Bishop in Europe
The Bishop in Europe is the ordinary of the Church of England's Diocese in Europe in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese provides the ministry of Anglican chaplains, not only in the area of Gibraltar in British jurisdiction but in all of mainland Europe and the territory of the former Soviet Union; the see is based in the City of Gibraltar where the bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity. Between 1993 and 2013, the bishop's residence was in England at Bishop's Lodge in Worth, West Sussex. Since 2014, the bishop has been based in Waterloo, Belgium; the diocesan office and administrative team, with the office of the suffragan bishop, is in Tufton Street, part of the Church House complex. The bishopric has existed since the union in 1980 of the see of Gibraltar with the Jurisdiction of North and Central Europe of the see of London. Robert Innes was commissioned and consecrated Bishop in Europe on 20 July 2014; the bishop has one suffragan bishop, known as the Suffragan Bishop in Europe and various honorary assistant bishops from the Church of England and other churches in communion with the Church of England.
Whitaker's Almanack 1883 to 2004, Joseph Whitaker and Sons Ltd/A&C Black, London Diocese in Europe – Bishops Roman Catholic Diocese of Gibraltar
An episcopal polity is a hierarchical form of church governance in which the chief local authorities are called bishops. It is the structure used by many of the major Christian Churches and denominations, such as the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Church of the East and Lutheran churches or denominations, other churches founded independently from these lineages. Churches with an episcopal polity are governed by bishops, practicing their authorities in the dioceses and conferences or synods, their leadership is both constitutional. Bishops are considered to derive their authority from an unbroken, personal apostolic succession from the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. Bishops with such authority are said to represent the historical historic episcopate. Churches with this type of government believe that the Church requires episcopal government as described in the New Testament. In some systems, bishops may be subject to bishops holding a higher office, they meet in councils or synods.
These gatherings, subject to presidency by higher ranking bishops make important decisions, though the synod or council may be purely advisory. For much of the written history of institutional Christianity, episcopal government was the only known form of church organization; this changed at the Reformation. Many Protestant churches are now organized by either congregational or presbyterian church polities, both descended from the writings of John Calvin, a Protestant reformer working and writing independently following the break with the Roman Catholic Church precipitated by The Ninety-Five Theses of Martin Luther; the definition of the word episcopal has variation among Christian traditions. There are subtle differences in governmental principles among episcopal churches at the present time. To some extent the separation of episcopal churches can be traced to these differences in ecclesiology, that is, their theological understanding of church and church governance. For some, "episcopal churches" are churches that use a hierarchy of bishops that regard themselves as being in an unbroken, personal apostolic succession.
"Episcopal" is commonly used to distinguish between the various organizational structures of denominations. For instance, "Presbyterian" is used to describe a church governed by a hierarchy of assemblies of elected elders, referred to as Presbyterian polity. "episcopal" is used to describe a church governed by bishops. Self-governed local congregations, governed neither by elders nor bishops, are described as "congregational". More the capitalized appellation "Episcopal" is applied to several churches based within Anglicanism, including those still in communion with the Church of England. Using these definitions, examples of specific episcopal churches include: The Catholic Church The Eastern Orthodox Church The Oriental Orthodox churches The Assyrian Church of the East The Churches of the Anglican Communion The Old Catholic churches Numerous smaller "catholic" churches Certain national churches of the Lutheran confession The African Methodist Episcopal Church The United Methodist ChurchSome Lutheran churches practice congregational polity or a form of presbyterian polity.
Others, including the Church of Sweden, practice episcopal polity. Many Methodist churches retain the form and function of episcopal polity, although in a modified form, called connexionalism. Since all trace their ordinations to an Anglican priest, John Wesley, it is considered that their bishops do not share in apostolic succession, though United Methodists still affirm that their bishops share in the historic episcopate. All orthodox Christians were in churches with an episcopal government, that is, one Church under local bishops and regional Patriarchs. Writing between ca. 85 and 110, St. Ignatius of Antioch, Patriarch of Antioch, was the earliest of the Church fathers to define the importance of episcopal government. Assuming Ignatius' view was the Apostolic teaching and practice, the line of succession was unbroken and passed through the four ancient Patriarchal sees, Jerusalem and Alexandria. Rome was the leading Patriarchate of the ancient four by virtue of its founding by Saints Peter and Paul and their martyrdom there, not to mention being the political center of the Roman empire at the time.
