Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York
Beaux-Arts architecture was the academic architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from the 1830s to the end of the 19th century. It drew upon the principles of French neoclassicism, but incorporated Gothic and Renaissance elements, used modern materials, such as iron and glass, it was an important style in France until the end of the 19th century. It had a strong influence on architecture in the United States, because of the many prominent American architects who studied at the Beaux-Arts, including Henry Hobson Richardson, John Galen Howard, Daniel Burnham, Louis Sullivan; the "Beaux Arts" style evolved from the French classicism of the Style Louis XIV, French neoclassicism beginning with Louis XV and Louis XVI. French architectural styles before the French Revolution were governed by Académie royale d'architecture following the French Revolution, by the Architecture section of the Académie des Beaux-Arts; the Academy held the competition for the "Grand Prix de Rome" in architecture, which offered prize winners a chance to study the classical architecture of antiquity in Rome.
The formal neoclassicism of the old regime was challenged by four teachers at the Academy, Joseph-Louis Duc, Félix Duban, Henri Labrouste and Léon Vaudoyer, who had studied at the French Academy in Rome at the end of the 1820s, They wanted to break away from the strict formality of the old style by introducing new models of architecture from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Their goal was to create an authentic French style based on French models, their work was aided beginning in 1837 by the creation of the Commission of Historic Monuments, headed by the writer and historian Prosper Mérimée, by the great interest in the Middle Ages caused by the publication in 1831 of The Hunchback of Notre-Dame by Victor Hugo. Their declared intention was to "imprint upon our architecture a national character."The style referred to as Beaux-Arts in English reached the apex of its development during the Second Empire and the Third Republic that followed. The style of instruction that produced Beaux-Arts architecture continued without major interruption until 1968.
The Beaux-Arts style influenced the architecture of the United States in the period from 1880 to 1920. In contrast, many European architects of the period 1860–1914 outside France gravitated away from Beaux-Arts and towards their own national academic centers. Owing to the cultural politics of the late 19th century, British architects of Imperial classicism followed a somewhat more independent course, a development culminating in Sir Edwin Lutyens's New Delhi government buildings; the Beaux-Arts training emphasized the mainstream examples of Imperial Roman architecture between Augustus and the Severan emperors, Italian Renaissance, French and Italian Baroque models but the training could be applied to a broader range of models: Quattrocento Florentine palace fronts or French late Gothic. American architects of the Beaux-Arts generation returned to Greek models, which had a strong local history in the American Greek Revival of the early 19th century. For the first time, repertories of photographs supplemented meticulous scale drawings and on-site renderings of details.
Beaux-Arts training made great use of clasps that link one architectural detail to another. Beaux-Arts training emphasized the production of quick conceptual sketches finished perspective presentation drawings, close attention to the program, knowledgeable detailing. Site considerations tended toward urbane contexts. All architects-in-training passed through the obligatory stages—studying antique models, constructing analos, analyses reproducing Greek or Roman models, "pocket" studies and other conventional steps—in the long competition for the few desirable places at the Académie de France à Rome with traditional requirements of sending at intervals the presentation drawings called envois de Rome. Beaux-Arts architecture depended on sculptural decoration along conservative modern lines, employing French and Italian Baroque and Rococo formulas combined with an impressionistic finish and realism. In the façade shown above, Diana grasps the cornice she sits on in a natural action typical of Beaux-Arts integration of sculpture with architecture.
Overscaled details, bold sculptural supporting consoles, rich deep cornices and sculptural enrichments in the most bravura finish the client could afford gave employment to several generations of architectural modellers and carvers of Italian and Central European backgrounds. A sense of appropriate idiom at the craftsman level supported the design teams of the first modern architectural offices. Characteristics of Beaux-Arts architecture included: Flat roof Rusticated and raised first story Hierarchy of spaces, from "noble spaces"—grand entrances and staircases—to utilitarian ones Arched windows Arched and pedimented doors Classical details: references to a synthesis of historicist styles and a tendency to eclecticism.
Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus
Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus known as the Ringling Bros. Circus, Ringling Bros. or Ringling was an American traveling circus company billed as The Greatest Show on Earth. It and its predecessor shows ran from 1871 to 2017. Known as Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Combined Shows, the circus started in 1919 when the Barnum & Bailey's Greatest Show on Earth, a circus created by P. T. Barnum and James Anthony Bailey, was merged with the Ringling Bros. World's Greatest Shows; the Ringling brothers had purchased Barnum & Bailey Ltd. following Bailey's death in 1906, but ran the circuses separately until they were merged in 1919. After 1956 the circus no longer exhibited under their own portable "big top" tents, instead using permanent venues such as sports stadiums and arenas. In 1967, Irvin Feld and his brother Israel, along with Houston Judge Roy Hofheinz bought the circus from the Ringling family. In 1971, the Felds and Hofheinz sold the circus to Mattel, buying it back from the toy company in 1982.
Since the death of Irvin Feld in 1984, the circus had been a part of Feld Entertainment, an international entertainment firm headed by Kenneth Feld, with its headquarters in Ellenton, Florida. With weakening attendance, many animal rights protests, high operating costs, the circus performed their final show on May 21, 2017 at Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum and closed after 146 years. Hachaliah Bailey appears to have established the first circus in the United States after he purchased an African Elephant, which he named "Old Bet", around 1806. With it as his star attraction he formed the Bailey Circus, which included a trained dog, several pigs, a horse and four wagons; this was the impetus for what in time evolved into the Bailey component of what became the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus. P. T. Barnum, who as a boy had worked as a ticket seller for Hachaliah Bailey's show, had run the Barnum's American Museum from New York City since 1841 from the former Scudder's American Museum building.
Besides building up the existing exhibits, Barnum brought in animals to add zoo-like elements, a freak show. During this time, Barnum took the Museum on road tours, named "P. T. Barnum's Grand Traveling American Museum"; the Museum burned down in July 1865. Though Barnum attempted to re-establish the Museum at another location in the city, it too burned down in 1868, Barnum opted to retire from the museum business. In 1871, Dan Castello and William Cameron Coup persuaded Barnum to come out of retirement as to lend his name, know-how and financial backing to the circus they had created in Delavan, Wisconsin; the combined show was named "P. T. Barnum's Great Traveling Museum, Menagerie and Hippodrome"; as described by Barnum and Coup "had a show, immense, combined all the elements of museum, variety performance, concert hall, circus", considered it to be "the Greatest Show on Earth", which subsequently became part of the circus's name. Independently of Castello and Coup, James Anthony Bailey had teamed up with James E. Cooper to create the Cooper and Bailey Circus in the 1860s.
The Cooper and Bailey Circus became the chief competitor to Barnum's circus. As Bailey's circus was outperforming his, Barnum sought to merge the circuses; the two groups agreed to combine their shows on March 28, 1881. Named "P. T. Barnum's Greatest Show On Earth, And The Great London Circus, Sanger's Royal British Menagerie and The Grand International Allied Shows United", it was shortened to "Barnum and Bailey's Circus". Bailey was instrumental in acquiring Jumbo, advertised as the world's largest elephant, for the show. Barnum died in 1891 and Bailey purchased the circus from his widow. Bailey continued touring the eastern United States; that tour started on December 27, 1897, lasted until 1902. Separately, in 1884, five of the seven Ringling brothers had started a small circus in Baraboo, Wisconsin; this was about the same time that Bailey were at the peak of their popularity. Similar to dozens of small circuses that toured the Midwest and the Northeast at the time, the brothers moved their circus from town to town in small animal-drawn caravans.
Their circus grew and they were soon able to move their circus by train, which allowed them to have the largest traveling amusement enterprise of that time. Bailey's European tour gave the Ringling brothers an opportunity to move their show from the Midwest to the eastern seaboard. Faced with the new competition, Bailey took his show west of the Rocky Mountains for the first time in 1905, he died the next year, the circus was sold to the Ringling Brothers. The Ringlings purchased the Barnum & Bailey Greatest Show on Earth in 1907 and ran the circuses separately until 1919. By that time, Charles Edward Ringling and John Nicholas Ringling were the only remaining brothers of the five who founded the circus, they decided that it was too difficult to run the two circuses independently, on March 29, 1919, "Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Combined Shows" debuted in New York City. The posters declared. World's Greatest Shows and the Barnum & Bailey Greatest Show on Earth are now combined into one record-breaking giant of all exhibitions."
Charles E. Ringling died in 1926. John Ringling had the circus move its headquarters to Sarasota, Florida in 1927. In 1929, the American Circus Corporation signed a contract to perform in New York City. John Ringling purchased owner of five circuses, for $1.7 million. In 1938, the circus made a lucrative offer to Frank Buck, a well-known adventurer and animal collector, to tour as their star attraction and to enter the show astride an elephant, he refuse
Néo-Grec was a Neoclassical revival style of the mid-to-late 19th century, popularized in architecture, the decorative arts, in painting during France's Second Empire, or the reign of Napoleon III. The Néo-Grec vogue took as its starting point the earlier expressions of the Neoclassical style inspired by 18th-century excavations at Pompeii, which resumed in earnest in 1848, similar excavations at Herculaneum; the style mixed elements of the Graeco-Roman, Pompeian and Egyptian Revivals into "a richly eclectic polychrome mélange." "The style enjoyed a vogue in the USA, had a short-lived impact on interior design in England and elsewhere." In architecture the Neo-Grec is not always distinguishable from the Neoclassical designs of the earlier part of the century, in buildings such as the Church of the Madeleine, Paris. The classic example of Neo-Grec architecture is Henri Labrouste's innovative Bibliothèque Sainte Genevieve in Paris, 1843–50 seen as the first major public building in this mode of classicism.
Not only was the Neo-Grec popular in France, but in Victorian England and in the United States, where its severity accorded with the "American Renaissance". The architectural historian Neil Levine has explained the style as a reaction against the rigidity of classicism. According to Levine, Neo-Grec was a somewhat looser style, which "replaced the rhetorical form of classical architectural discourse by a more literal and descriptive syntax of form." It was meant to be a "readable" architecture. American architect Richard Morris Hunt introduced Neo-Grec massing into his buildings in the late 1860s and 1870s. Hunt's student, Frank Furness, did the same in his early Philadelphia buildings, experimented with using massing and visual "weight" for dramatic effect. In the decorative arts, Neo-Grec was based on the standard repertory of Greco-Roman ornament, combining motifs drawn from Greek vase-painting and repetitive architectural motifs like anthemions, Greek key with elements from the Adam and Louis XVI styles of early Neoclassicism, of Napoleonic-era Egyptian revival decorative arts.
Neo-Grec was eclectic, abstracted and sometimes bizarre. Its treatment was intentionally linear, its vignettes and repeating patterns lent themselves to stencilling. Typical "Neo-Grec" color harmonies were rich and harsh: black motifs and outlines against "Pompeian" red, powder blue and puce and olive drab might be combined in a single decor; the style maintained its supremacy before other fashions came to the top in France. Frank Furness and furniture maker Daniel Pabst created Neo-Grec furniture for the city house of liquor baron Henry C. Gibson, circa 1870, for the library of the architect's brother, Horace Howard Furness, circa 1871, they created paneling and furniture for the Manhattan city house of Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. circa 1873. Pabst's Modern Gothic exhibition cabinet, now at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, mixed Gothic detailing and exaggerated Corinthian capitals. In painting, the Neoclassical style continued to be taught in the French Academy des Beaux-Arts, inculcating crisp outlines, pellucid atmosphere, a clear, clean palette.
However, a formal Neo-Grec group of artists was created in the mid 19th century after growing interest in Ancient Greece and Rome, the excavations at Pompeii. The Paris Salon of 1847, an art exhibition, revealed the academic painter Jean-Léon Gérôme, who in The Cock Fight depicted a composition in which, in a scene of antiquity, a young boy and a girl attend the combat of two cocks. Gérôme gained fame from this exhibition, in the next year formed the Neo-Grec group with Jean-Louis Hamon and Henri-Pierre Picou—all three pupils in the same atelier under Charles Gleyre. Gleyre himself adopted the tenets of neo-classicism more than others at the time, adopting the classical style and aesthetic, but exclusively applying it to myths and motifs from antiquity, recalling both characters from Greek myth, antique emblems such as bacchantes and putti; the Neo-Grec group took Gleyre's style and interests, but adapted it from use in history painting as in Gleyre's work, into genre painting. Because they were inspired by discoveries at Pompeii, they were called néo-pompéiens.
The paintings of the Neo-Grecs sought to capture everyday, anecdotal trivialities of ancient Greek life, in a manner of whimsy and charm, were realistic and erotic. For this reason they were called "anacreontic" after the Greek poet Anacreon, who wrote sprightly verses in praise of love and wine. Alfred de Tanouarn describes one of Hamon's paintings as "clear and natural, the idea, the attitudes and the aspects, it leads the lips a soft smile. It can be said the motto of this group was "the goal of art is to charm". Most Neo-Grec paintings were done in a horizontal layout as in a frieze decoration or Greek vases, with the composition simplified; the Neo-Grec school was criticized in many respects. The painters were charged with selectively adopting the ancient Greek style, in that they left out noble themes and only focused on trivial daily life—leading to the accusation
Canada Lee was an American actor who pioneered roles for African Americans. After careers as a jockey and musician, he became an actor in the Federal Theatre Project, most notably in a 1936 production of Macbeth adapted and directed by Orson Welles. Lee starred in Welles's original Broadway production of Native Son. A champion of civil rights in the 1930s and 1940s, Lee was blacklisted and died shortly before he was scheduled to appear before the House Un-American Activities Committee, he furthered. Lee was the father of actor Carl Lee. Canada Lee was born Leonard Lionel Cornelius Canegata on March 3, 1907, in the San Juan Hill neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City, his father, James Cornelius Lionel Canegata, was born on the Caribbean island of St. Croix, as a youth had migrated to New York, where he married Lydia Whaley Gadsen. Raised by his parents in Harlem, Lee had an aptitude for music, at age seven he began studying violin and piano with J. Rosamond Johnson at the Music School Settlement for Colored People.
He made his concert debut at age 11. But after seven years of music studies, without explanation, he put away his violin and ran away from home. In 1921, aged 14, Lee went to Saratoga Springs, New York, began a two-year career as a jockey. Lee returned to his parents' home in Harlem in 1923 with no idea, he considered returning to music. At one amateur match, fight announcer Joe Humphries saw the name "Canagata, Lee" on the card he was using, he instead announced "Canada Lee" -- a name that Lee liked and adopted. In the amateur ring he won 90 out of the national amateur lightweight title. Lee turned pro at age 19, in October 1926, became a favorite with audiences. At 5 feet 9 inches and about 144 pounds, he fought as a welterweight, his boxing statistics vary due to incomplete coverage and record keeping for the sport in the 1920s and 1930s. Boxing historian Donald R. Koss documents Lee having 60 bouts 1927–31, the majority of them taking place 1927–28; the New York Times reported that Lee had some 200 professional matches and lost only about 25.
During his victorious 10-round bout with Andy Divodi at Madison Square Garden on December 12, 1929, Lee was dealt a blow over his right ear that detached his retina. With treatment his vision could have been saved, but Lee feared losing his successful career and masked his injury. In time he lost all sight in his right eye, he quit professional boxing in 1933. Despite having made an estimated $90,000 during his boxing career, Lee was broke. "Just threw it away," Lee said. Lee lobbied for insurance, health care, financial consultation and retirement homes for fighters. "The average boxer possesses little education," he said in 1946. "If he winds up broke, he has no trade, no education and nobody to turn to."As Lee's fighting career began to wind down, he put together a small dance band that played at obscure clubs. When an old friend, sportswriter Ed Sullivan, plugged him in his new entertainment column and his group began landing better engagements, his career as a bandleader peaked in 1933. The following year he opened his own small club, The Jitterbug, which he managed to operate for six months.
When it closed he had no prospects, his mother convinced him to get a job. All my life I've been on the verge of something. I'm becoming a concert violinist and I run away to the races. I'm a good jockey and I go overweight. I'm a champion prizefighter and my eyes go bad. Now I've got it, now I've got what I'm going to be. Lee discovered a love for Broadway theatre during his years as a prizefighter, he remembered Show Boat as the first stage production he saw: "A big, tough fighter, all muscle, just sobbing," he recalled. His acting career began by accident in 1934. While at a YMCA to apply for a job as a laborer, Lee stumbled upon an audition in progress and was recognized by playwright Augustus Smith. Lee was invited to try out, won a supporting role in Brother Mose, directed by Frank H. Wilson. Sponsored by New York's Civil Works Administration, the show toured the boroughs, playing at community centers and city parks into the fall of the year. In October 1934 Lee succeeded Rex Ingram in the Theatre Union's revival of Stevedore, which toured to Chicago and other U.
S. cities after its run on Broadway. It was his first professional role. Lee was cast in his first major role, that of Banquo, in the legendary Federal Theatre Project production of Macbeth and directed by Orson Welles."I never would have amounted to anything in the theatre if it hadn't been for Orson Welles," Lee recalled. "The way I looked at acting, it was interesting and it was better than going hungry. But I didn't have a serious approach to it until … I bumped into Orson Welles, he was putting on a Federal Theatre production of Macbeth with Negro players and, somehow, I won the part of Banquo. He rehearsed us for six solid months, but when the play went on before an audience, it was right—and it was a wonderful sensation, knowing it was right; the theatre became important to me. I had a respect for it, for. I had the ambition—I caught it from Orson Welles—to work like mad and be a convincing actor."Macbeth was sold out for ten weeks at the Lafayette Theatre. After an additional two weeks on Broadway it toured the nation, including performances at the Texas Centennial Expos
W. C. Handy
William Christopher Handy was a composer and musician, known as the Father of the Blues. An African American, Handy was one of the most influential songwriters in the United States. One of many musicians who played the distinctively American blues music, Handy did not create the blues genre and was not the first to publish music in the blues form, but he took the blues from a regional music style with a limited audience to a new level of popularity. Handy was an educated musician, he was scrupulous in documenting the sources of his works, which combined stylistic influences from various performers. Handy was born in Florence, the son of Elizabeth Brewer and Charles Barnard Handy, his father was the pastor of a small church in Guntersville, a small town in northeast central Alabama. Handy wrote in his 1941 autobiography, Father of the Blues, that he was born in a log cabin built by his grandfather William Wise Handy, who became an African Methodist Episcopal minister after the Emancipation Proclamation.
The log cabin of Handy's birth has been preserved near downtown Florence. Handy's father believed. Without his parents' permission, Handy bought his first guitar, which he had seen in a local shop window and secretly saved for by picking berries and nuts and making lye soap. Upon seeing the guitar, his father asked him, "What possessed you to bring a sinful thing like that into our Christian home?" and ordered him to "take it back where it came from", but he arranged for his son to take organ lessons. The organ lessons did not last long, he joined a local band as a teenager. He spent every free minute practicing it. While growing up, he apprenticed in carpentry and plastering, he was religious. His musical style was influenced by the church music he sang and played in his youth and by the sounds of nature, he cited as inspiration the "whippoorwills and hoot owls and their outlandish noises", Cypress Creek washing on the fringes of the woodland, "the music of every songbird and all the symphonies of their unpremeditated art".
He worked on a "shovel brigade" at the McNabb furnace and described the music made by the workers as they beat shovels, altering the tone while thrusting and withdrawing the metal part against the iron buggies to pass the time while waiting for the overfilled furnace to digest its ore. He called the sound "better to us than the music of a martial drum corps, our rhythms were far more complicated." He wrote, "Southern Negroes sang about everything... They accompany themselves on anything from which they can extract a musical sound or rhythmical effect." He would reflect, "In this way, from these materials, they set the mood for what we now call blues". In September 1892, Handy travelled to Alabama, to take a teaching exam, he passed it and gained a teaching job at the Teachers Agriculture and Mechanical College in Huntsville. Learning that it paid poorly, he quit the position and found employment at a pipe works plant in nearby Bessemer. In his time off from his job, he organized a small string orchestra and taught musicians how to read music.
He organized the Lauzetta Quartet. When the group read about the upcoming World's Fair in Chicago, they decided to attend. To pay their way, they performed odd jobs along the way, they arrived in Chicago only to learn. Next they headed to St. Louis, but found working conditions were bad. After the quartet disbanded, Handy went to Indiana, he played the cornet in the Chicago World's Fair in 1893. In Evansville, he joined a successful band that performed throughout neighboring states, his musical endeavors were varied: he sang first tenor in a minstrel show, worked as a band director, choral director and trumpeter. At the age of 23, he became the bandmaster of Mahara's Colored Minstrels. In a three-year tour they traveled to Chicago, throughout Texas and Oklahoma to Tennessee and Florida, on to Cuba. Handy was paid a salary of $6 per week. Returning from Cuba the band traveled north through Alabama, where they stopped to perform in Huntsville. Weary of life on the road, he and his wife, stayed with relatives in his nearby hometown of Florence.
In 1896, while performing at a barbecue in Henderson, Handy met Elizabeth Price. They married on July 19, 1896, she gave birth to Lucille, the first of their six children, on June 29, 1900, after they had settled in Florence. Around that time, William Hooper Councill, the president of the Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes, in Normal, hired Handy to teach music, he became a faculty member in September 1900 and taught through much of 1902. He was disheartened to discover that the college emphasized teaching European music considered to be "classical", he could make more money touring with a minstrel group. In 1902 Handy traveled throughout Mississippi; the state was rural and music was part of the culture in cotton plantations in the Mississippi Delta. Musicians played guitar or banjo or, to a much lesser extent, piano. Handy's remarkable memory transcribe the music he heard in his travels. After a dispute with AAMC President Council, Handy resigned his teaching position to return to the Mahara Minstrels and tour the Midwest and Pacific Northwest.
