the first two years, ICI gave Flagg a large advertising budget to popularise the fabric across America, in 1960, Paul Chambers became the first chairman appointed from outside the company. Chambers employed the consultancy firm McKinsey to help with reorganising the company and his eight-year tenure saw export sales double, but his reputation was severely damaged by a failed takeover bid for Courtaulds in 1961–62. In 1962, ICI developed the controversial herbicide, paraquat, ICI was confronted with the nationalisation of its operations in Burma on 1 August 1962 as a consequence of the military coup. In 1964, ICI acquired British Nylon Spinners, the company it had set up in 1940 with Courtaulds. ICI surrendered its 37.5 per cent holding in Courtaulds and paid Courtaulds £2 million a year for five years, in return, Courtaulds transferred to ICI their 50 per cent holding in BNS. BNS was absorbed into ICIs existing polyester operation, ICI Fibres, the acquisition included BNS production plants in Pontypool, Gloucester and Doncaster, together with research and development in Pontypool. Peter Allen was appointed chairman between 1968 and 1971 and he presided over the purchase of Viyella. Jack Callard was appointed chairman from 1971 to 1975 and he almost doubled company profits between 1972 and 1974, and made ICI Britains largest exporter
Crane Sports F.C.
Crane Sports Football Club is a football club based in Ipswich, Suffolk, England. The club are members of the Senior Division of the Suffolk & Ipswich League Senior Division. The club joined the Suffolk & Ipswich League prior to World War II and they won the Suffolk Senior Cup in 1971 and 1974, and the following season won the Senior Division of the Suffolk & Ipswich League in 1974–75. After dropping into the divisions of the SIL, the club won Division Three in 1998–99. In 2004–05 they won the League Cup for the first time and they won the Senior Division in 2014–15, and again the following season. From 1966 to 1998, the club played host to an annual seven-a-side invitational football tournament, among the early winners were Ipswich Town, whose team included future England national team captain Mick Mills. From the early 1960s to the 1980s, the club was the venue for the Suffolk county hockey teams matches. According to The Times correspondent, it had a pitch with good drainage. Suffolk have been using ground for 19 years and it is believed to be lucky for them. After the ground was taken over by Ipswich Town in 1998, the club had to share facilities, they moved to their current home, Greshams Sports Ground, before the 2010–11 season. C
Framlingham Town F.C.
Framlingham Town Football Club is a football club based in Framlingham, Suffolk, England. Affiliated to the Suffolk County Football Association, they are members of the Eastern Counties League Division One. The club was established in 1887 and started playing in the Ipswich & District League and they dropped into the Framlingham League, before playing in the Leiston League and the Woodbridge League and returning to the Ipswich & District League. The club won Division Two of the Suffolk & Ipswich League in 1980–81, in 1991–92 they won the Senior Division and the League Cup, but could not be promoted to Division One of the Eastern Counties League as their ground did not meet the required standards. In 1995–96 they reached the final of the Suffolk Senior Cup, in 2010–11 they entered the FA Vase for the first time. At the end of the 2011–12 season the club were relegated from the Senior Division to Division One, in 2014–15 the club finished second in Division One, earning promotion back to the Senior Division. After finishing fifth in the Senior Division in 2015–16, the club were promoted to Division One of the Eastern Counties League, the club initially played at Dicksons Meadow, before moving to Brunnings Meadow, both of which are now part of Framlingham College. They later moved to the Red House Farm and then Haynings Field in 1932, in 1951 they moved to their current ground on Badingham Road, Framlingham. Suffolk & Ipswich League Senior Division champions 1991–92 Division Two champions 1980–81 League Cup winners 1989–90, 1991–92 Best FA Vase performance, First round, 2010–11 Official website
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker