Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects. Bees produce honey from the sugary secretions of plants or from secretions of other insects, by regurgitation, enzymatic activity, water evaporation. Bees store honey in wax structures called a honeycomb; the variety of honey produced by honey bees is the best-known, due to its worldwide commercial production and human consumption. Honey is collected from wild bee colonies, or from hives of domesticated bees, a practice known as beekeeping or apiculture. Honey gets its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucose, has about the same relative sweetness as sucrose, it has attractive chemical properties for a distinctive flavor when used as a sweetener. Most microorganisms do not grow in honey, so sealed honey does not spoil after thousands of years. Honey provides 46 calories in a serving of one tablespoon. Honey is regarded as safe. Honey use and production have a long and varied history as an ancient activity.
Several cave paintings in Cuevas de la Araña, depict humans foraging for honey at least 8,000 years ago. Honey is produced by bees collecting nectar for use as sugars consumed to support metabolism of muscle activity during foraging or to be stored as a long-term food supply. During foraging, bees access part of the nectar collected to support metabolic activity of flight muscles, with the majority of collected nectar destined for regurgitation and storage as honey. In cold weather or when other food sources are scarce and larval bees use stored honey as food. By contriving for bee swarms to nest in human-made hives, people have been able to semidomesticate the insects and harvest excess honey. In the hive or in a wild nest, the three types of bees are: a single female queen bee a seasonally variable number of male drone bees to fertilize new queens 20,000 to 40,000 female worker beesLeaving the hive, a foraging bee collects sugar-rich flower nectar, sucking it through its proboscis and placing it in its proventriculus, which lies just dorsal to its food stomach.
The honey stomach holds about 40 mg of nectar, or 50% of the bee's unloaded weight, which can require over a thousand flowers and more than an hour to fill. The nectar begins with a water content of 70 to 80%. Salivary enzymes and proteins from the bee's hypopharyngeal gland are added to the nectar to begin breaking down the sugars, raising the water content slightly; the forager bees return to the hive, where they regurgitate and transfer nectar to the hive bees. The hive bees use their honey stomachs to ingest and regurgitate the nectar, forming bubbles between their mandibles until it is digested; the bubbles create a large surface area per volume and a portion of the water is removed through evaporation. Bee digestive enzymes hydrolyze sucrose to a mixture of glucose and fructose, break down other starches and proteins, increasing the acidity; the bees work together as a group with the regurgitation and digestion for as long as 20 minutes, passing the nectar from one bee to the next, until the product reaches the honeycombs in storage quality.
It is placed in honeycomb cells and left unsealed while still high in water content and natural yeasts which, would cause the sugars in the newly formed honey to ferment. Bees are some of the few insects that can generate large amounts of body heat, thus the hive bees regulate the hive temperature, either heating with their bodies or cooling with water evaporation, to maintain a constant temperature in the honey-storage areas around 35 °C; the process continues as hive bees flutter their wings to circulate air and evaporate water from the honey to a content around 18%, raising the sugar concentration beyond the saturation point and preventing fermentation. The bees cap the cells with wax to seal them; as removed from the hive by a beekeeper, honey has a long shelf life and will not ferment if properly sealed. Another source of honey is from a number of wasp species, such as Brachygastra lecheguana and Brachygastra mellifica, which are found in South and Central America; these species are known to produce honey.
Some wasps, such as Polistes versicolor consume honey themselves, alternating between feeding on pollen in the middle of their lifecycles and feeding on honey, which can better provide for their energy needs. Honey is collected from domesticated beehives. On average, a hive will produce about 65 pounds of honey per year. Wild bee nests are sometimes located by following a honeyguide bird. To safely collect honey from a hive, beekeepers pacify the bees using a bee smoker; the smoke triggers a feeding instinct, making them less aggressive and the smoke obscures the pheromones the bees use to communicate. The honeycomb is removed from the hive and the honey may be extracted from that, either by crushing or by using a honey extractor; the honey is usually filtered to remove beeswax and other debris. Before the invention of removable frames, bee colonies were sacrificed to conduct the harvest; the harvester would replace the entire colony the next spring. Since the invention of removable frames, the principles of husbandry led most beekeepers to ensure that their bees have enough stores to survive the winter, either by leaving some honey in the beehive or by providing the colony with a honey substitute such as sugar water or crystalline sugar.
