Akbariyya is a branch of Sufi metaphysics based on Ibn Arabi's teachings, an Andalusian Sufi, a gnostic and philosopher. The word is derived from Ibn Arabi's nickname, "Shaykh al-Akbar," meaning "the greatest shaykh." Akbariyya has never been used to indicate a Sufi society in history. It is nowadays used to refer to all historical or contemporary Sufi metaphysicians and Sufis influenced by Ibn Arabi's doctrine Wahdat al-Wujud, it is not to be confused with Al Akbariyya, a secret Sufi society founded by Swedish Sufi'Abdu l-Hadi Aguéli. Wahdat al-Wajud meaning the "unity of being" is a Sufi philosophy emphasizing that'there is no true existence except the Ultimate Truth' or in other words, that the only truth within the universe is God, that all things exist within God only. Ibn Arabi is most characterized in Islamic texts as the originator of this doctrine. However, it is not found in his works; the first to employ this term was Ibn Sabin. Ibn Arabi's disciple and stepson Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi used this term in his works and explained it using philosophical terms.
See Sufi metaphysics In the 20th century there has been focus on the Akbariyya School in academic circles and universities. Viewed in a historical context, increased government support for the study of the Muslim world and Islamic languages emerged in the United States after the Second World War where many students were attracted to Islam and religious studies during the 1970s; the greatest growth in American scholarship on Sufism, took place from the work done by scholars trained during the 1970s. Alexander Knysh notes that “in the decades after World War Two the majority of Western experts in Sufism were no longer based in Europe, but in North America.” Henri Corbin and Fritz Meier who were prominent among these experts, made important contributions to the study of Islamic mysticism. Another important names were Miguel Asín Palacios, Louis Massignon made contributions to Ibn Arabi studies. While Palacios discovered some Akbarian elements in Dante's famous work Divine Comedy Louis Massignon studied on famous Sufi Al-Hallaj saying "Anal Hak" and because of that expression he was executed.
Seyyed Hossein Nasr and his students and academic disciples, have come to play an important role in certain subfields of Sufi studies. The Influence of Nasr and other Traditionalist writers like Rene Guenon and Frithjof Schuon on Sufi studies can be seen on the interpretation of the works of Ibn Arabi and the Akbarian school by such scholars as Titus Burckhardt, Martin Lings, James Morris, William Chittick, Sachiko Murata and others; these names are both practitioners of Sufism and scholars studying Sufism. Viewed, Turkey is situated where Ibn Arabi's most prominent disciple and stepson Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi and other important commentators of Arabi's works lived in the past. Dawūd al-Qayṣarī was invited to Iznik by Orhan Ghazi to be director and teacher of the first Ottoman university was the disciple of Kamāl al-Dīn al-Qāshānī, himself a disciple of Sadr al-Dīn al-Qūnawī; this means that the official teaching itself was set in motion by a great master of the Akbarian school. Not only Sufis but Ottoman sultans and intellectuals had been impressed by Ibn Arabi and his disciples and interpreters.
Seyyed Muhammad Nur al-Arabi was impressed by Ibn Arabi's doctrine, though that continued to decrease until the Modern Era. In the 20th century the last important commentator of Fusûs was Ahmed Avni Konuk, he was a composer of Turkish music. Studies on Sufism Akbarian works, were not common until the first Ph. D. thesis was written by Prof. Dr. Mahmud Erol Kılıc in Marmara University's Faculty of Theology titled "Ibn'Arabi's Ontology" in 1995. Academic studies on Akbarian metaphysics and philosophy began to rise after studies on this topic were conducted by Turkish scholars such as Mustafa Tahralı and Mahmud Erol Kılıc. In terms of Akbarian studies, the most important event to take place was the translation of Ibn Arabi's magnum opus,"Futuhat-ı Makkiyya", to Turkish. A Turkish scholar, Prof. Dr. Ekrem Demirli started translating the work in the form of 18 volumes in 2006 and finished in 2012; this particular translation was the first complete translation to another language. Demirli's work includes translating Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi's corpus to Turkish and writing a PhD thesis on him in 2004, writing a commentary on Fusus al-Hikam by Ibn Arabi, writing a book titled İslam Metafiziğinde Tanrı ve İnsan.
There are many Akbarian works in Ottoman Turkish. There had and have been many Akbarian Sufis and philosophers in history from all over the world. Ibn Arabi created the philosophy of Wahdat al-Wujud; the Sufis listed below were members of different orders, but following the concept of Wahdat al-Wujud. Masataka Takeshita: Ibn'Arabi's Theory of the Perfect Man and Its Place in the History of Islamic Thought, Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, 1987 William C. Chittick: Ibn'Arabi's Imaginal Worlds: Creativity of Imagination and the Problem of Religious Diversity _____________: The Sufi Path of Knowledge: Ibn al-'Arabi's Metaphysics of Imagination ______________: Ibn'Arabi - Heir to the Prophets. ______________: Imaginal Worlds. ______________: The Self-Disclosure of God Stephen Hirtenstein: The Unlimited Mercifier: The Spiritual Life and Thought of Ibn'Arabi _____________: Prayer and Contemplation
Qawwali is a form of Sufi Islamic devotional music originating from South Asia, notably popular in the Punjab and Sindh regions of Pakistan. It is part of a musical tradition. Performed at Sufi shrines or dargahs throughout South Asia, it gained mainstream popularity and an international audience in late 20th century. Qawwali music received international exposure through the work of the late Pakistani singers Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Sabri Brothers, Aziz Mian due to several releases on the Real World label, followed by live appearances at WOMAD festivals. Other famous Qawwali singers include Pakistan's Fareed Ayyaz & Abu Muhammad, Rahat Fateh Ali Khan, Badar Maindad, Rizwan & Moazzam Duo, the late Amjad Sabri and Bahauddin Qutbuddin. Delhi's Sufi saint Amir Khusrow of the Chisti order of Sufis is credited with fusing the Persian, Arabic and Indian musical traditions in the late 13th century in India to create Qawwali as we know it today; the word Sama is still used in Central Asia and Turkey to refer to forms similar to Qawwali, in India and Bangladesh, the formal name used for a session of Qawwali is Mehfil-e-Sama.
Qaul is an "utterance", Qawwāl is someone who repeats a Qaul, Qawwāli is what a Qawwāl sings. The songs which constitute the qawwali repertoire are in Persian, Hindi and Punjabi. There are some in Persian from the Mughal era, a smattering in Saraiki and dialects of north India like Brajbhasha and Awadhi. There is qawwali in some regional languages but the regional language tradition is obscure; the sound of the regional language qawwali can be different from that of mainstream qawwali. This is true of Chhote Babu Qawwal, whose style of singing is much closer to the Bengali Baul music than to the qawwali of Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, for example; the poetry is implicitly understood to be spiritual in its meaning though the lyrics can sometimes sound wildly secular, or outright hedonistic. The central themes of qawwali are love and longing. Qawwalis are classified by their content into several categories: A hamd, Arabic for praise, is a song in praise of Allah. Traditionally, a qawwali performance starts with a hamd.
A na`at, Arabic for description, is a song in praise of Muhammad. The opening hamd is traditionally followed by a naat. A manqabat is a song in one of the Sufi saints. Manaqib in praise of Ali are sung at both Shi'a gatherings. If one is sung, it will follow right after the naat. There is at least one manqabat in a traditional programme. A marsiya, Arabic for lamentation for a dead person, is a lamentation over the death of much of Imam Husayn's family in the Battle of Karbala; this would be sung only at a Shi'a gathering. A ghazal, Arabic for love song, is a song. There are two extended metaphors that run through ghazals—the joys of drinking and the agony of separation from the beloved; these songs feature exquisite poetry, can be taken at face value, enjoyed at that level. In fact, in Pakistan and India, ghazal is a separate, distinct musical genre in which many of the same songs are performed in a different musical style, in a secular context. In the context of that genre, the songs are taken at face value, no deeper meaning is implied.
But in the context of qawwali, these songs of intoxication and yearning use secular metaphors to poignantly express the soul's longing for union with the Divine, its joy in loving the Divine. In the songs of intoxication, "wine" represents "knowledge of the Divine", the "cup-bearer" is God or a spiritual guide, the "tavern" is the metaphorical place where the soul may be fortunate enough to attain spiritual enlightenment. Intoxication is being filled with the joy of loving the Divine. In the songs of yearning, the soul, having been abandoned in this world by that cruel and cavalier lover, sings of the agony of separation, the depth of its yearning for reunion. A kafi is a poem in Punjabi, Seraiki or Sindhi, in the unique style of poets such as Sultan Bahoo, Shah Hussain, Bulleh Shah and Sachal Sarmast. Two of the more well-known Kafis include Mera Piya Ghar Aaya. A munajaat, Arabic for a conversation in the night or a form of prayer, is a song where the singer displays his thanks to Allah through a variety of linguistic techniques.
It is sung in Persian, with Mawlana Jalāl-ad-Dīn Rumi credited as its author. A group of qawwali musicians, called a party consists of eight or nine men including a lead singer, one or two side singers, one or two harmoniums, percussion. If there is only one percussionist, he plays the tabla and dholak the tabla with the dominant hand and the dholak with the other one. There will be two percussionists, in which case one might play the tabla and the other the dholak. There is a chorus of four or five men who repeat key verses, who aid percussion by
A fakir, or faqir, derived from faqr is a Sufi Muslim ascetic who has taken vows of poverty and worship, renouncing all relations and possessions. Fakirs are prevalent in the Middle South Asia. A fakir only possesses the spiritual need for God. Faqirs are characterized by their attachment to dhikr. Sufism gained adherents among a number of Muslims as a reaction against the worldliness of the early Umayyad Caliphate. Though, Sufis have spanned several continents and cultures over a millennium expressing their beliefs in Arabic, before spreading into Persian, Indian languages and a dozen other languages; the term is applied to Hindu ascetics. These usages developed in the Mughal era in the Indian subcontinent. There is a distinct clan of faqirs found in North India, descended from communities of faqirs who took up residence at Sufi shrines. During the 17th century, another noble and spirited Muslim scholar and saint, Sultan Bahoo, revolutionized Sufism and reinstated the definition of faqr and faqir.
The terms tasawwuf and faqer were first used by Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad. He wrote a book, Mirat ul Arfeen, on this topic, said to be the first book on Sufism and tasawwuf. However, under Ummayad rule, neither could this book be published nor was it allowed to discuss tasawwuf, Sufism or faqr openly. For a long time, after Husayn ibn Ali, the information and teachings of faqr and Sufism kept on transferring from heart to heart. In the 10th century reputed Muslim Abdul-Qadir Gilani, the founder of Qadri silsila, which has the most followers in Muslim Sufism, elaborated Sufism and faqr. In the 13th century, Ibn Arabi was the first vibrant Muslim scholar who not only started this discussion publicly but wrote hundreds of books about Sufism and faqr. In English, faqir or fakir meant a mendicant dervish. In mystical usage, the word fakir refers to man's spiritual need for God, who alone is self-sufficient. Although of Muslim origin, the term has come to be applied in India to Hindus as well replacing gosvamin, sadhu and other designations.
Fakirs are regarded as holy men who are possessed of miraculous powers. Among Muslims, the leading Sufi orders of fakirs are the Shadhiliyyah, Qadiriyah and Suhrawardiyah; the Cambridge English Dictionary defines faqir as "a member of an Islamic religious group, or a holy man". Winston Churchill is known to have referred to the peaceful resistance promoting independence leader of India, Mahatma Gandhi, as a "seditious fakir"; the attributes of a fakir have been defined by scholars. The early Muslim saint, Abdul-Qadir Gilani, defined Sufism and faqr in a conclusive manner. Explaining the attributes of a fakir, he says, "faqir is not who can not do anything and is nothing in his self-being, but faqir has all the commanding powers and his orders can not be revoked."Ibn Arabi explained Sufism, including faqr, in more details. He wrote more than 500 books on the topic, he was the first Muslim scholar to introduce the idea of Wahdat al-wujud. His writings are considered a solid source, that defied timeAnother dignified Muslim saint, Sultan Bahoo, describes a fakir as one "who has been entrusted with full authority from Allah".
In the same book, Sultan Bahoo says, "Faqir attains eternity by dissolving himself in oneness of Allah. He, eliminates himself from other than Allah, his soul reaches to divinity." He says. First step he takes from eternity to this mortal world, second step from this finite world to hereafter and last step he takes from hereafter to manifestation of Allah." In the Fourth Way teaching of G. I. Gurdjieff the word fakir is used to denote the physical path of development, as opposed to the words yogi and monk; the Fakir and Goshai was with the stronger religious influence, there are Bauls who would shave their heads as in their past and kept on practicing and believing in many of the basic creeds of Vaishnava-Sahajiya. So all followers of different religions and religious practices came under the nomenclature Baul, which has its etymological origin in the Sanskrit words Vatula, or Vyakula and used for someone, possessed or crazy, they were known as performers'mad' in a worshiping trance of joy - transcending above both good and bad.
Though fond of both Hinduism and Islam, the Baul evolved into a religion focused on the individual and centered on a spiritual quest for God from within. They believe the soul. Dervish Ghous-e-Azam Ibn Arabi Madariyya Mirin Dajo Qalandariyya Sai Baba of Shirdi Shramana Sultan Bahoo Yogi Monk List of Books of Sultan Bahoo Ibn Arabi Books
Sufism or Taṣawwuf, variously defined as "Islamic mysticism", "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam", is mysticism in Islam, "characterized... values, ritual practices and institutions" which began early in Islamic history and represents "the main manifestation and the most important and central crystallization of" mystical practice in Islam. Practitioners of Sufism have been referred to as "Sufis". Sufis have belonged to different ṭuruq or "orders" – congregations formed around a grand master referred to as a wali who traces a direct chain of successive teachers back to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad; these orders meet for spiritual sessions in meeting places known as khanqahs or tekke. They strive for ihsan, as detailed in a hadith: "Ihsan is to worship Allah as if you see Him. Sufis regard Muhammad as al-Insān al-Kāmil, the primary perfect man who exemplifies the morality of God, see him as their leader and prime spiritual guide. All Sufi orders trace most of their original precepts from Muhammad through his cousin and son-in-law Ali, with the notable exception of one.
Although the overwhelming majority of Sufis, both pre-modern and modern and are adherents of Sunni Islam, there developed certain strands of Sufi practice within the ambit of Shia Islam during the late medieval period. Although Sufis were opposed to dry legalism, they observed Islamic law and belonged to various schools of Islamic jurisprudence and theology. Sufis have been characterized by their asceticism by their attachment to dhikr, the practice of remembrance of God performed after prayers, they gained adherents among a number of Muslims as a reaction against the worldliness of the early Umayyad Caliphate and have spanned several continents and cultures over a millennium expressing their beliefs in Arabic and expanding into Persian and Urdu, among others. Sufis played an important role in the formation of Muslim societies through their missionary and educational activities. According to William Chittick, "In a broad sense, Sufism can be described as the interiorization, intensification of Islamic faith and practice."Despite a relative decline of Sufi orders in the modern era and criticism of some aspects of Sufism by modernist thinkers and conservative Salafists, Sufism has continued to play an important role in the Islamic world, has influenced various forms of spirituality in the West.
The Arabic word tasawwuf translated as Sufism, is defined by Western authors as Islamic mysticism. The Arabic term sufi has been used in Islamic literature with a wide range of meanings, by both proponents and opponents of Sufism. Classical Sufi texts, which stressed certain teachings and practices of the Quran and the sunnah, gave definitions of tasawwuf that described ethical and spiritual goals and functioned as teaching tools for their attainment. Many other terms that described particular spiritual qualities and roles were used instead in more practical contexts; some modern scholars have used other definitions of Sufism such as "intensification of Islamic faith and practice" and "process of realizing ethical and spiritual ideals". The term Sufism was introduced into European languages in the 18th century by Orientalist scholars, who viewed it as an intellectual doctrine and literary tradition at variance with what they saw as sterile monotheism of Islam. In modern scholarly usage the term serves to describe a wide range of social, cultural and religious phenomena associated with Sufis.
The original meaning of sufi seems to have been "one who wears wool", the Encyclopaedia of Islam calls other etymological hypotheses "untenable". Woollen clothes were traditionally associated with mystics. Al-Qushayri and Ibn Khaldun both rejected all possibilities other than ṣūf on linguistic grounds. Another explanation traces the lexical root of the word to ṣafā, which in Arabic means "purity"; these two explanations were combined by the Sufi al-Rudhabari, who said, "The Sufi is the one who wears wool on top of purity". Others have suggested that the word comes from the term ahl aṣ-ṣuffah, who were a group of impoverished companions of Muhammad who held regular gatherings of dhikr; these men and women who sat at al-Masjid an-Nabawi are considered by some to be the first Sufis. According to Carl W. Ernst the earliest figures of Sufism are Muhammad his companions. Sufi orders are based on the "bay‘ah", given to Muhammad by his Ṣahabah. By pledging allegiance to Muhammad, the Sahabah had committed themselves to the service of God.
Verily, those who give Bai'âh to you they are giving Bai'âh to Allâh. The Hand of Allâh is over their hands. Whosoever breaks his pledge, breaks it only to his own harm, whosoever fulfils what he has covenanted with Allâh, He will bestow on him a great reward. — Sufis believe that by giving bayʿah to a legitimate Sufi shaykh, one is pledging allegiance to Muhammad. It is through Muhammad that Sufis aim to learn about and connect with God. Ali is regarded as one of the
Dhikr are devotional acts in Islam in which short phrases or prayers are recited silently within the mind or aloud. It can be counted through fingers of the hand. A person who recites the Dhikr is called a ḏākir. Tasbih is a form of dhikr; the content of the prayers includes a duʿāʾ taken from the hadith or the Quran. There are several verses in the Quran that emphasize the importance of remembering the will of God by saying phrases such as "God willing," "God knows best," and "If it is your will.' This is the basis for dhikr. Sura 18, ayah 24 states a person who forgets to say, "God Willing," should remember God by saying, "May my Lord guide me to do better next time." Other verses include sura 33, ayah 41, "O ye who believe! Celebrate the praises of Allah, do this often," and sura 13, ayah 28, "They are the ones whose hearts rejoice in remembering God. By remembering God, the hearts rejoice." Muhammad said,'The best is La ilaha illa’llah, the best supplicatory prayer is Al-hamdu li’llah. Muslims believe dhikr is one of the best ways to enter the higher level of Heaven and to glorify the Oneness of Allah.
To Sufis, dhikr is seen as a way to gain spiritual enlightenment and achieve union or annihilation in God. All Muslim sects endorse individual rosaries as a method of meditation, the goal of, to obtain a feeling of peace, separation from worldly values, and, in general, strengthen Iman. There are several phrases that are read when remembering Allah. Here are a few: Allāh- الله is the Arabic word for God and mentioned in Quran most of the verses. Allāhu ʾakbar - الله أَكْبَر means "God is greater" or "God is the greatest" Subhan Allah - سبحان الله means "Glory be to God" or "How pure is God" or "Exalted be God" Alhamdulillah - الحمد لله means "All praise is due to God", an expression of gratitude Lā ʾilāha ʾillā llah - لا إله إلا الله means "There is no god but Allah" Lā ḥawla wa-lā quwwata ʾillā bi-llāh - لا حول ولاقوة إلا بالله means "There is no power or strength except with God." Bi-smi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm - means "In the name of God, the gracious, the merciful", said before anything of spiritual significance.
Audhubillah - means "I seek refuge in Allah". Laa ilaaha illal laahu wahdahoo laa sharikalahoo lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu wa huwa'alaa kulli shai'in qadeer - means "There is no god but Allah, without partner, his is the sovereignty, His the praise, He has power over everything". SubhanAllah wa biHamdihi - means "Glory be to Allah and Praise Him". SubhanAllahi wa biHamdihi, Subhan-Allahi'l-`adheem Some of these can be said together.e.g- Subhan'Allahi wal hamdulillaahi wa laa ilaaha ilallaahu wAllahu Akbar - means "Glory be to Allah, All Praise is for Allah, There is No God but Allah, Allah is the Greatest". Subhan'Allahi wal hamdulillaahi wa laa ilaaha ilallaahu wAllahu Akbar wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billaahil'aleeul azeem. Laa ilaaha illal laahu wahdahoo laa sharikalahoo lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu wa huwa'alaa kulli shai'in qadeer - means "There is No God But Allah Alone, who has no partner, his is the dominion and His is the raise, He is Able to do all things". Subhan'Allahi wal hamdulillaahi wa laa ilaaha ilallaahu wAllahu Akbar wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billaahil'aleeul azeem.
Laa ilaaha illa Anta, subhaanaka inni kuntu min al-zaalimeen. Reciting the Quran sincerely is considered a kind of Dhikr. E.g.- Reciting Sura Ikhlas / Tawheed is equal to one-third of the Quran. Reciting Sura Ikhlas 10 times gives a palace in Heaven. Reciting Sura Kaafiroon is equal to one-fourth of the Quran. Reciting Sura Nasr is equal to one-fourth of the Quran. Reciting Sura Zalzalah is equal to half of the Quran. "Shall I tell you about the best of deeds, the most pure in the Sight of your Lord, about the one, of the highest order and is far better for you than spending gold and silver better for you than meeting your enemies in the battlefield where you strike at their necks and they at yours?" The companions replied, "Yes, O Messenger ﷺ of Allah!" He replied, "Remembrance of Allah ﷻ". "People will not sit in an assembly in which they remember Allah ﷻ without the angels surrounding them, mercy covering them, Allah ﷻ Mentioning them among those who are with Him" “There is nothing, a greater cause of salvation from the punishment of Allah than the remembrance of Allah" Hadhrat Mu`adh ibn Jabal said that the Prophet ﷺ said: "The People of Paradise will not regret except one thing alone: the hour that passed them by and in which they made no remembrance of Allah ﷻ."