In 1903 he became t
Roy Ottoway Wilkins was a prominent activist in the Civil Rights Movement in the United States from the 1930s to the 1970s. Wilkins' most notable role was in his leadership of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Wilkins was born in St. Louis, Missouri on August 30, 1901, his father was not present for his birth, having fled the town in fear of being lynched after he refused demands to step away and yield the sidewalk to a white man. When he was four years old, his mother died from tuberculosis, after which Wilkins and his siblings were raised by an aunt and uncle in the Rondo Neighborhood of St. Paul, where they attended local schools, his nephew was Roger Wilkins. Wilkins graduated from the University of Minnesota with a degree in sociology in 1923. In 1929, he married social worker Aminda "Minnie" Badeau. While attending college, Wilkins worked as a journalist at The Minnesota Daily and became editor of The Appeal, an African-American newspaper. After he graduated he became the editor of The Call in 1923.
His confrontation of the Jim Crow Laws led to his activist work, in 1931 he moved to New York City as assistant NAACP secretary under Walter Francis White. When W. E. B. Du Bois left the organization in 1934, Wilkins replaced him as editor of The Crisis, the official magazine of the NAACP. From 1949-50, Wilkins chaired the National Emergency Civil Rights Mobilization, which comprised more than 100 local and national groups, he served as an adviser to the War Department during World War II. In 1950, Wilkins — along with A. Philip Randolph, founder of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, Arnold Aronson, a leader of the National Jewish Community Relations Advisory Council — founded the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights. LCCR has become the premier civil rights coalition, has coordinated the national legislative campaign on behalf of every major civil rights law since 1957. In 1955, Roy Wilkins was chosen to be the executive secretary of the NAACP, in 1964 he became its executive director.
He had developed an excellent reputation as an articulate spokesperson for the civil rights movement. One of his first actions was to provide support to civil rights activists in Mississippi who were being subjected to a "credit squeeze" by members of the White Citizens Councils. Wilkins backed a proposal suggested by Dr. T. R. M. Howard of Mound Bayou, who headed the Regional Council of Negro Leadership, a leading civil rights organization in the state. Under the plan, black businesses and voluntary associations shifted their accounts to the black-owned Tri-State Bank of Memphis, Tennessee. By the end of 1955, about $300,000 had been deposited in Tri-State for this purpose; the money enabled Tri-State to extend loans to credit-worthy blacks who were denied loans by white banks. Wilkins participated in the March on Washington which he helped organize, the Selma to Montgomery marches, the March Against Fear, he believed in achieving reform by legislative means, testified before many Congressional hearings and conferred with Presidents Kennedy, Nixon and Carter.
Wilkins opposed militancy in the movement for civil rights as represented by the "black power" movement due to his non-violence principles. He was a strong critic of racism in any form regardless of its creed, color, or political motivation, he declared that violence and racial separation of blacks and whites were not the answer; as late as 1962, Wilkins criticized the direct action methods of the Freedom Riders, but changed his stance after the Birmingham campaign, was arrested for leading a picketing protest in 1963. On issues of segregation, as well, he was a proponent of systematic integration instead of radical desegregation. In a 1964 interview with Robert Penn Warren for the book Who Speaks for the Negro?, he declared, We Negroes want the improvements in the public school system – and among them, of course, the elimination of segregation, based upon race – the institution of the same quality education in the schools attended by our children as those attended by other children, we want Negro teachers and we want Negro supervisors, we want all the opportunity, but the only way our form of government and our structure of society can survive is by some common indoctrination of our citizenry, we have found this in the public school system.
And, for any reformer, black or white, zealot or not, to come along and say, "I'll destroy it, if it doesn't do like I want it to do," is dangerous business, as far as I'm concerned. However, these moderate views brought him into conflict with younger, more militant black activists who saw him as an "Uncle Tom". Wilkins was a member of Omega Psi Phi, a fraternity with a civil rights focus, one of the intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternities established for African Americans. In 1964, he was awarded the Spingarn Medal by the NAACP. In 1967, Wilkins was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Lyndon Johnson. During his tenure, the NAACP played a pivotal role in leading the nation into the Civil Rights Movement and spearheaded the efforts that led to significant civil rights victories, including Brown v. Board of Education, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In 1968, Wilkins served as chair of the U. S. delegation to the International Conference on Human Rights. After turning 70 in 1971, he faced increased calls to step down as NAACP chief.
In 1976, he fell into a dispute with undisclosed board members at the NAACP national convention in Memphis, Tennessee. Although he had intended to retire that year, he