The amount o
Corn starch or maize starch is the starch derived from the corn grain. The starch is obtained from the endosperm of the kernel. Corn starch is a common food ingredient, used in thickening sauces or soups, in making corn syrup and other sugars, it is versatile modified, finds many uses in industry as adhesives, in paper products, as an anti-sticking agent, textile manufacturing. It has medical uses, such as to supply glucose for people with glycogen storage disease. Like many products in dust form, it can be hazardous in large quantities due to its flammability; when mixed with a fluid, cornstarch can rearrange itself into a non-Newtonian fluid. For example, adding water transforms cornstarch into a material known as Oobleck while adding oil transforms cornstarch into an electrorheological fluid; the concept can be explained through the mixture termed "cornflour slime". Cornstarch was discovered in 1840 by Thomas Kingsford, superintendent of a wheat starch factory in Jersey City, New Jersey; until 1851, corn starch was used for starching laundry and other industrial uses.
Although used for cooking and as a household item, cornstarch is used for many purposes in several industries, ranging from its use as a chemical additive for certain products, to medical therapy for certain illnesses. Cornstarch is used as a thickening agent in liquid-based foods by mixing it with a lower-temperature liquid to form a paste or slurry, it is sometimes preferred over flour alone because it forms a translucent, rather than opaque mixture. As the starch is heated, the molecular chains unravel, allowing them to collide with other starch chains to form a mesh, thickening the liquid, it is included as an anticaking agent in powdered sugar. A common substitute is arrowroot. Food producers reduce production costs by adding varying amounts of cornstarch to foods, for example to cheese and yogurt. Chicken nuggets with a thin outer layer of cornstarch allows increased oil absorption and crispness after the latter stages of frying. Baby powder may include cornstarch among its ingredients. Cornstarch may be used in the manufacture of airbags.
Cornstarch is the preferred anti-stick agent on medical products made from natural latex, including condoms and medical gloves. Cornstarch has properties enabling supply of glucose to maintain blood sugar levels for people with glycogen storage disease. Cornstarch can be used starting at age 6–12 months allowing glucose fluctuations to be deterred; the corn is steeped for 30 to 48 hours. The germ is separated from the endosperm and those two components are ground separately. Next the starch is removed from each by washing; the starch is separated from the corn steep liquor, the cereal germ, the fibers and the corn gluten in hydrocyclones and centrifuges, dried. This process is called wet milling; the starch may be modified for specific purposes. Like many other powders, cornstarch is susceptible to dust explosions, it is believed that overheating of a cornstarch-based powder on June 27, 2015, initiated the Formosa Fun Coast explosion in Taiwan, despite warnings on the packaging indicating that the material is flammable.
Called cornstarch in the United States and Canada. The term corn flour refers to cornmeal, finely milled. Although not a flour as such, called cornflour in the United Kingdom, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries. Distinct in these countries from cornmeal. Amylomaize, high amylose starch Bird's Custard, the English custard based on cornflour, invented in 1837 Waxy corn, waxy maize starch Corn sauce Corn syrup Corn ethanol Modified starch Potato starch Tapioca starch American Corn Refiners Association
Inverted sugar syrup
Inverted sugar syrup is an edible mixture of two simple sugars—glucose and fructose—that is made by heating sucrose with water. It is thought to be sweeter than table sugar, foods that contain it retain moisture and crystallize less easily. Bakers, who call it invert syrup, may use it more than other sweeteners. Though inverted sugar syrup can be made by heating table sugar in water alone, the reaction can be sped up by adding lemon juice, cream of tartar or other catalysts without changing the flavor noticeably; the mixture of the two simple sugars is formed by a process of hydrolysis of sucrose. This mixture has the opposite direction of optical rotation as the original sugar, why it is called an invert sugar. Table sugar is converted to invert sugar by hydrolysis. Heating a mixture or solution of table sugar and water breaks the chemical bond that links together the two simple-sugar components; the balanced chemical equation for the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose is: C12H22O11 + H2O → C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 Once a sucrose solution has had some of its sucrose turned into glucose and fructose the solution is no longer said to be pure.
The gradual decrease in purity of a sucrose solution as it is hydrolyzed affects a chemical property of the solution called optical rotation that can be used to figure out how much of the sucrose has been hydrolyzed and therefore whether the solution has been inverted or not. A kind of light called plane polarized light can be shone through a sucrose solution as it is heated up for hydrolysis; such light has an ` angle'. When such light is shone through a solution of pure sucrose it comes out the other side with a different angle than when it entered; when the rotation between the angle the light has when it enters and when it exits is in the clockwise direction, the light is said to be'rotated right' and α is given to have a positive angle like 64 degrees. When the rotation between the angle the light has when it enters and when it exits is in the counterclockwise direction, the light is said to be'rotated left' and α is given a negative angle like − 39 degrees; when plane polarized light enters and exits a solution of pure sucrose its angle is rotated 66.5 degrees.