Some organizations, though aloof from the political wranglings of imperial Christianity also practiced episcopal polity. Shortly after the Roman Emperor Constantine I legalized Christianity in 321, he constructed an elaborate second capital of the Roman Empire located at Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople, in 324; the single Roman Empire was divided between these two autonomous administrative centers and Constantinopolitan, West and East, Latin speaking and Greek speaking. This
David Hamid is an Anglican bishop with British and Canadian citizenship. He has been the Suffragan Bishop in Europe since 2002. Hamid was born on 18 June 1955 to Scottish and Burmese parents, he holds dual Canadian citizenship. He was educated at Nelson High School in Burlington, Canada, he studied at McMaster University, graduating with a Bachelor of Science degree in 1978. He matriculated into Trinity College and graduated from the Toronto School of Theology with a Master of Divinity degree in 1981. Hamid was ordained in the Anglican Church of Canada as a deacon in June 1981 and as a priest in 1982. After ordination he was curate at St Christopher’s, Burlington and rector of St John’s in the same city. Following this he was mission co-ordinator for Latin America and the Caribbean for the Anglican Church of Canada and the Director of Ecumenical Affairs and Studies of the Anglican Communion. On 17 October 2002, at Southwark Cathedral, he was one of the last three people to be ordained and consecrated a bishop by George Carey before his retirement as Archbishop of Canterbury.
Hamid has been married since 1978 and they have two children. The Reverend David Hamid The Reverend Canon David Hamid The Right Reverend David Hamid Eurobishop: David Hamid's blog
Diocese in Europe
The Diocese in Europe is geographically the largest diocese of the Church of England and the largest diocese in the Anglican Communion, covering some one-sixth of the Earth's landmass, including Morocco, Turkey and the territory of the former Soviet Union. The See Cathedral is the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity and there are two Pro-Cathedrals in Malta and Brussels; the diocese is headed by the Bishop in Europe, assisted by the Suffragan Bishop in Europe. The present bishop, Rob Innes, was commissioned and consecrated on 20 July 2014; the current suffragan bishop is David Hamid, consecrated bishop on 17 October 2002. The pro-cathedrals are St Paul's Cathedral, Valletta and Pro-Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, Belgium; the diocese is attached to the Province of Canterbury. The Diocese of Gibraltar was created on 29 September 1842 and at that time covered all Anglican chaplaincies from Portugal to the Caspian Sea. On 30 June 1980, the diocese was amalgamated with the Jurisdiction of North and Central Europe and renamed the Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe.
It is divided into seven archdeaconries. Eastern Archdeaconry, consisting of: Albania, Austria, Belarus and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Greece, Kosovo, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan; the previous archdeacon was Patrick Curran, based in Vienna and served 2002–2015. The archdeacon is assisted by two area deans. Colin Williams was full-time Archdeacon 2015–2019, taking charge of both the Eastern archdeaconry and that of Germany and Northern Europe, being based in Frankfurt, Germany; the Archdeacon of Switzerland is Acting Archdeacon of the East. Archdeaconry of Germany and Northern Europe, consisting of: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Lithuania and Sweden; the archdeacon is assisted by two area deans. Archdeaconry of France; the current archdeacon is Meurig Williams, assisted by two area deans. Archdeaconry of Gibraltar, consisting of: Andorra, Morocco and Spain; the current archdeacon is Geoff Johnston. The archdeacon is assisted by two area deans.
Archdeaconry of Italy and Malta. The acting archdeacon is Geoff Archdeacon of Gibraltar; the archdeacon is based in Milan and assisted by one area dean. Archdeaconry of Northwest Europe, consisting of: Belgium and the Netherlands; the Acting Archdeacon is Paul Vrolijk. The archdeacon is assisted by two area deans. Archdeaconry of Switzerland; the acting archdeacon is Adèle Kelham, based in Lausanne. The diocese is led by the diocesan Bishop in Europe, Robert Innes and the Suffragan Bishop in Europe, David Hamid; the diocese licences many honorary assistant bishops to fulfill some episcopal duties across the European diocese. Several of these are the current bishops of other churches in Europe in communion with the Church of England: Pierre Whalon has been the bishop-in-charge of the Convocation of Episcopal Churches in Europe since 2001, he lives in France. Matthias Ring has been the Bishop of the Catholic Diocese of the Old Catholics in Germany since 2010. Jorge de Pina Cabral has been the diocesan bishop of the Lusitanian Church since 2012.