It is mentioned in hadith that where people are oblivious to dhikir, remembrance of Allah is like being steadfast in jihad when others are running away. Followers of Sufism engage in ritualized dhikr ceremonies, the details of which sometimes vary between Sufi orders or tariqah; each order, or lineage within an order, has one or more forms for group dhikr, the liturgy of which may include recitation, music, d
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
A tariqa is a school or order of Sufism, or a concept for the mystical teaching and spiritual practices of such an order with the aim of seeking Haqiqa, which translates as "ultimate truth". A tariqa has a murshid; the members or followers of a tariqa are known as muridin, meaning "desirous", viz. "desiring the knowledge of God and loving God". The metaphor of "way, path" is to be understood in connection of the term sharia which has the meaning of "path", more "well-trodden path; the "path" metaphor of tariqa is that of a further path, taken by the mystic, which continues from the "well-trodden path" or exoteric of sharia towards the esoteric haqiqa. A fourth "station" following the succession of shariah and haqiqa is called marifa; this is the "unseen center" of haqiqa, the ultimate aim of the mystic, corresponding to the unio mystica in Western mysticism. Tasawwuf, Arabic word that refers to mysticism and Islamic esotericism, is known in the West as Sufism; the most popular tariqa in the West is the Mevlevi Order, named after Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi.
In the same time the Bektashi Order was founded, named after the Alevi Muslim saint Haji Bektash Veli. Four large tariqas in South Asia are: the Naqshbandi Order, named after Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari. Large tariqats in Africa include Tijaniyya. Others can be offshoots of a tariqa. For example, the Qalandariyya has roots in Malamatiyya and Wafa'i of orders are offshoots of the Suhrawardi order; the Ashrafia after the 13 the century illustrious sufi saint Ashraf Jahangir Semnani is the sub branch of Chisti spiritual lineage. The Maizbhandari Tariqa or Maizbhandari Sufi Order is a liberated Sufism order established in the Bangladesh in the 19th century by the Gausul Azam Shah Sufi Syed Ahmadullah Maizbhandari, 27th descendent of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Membership of a particular Sufi order is not exclusive and cannot be likened to the ideological commitment to a political party. Unlike the Christian monastic orders which are demarcated by firm lines of authority and sacrament, Sufis are members of various Sufi orders.
The non-exclusiveness of Sufi orders has consequences for the social extension of Sufism. They cannot be regarded as indulging in a zero sum competition which a purely political analysis might have suggested. Rather their joint effect is to impart to Sufism a cumulant body of tradition, rather than individual and isolated experiences. In most cases the sheikh nominates his khalifa or "successor" during his lifetime, who will take over the order. In rare cases, if the sheikh dies without naming a khalifa, the students of the tariqa elect another spiritual leader by vote. In some orders it is recommended to take a Khalif from the same order as the murshid. In some groups it is customary for the khalifa to be the son of the sheikh, although in other groups the khalīfa and the sheikh are not relatives. In yet other orders a successor may be identified through the spiritual dreams of its members. Tariqas have silsilas "chain, lineage of sheikhs". All orders except the Naqshbandi order claim a silsila that leads back to Muhammad through Ali..
Every Murid, on entering the tariqa, gets his awrad, or daily recitations, authorized by his murshid. These recitations are extensive and time-consuming. One must be in a state of ritual purity; the recitations change. The Initiation ceremony is routine and consists of reading chapter 1 of the Quran followed by a single phrase prayer. Criteria have to be met to be promoted in rank: the common way is to repeat a single phrase prayer 82,000 times or more as in the case of Burhaniyya, a number that grows with each achieved rank. Murids who experience unusual interaction during meditation: hear voices like "would you like to see a prophet?" or see visions who might communicate with the Murid are held dear in the "Haḍra", the weekly group-chanting of prayers in attempt of reaching spirits as they are to experience something unusual and pass it on. This Murid is promoted faster than others; the least common way is to cause a miracle to happen with criteria similar to that of Catholic Sainthood. Being followers of the spiritual traditions of Islam loosely referred to as Sufism, these groups were sometimes distinct from the Ulma or mandated scholars, acted as informal missionaries of Islam.
They provided accepted avenues for emotional expressions of faith, the Tariqas spread to all corners of the Muslim world, exercised a degree of political influence inordinate to their size (take for example the influence that the sheikhs of the Safavid had over the armies of Tamerlane, or the missionary work of Ali-Shir Nava'i in Tu