As the sucrose is heated up and hydrolyzed the amount of glucose and fructose in the mixture increases and the optical rotation decreases. After α passes zero and becomes a negative optical rotation, meaning that the rotation between the angle the light has when it enters and when it exits is in the counter clockwise direction, it is said that the optical rotation has'inverted' its direction; this leads to the definition of an'inversion point' as the per cent amount sucrose that has to be hydrolyzed before α equals zero. Any solution which has passed the inversion point is said to be'inverted'; as the shapes of the molecules of sucrose and fructose are all asymmetrical the three sugars come in several different forms, called stereoisomers. The existence of these forms is; when plane polarized light passes through a pure solution of one of these forms of one of the sugars it is thought to hit and'glance off' certain asymmetrical chemical bonds within the molecule of that form of that sugar. Because those particular bonds are different in each form of the sugar, each form rotates the light to a different degree.
When any one form of a sugar is purified and put in water, it takes other forms of the same sugar. This means that a solution of a pure sugar has all of its stereoisomers present in the solution in different amounts which do not change much; this has an'averaging' effect on all of the optical rotation angles of the different forms of the sugar and leads to the pure sugar solution having its own'total' optical rotation, called its'specific rotation' or'observed specific rotation' and, written as. Water molecules do not have chirality, therefore they do not have any effect on the measurement of optical rotation; when plane polarized light enters a body of pure water its angle is no different than. Thus, for water, = 0 degrees. Chemicals that, like water, have specific rotations that equal zero degrees are called'optically inactive' chemicals and like water, they do not need to be considered when calculating optical rotation; the overall optical rotation of a mixture of chemicals can be calculated if the proportion of the amount of each chemical in the solution is known.
If there are N -many optically active different chemicals in a solution and the molar concentration (the number of moles of each chemical per
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. The various types of sugar are derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose and galactose. "Table sugar" or "granulated sugar" refers to a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into glucose. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants, but sucrose is concentrated in sugarcane and sugar beet, making them ideal for efficient commercial extraction to make refined sugar. Sugarcane originated in tropical Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, is known of from before 6,000 BP, sugar beet was first described in writing by Olivier de Serres and originated in southwestern and Southeast Europe along the Atlantic coasts and the Mediterranean Sea, in North Africa, Macaronesia, to Western Asia. In 2016, the combined world production of those two crops was about two billion tonnes. Other disaccharides include lactose. Longer chains of sugar molecules are called polysaccharides.
Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols, may have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar. Sucrose is used in prepared foods, is sometimes added to commercially available beverages, may be used by people as a sweetener for foods and beverages; the average person consumes about 24 kilograms of sugar each year, or 33.1 kilograms in developed countries, equivalent to over 260 food calories per day. As sugar consumption grew in the latter part of the 20th century, researchers began to examine whether a diet high in sugar refined sugar, was damaging to human health. Excessive consumption of sugar has been implicated in the onset of obesity, cardiovascular disease and tooth decay. Numerous studies have tried to clarify those implications, but with varying results because of the difficulty of finding populations for use as controls that consume little or no sugar. In 2015, the World Health Organization recommended that adults and children reduce their intake of free sugars to less than 10%, encouraged a reduction to below 5%, of their total energy intake.
The etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. From Sanskrit शर्करा, meaning "ground or candied sugar," "grit, gravel", came Persian shakar, whence Arabic سكر, whence Medieval Latin succarum, whence 12th-century French sucre, whence the English word sugar. Italian zucchero, Spanish azúcar, Portuguese açúcar came directly from Arabic, the Spanish and Portuguese words retaining the Arabic definite article; the earliest Greek word attested is σάκχαρις. The English word jaggery, a coarse brown sugar made from date palm sap or sugarcane juice, has a similar etymological origin: Portuguese jágara from the Malayalam ചക്കരാ, itself from the Sanskrit शर्करा. Sugar has been produced in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times and its cultivation spread from there into modern-day Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass, it was not plentiful or cheap in early times, in most parts of the world, honey was more used for sweetening. People chewed raw sugarcane to extract its sweetness. Sugarcane was a native of Southeast Asia.