The rest are retired Anglican bishops resident in England. The following are licensed as of March 2014 according to the official diocesan website: 2001–present: Richard Garrard, retired Director of the Anglican Centre in Rome & Archbishop's Representative to the Holy See and former Bishop of Penrith, lives in Upper Stoke, Norfolk and is licensed in the Diocese of Norwich. 2002–present: Edward Holland, retired Bishop of Colchester, lives in Hammersmith, Greater London and is licensed in the Diocese of London. 2002–present: David Smith, retired Bishop of Bradford, lives in Dunnington, North Yorkshire and is licensed in York diocese. 2003–present: John Flack, retired Director of the Anglican Centre in Rome & Archbishop's Representative to the Holy See and former Bishop of Huntingdon, lives in Whittlesey, Cambridgeshire. Alan Chesters, retired diocesan Bishop of Blackburn, lives in Surrey. 2003–present: A retired former Bishop of Durham and Bishop of Rochester, Michael Turnbull, lives in Sandwich, Kent.
2011–present: retired Bishop of Salisbury David Stancliffe lives in Stanhope, County Durham 2011–present: Stephen Venner, retired Bishop of Dover, current Bishop for the Falkland Islands and Bishop to the Forces, lives in St Albans, Hertfordshire and is licensed in the Diocese of Rochester. 2013 -- present: retired Bishop of Blackburn Nicholas Reade lives in East Sussex. 2014–present: Michael Colclough, retired Canon Pastor of St Paul's Cathedral and former Bishop of Kensington, lives in Chelsea, Greater London, is licensed in the Diocese of London. Additionally, there are several more honorary assistant bishops listed Crockford's Clerical Directory as of March 2014: Fernando da Luz Soares, retired bishop of the Lusitanian church, is listed as having been licensed since 1995. 1999–2017: The late Joachim Vobbe was a bishop (bishop emeritus since 2
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term dioikesis meaning "administration". Today, when used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. In the organization of the Roman Empire, the subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. After Christianity was given legal status in 313, the Churches began to organize themselves into dioceses based on provinces, not on the larger regional imperial districts; the dioceses were smaller than the provinces since there were more bishops than governors. Christianity was declared the Empire's official religion by Theodosius I in 380. Constantine I in 318 gave litigants the right to have court cases transferred from the civil courts to the bishops; this situation must have hardly survived Julian, 361-363. Episcopal courts are not heard of again in the East until 398 and in the West in 408; the quality of these courts were low, not above suspicion as the bishop of Alexandria Troas found out that clergy were making a corrupt profit.
Nonetheless, these courts were popular. Bishops had no part in the civil administration until the town councils, in decline, lost much authority to a group of'notables' made up of the richest councilors and rich persons exempted from serving on the councils, retired military, bishops post-450 A. D; as the Western Empire collapsed in the 5th century, bishops in Western Europe assumed a larger part of the role of the former Roman governors. A similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division. For Gaul, Bruce Eagles has observed that "it has long been an academic commonplace in France that the medieval dioceses, their constituent pagi, were the direct territorial successors of the Roman civitates."Modern usage of'diocese' tends to refer to the sphere of a bishop's jurisdiction.
This became commonplace during the self-conscious "classicizing" structural evolution of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, but this usage had itself been evolving from the much earlier parochia, dating from the formalized Christian authority structure in the 4th century. Most archdioceses are metropolitan sees. A few are suffragans of a metropolitan are directly subject to the Holy See. While the terms "diocese" and "episcopal see" are applicable to the area under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of any bishop, a bishop in charge of an archdiocese thereby holds the rank of archbishop. If the title of archbishop is granted on personal grounds to a diocesan bishop, his diocese does not thereby become an archdiocese; as of January 2019, in the Catholic Church there are 2,886 regular dioceses: 1 papal see, 645 archdioceses and 2,240 dioceses in the world. In the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy; the Eastern Orthodox Church calls dioceses episkopē in the Greek tradition and eparchies in the Slavic tradition.
After the English Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as dioceses, not archdioceses: they are the metropolitan bishops of their respective provinces and bishops of their own diocese and have the position of archbishop. Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics; these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, the Church of Norway. From about the 13th century until the German mediatization of 1803, the majority of the bishops of the Holy Roman Empire were prince-bishops, as such exercised political authority over a principality, their so-called Hochstift, distinct, considerably smaller than their diocese, over which they only exercised the usual authority of a bishop.
Some American Lutheran church bodies such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America have a bishop acting as the head of the synod, but the synod does not have dioceses and archdioceses as the churches listed above. Rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory; the Lutheran Church - International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure, with four dioceses in North America. Its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes; the Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States. In the COGIC, most states are divided into at least three or more dioceses that are each led by a bishop; these dioceses are called "jurisdictions" within COGIC. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the term "bishopric" is used to describe the bishop himself, together with his two counselors, not the ward or congregation of which a bishop has charge. In the United Methodist Church, a bishop is given oversight over a geographical area called an episcopal area; each episcopal area contains one or more an
Bishop of Stepney
The Bishop of Stepney is an episcopal title used by a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of London, in the Province of Canterbury, England. The title takes its name after Stepney, an inner-city district in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets; the post is vacant, since Adrian Newman's resignation on 31 October 2018. The bishops suffragan of Stepney have been area bishops since the London area scheme was founded in 1979. Crockford's Clerical Directory - Listings
Church of England
The Church of England is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor; the Church of England is the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury; the English church renounced papal authority when Henry VIII failed to secure an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon in 1534. The English Reformation accelerated under Edward VI's regents, before a brief restoration of papal authority under Queen Mary I and King Philip; the Act of Supremacy 1558 renewed the breach, the Elizabethan Settlement charted a course enabling the English church to describe itself as both catholic and reformed: catholic in that it views itself as a part of the universal church of Jesus Christ in unbroken continuity with the early apostolic church.
This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, as formalised in the Apostles', Athanasian creeds. Reformed in that it has been shaped by some of the doctrinal principles of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, in particular in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion and the Book of Common Prayer. In the earlier phase of the English Reformation there were both Catholic martyrs and radical Protestant martyrs; the phases saw the Penal Laws punish Roman Catholic and nonconforming Protestants. In the 17th century, the Puritan and Presbyterian factions continued to challenge the leadership of the Church which under the Stuarts veered towards a more catholic interpretation of the Elizabethan Settlement under Archbishop Laud and the rise of the concept of Anglicanism as the via media. After the victory of the Parliamentarians the Prayer Book was abolished and the Presbyterian and Independent factions dominated; the Episcopacy was abolished. The Restoration restored the Church of England and the Prayer Book.
Papal recognition of George III in 1766 led to greater religious tolerance. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has used a liturgy in English; the church contains several doctrinal strands, the main three known as Anglo-Catholic and Broad Church. Tensions between theological conservatives and progressives find expression in debates over the ordination of women and homosexuality; the church includes both liberal and conservative members. The governing structure of the church is based on dioceses, each presided over by a bishop. Within each diocese are local parishes; the General Synod of the Church of England is the legislative body for the church and comprises bishops, other clergy and laity. Its measures must be approved by both Houses of Parliament. According to tradition, Christianity arrived in Britain in the 1st or 2nd century, during which time southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire; the earliest historical evidence of Christianity among the native Britons is found in the writings of such early Christian Fathers as Tertullian and Origen in the first years of the 3rd century.
Three Romano-British bishops, including Restitutus, are known to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314. Others attended the Council of Serdica in 347 and that of Ariminum in 360, a number of references to the church in Roman Britain are found in the writings of 4th century Christian fathers. Britain was the home of Pelagius. While Christianity was long established as the religion of the Britons at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasion, Christian Britons made little progress in converting the newcomers from their native paganism. In 597, Pope Gregory I sent the prior of the Abbey of St Andrew's from Rome to evangelise the Angles; this event is known as the Gregorian mission and is the date the Church of England marks as the beginning of its formal history. With the help of Christians residing in Kent, Augustine established his church at Canterbury, the capital of the Kingdom of Kent, became the first in the series of Archbishops of Canterbury in 598. A archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus contributed to the organisation of Christianity in England.
The Church of England has been in continuous existence since the days of St Augustine, with the Archbishop of Canterbury as its episcopal head. Despite the various disruptions of the Reformation and the English Civil War, the Church of England considers itself to be the same church, more formally organised by Augustine. While some Celtic Christian practices were changed at the Synod of Whitby, the Christian in the British Isles was under papal authority from earliest times. Queen Bertha of Kent was among the Christians in England who recognised papal authority before Augustine arrived, Celtic Christians were carrying out missionary work with papal approval long before the Synod of Whitby; the Synod of Whitby established the Roman date for Easter and the Roman style of monastic tonsure in England. This meeting of the ecclesiastics with Roman customs with local bishops was summoned in 664 at Saint Hilda's double monastery of Streonshalh called Whitby Abbey, it was presided over by King Oswiu, who made the final ruling.
The final ruling was decided in favor of Roman tradition because St. Peter holds the keys to the gate of Heaven. In 1534, King Henry VIII separated the English Church from Rome. A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English Church, such as Lollardy, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an a