Different species seem to have originated from different locations with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea. One of the earliest historical references to sugarcane is in Chinese manuscripts dating to 8th century BCE, which state that the use of sugarcane originated in India. In the tradition of Indian medicine, the sugarcane is known by the name Ikṣu and the sugarcane juice is known as Phāṇita, its varieties and characterics are defined in nighaṇṭus such as the Bhāvaprakāśa. Sugar remained unimportant until the Indians discovered methods of turning sugarcane juice into granulated crystals that were easier to store and to transport. Crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, around the 5th century CE. In the local Indian language, these crystals were called khanda, the source of the word candy. Indian sailors, who carried clarified butter and sugar as supplies, introduced knowledge of sugar along the various trade routes they travelled.
Traveling Buddhist monks took sugar crystallization methods to China. During the reign of Harsha in North India, Indian envoys in Tang China taught methods of cultivating sugarcane after Emperor Taizong of Tang made known his interest in sugar. China established its first sugarcane plantations in the seventh century. Chinese documents confirm at least two missions to India, initiated in 647 CE, to obtain technology for sugar refining. In the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and China, sugar became a staple of cooking and desserts. Nearchus, admiral of Alexander of Macedonia, knew of sugar during the year 325 B. C. because of his participation in the campaign of India led by Alexander. The Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides in the 1st century CE described sugar in his medical treatise De Materia Medica, Pliny the Elder, a 1st-century CE Roman, described sugar in his Natural History: "Sugar is made in Arabia as well, but Indian sugar is better, it is a kind of honey found in cane, white as gum, it crunches between the teeth.
It comes in lumps the size of a hazelnut. Sugar is used only for medical purposes." Crusaders brought sugar back to Europe after their campaigns in the Hol
History of sugar
Sugar was first produced from sugarcane plants in northern India sometime after the first century CE. The derivation of the word “sugar” is thought to be from Sanskrit, Sanskrit literature from ancient India, written between 1500 - 500 B. C. provides the first documentation of the cultivation of sugar cane and of the manufacture of sugar in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent. The Sanskrit name for a crudely made sugar substance was guda, meaning “to make into a ball or to conglomerate.” The history of sugar has five main phases: The extraction of sugar cane juice from the sugarcane plant, the subsequent domestication of the plant in tropical Southeast Asia sometime around 8,000 B. C; the invention of manufacture of cane sugar granules from sugarcane juice in India a little over two thousand years ago, followed by improvements in refining the crystal granules in India in the early centuries A. D; the spread of cultivation and manufacture of cane sugar to the medieval Islamic world together with some improvements of production methods.
The spread of cultivation and manufacture of cane sugar to the West Indies and tropical parts of the Americas beginning in the 16th century, followed by more intensive improvements in production in the 17th through 19th centuries in that part of the world. The development of beet sugar, high fructose corn syrup and other sweeteners in the 19th and 20th centuries. Known worldwide by the end of the medieval period, sugar was expensive and was considered a "fine spice", but from about the year 1500, technological improvements and New World sources began turning it into a much cheaper bulk commodity. There are two centers of domestication for sugarcane: one for Saccharum officinarum by Papuans in New Guinea and another for Saccharum sinense by Austronesians in Taiwan and southern China. Papuans and Austronesians primarily used sugarcane as food for domesticated pigs; the spread of both S. officinarum and S. sinense is linked to the migrations of the Austronesian peoples. Saccharum barberi was only cultivated in India after the introduction of S. officinarum.
Saccharum officinarum was first domesticated in New Guinea and the islands east of the Wallace Line by Papuans, where it is the modern center of diversity. Beginning at around 6,000 BP they were selectively bred from the native Saccharum robustum. From New Guinea it spread westwards to Island Southeast Asia after contact with Austronesians, where it hybridized with Saccharum spontaneum; the second domestication center is mainland southern China and Taiwan where S. sinense was a primary cultigen of the Austronesian peoples. Words for sugarcane exist in the Proto-Austronesian languages in Taiwan, reconstructed as *təbuS or **CebuS, which became *tebuh in Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, it was one of the original major crops of the Austronesian peoples from at least 5,500 BP. Introduction of the sweeter S. officinarum may have replaced it throughout its cultivated range in Island Southeast Asia. From Island Southeast Asia, S. officinarum was spread eastward into Polynesia and Micronesia by Austronesian voyagers as a canoe plant by around 3,500 BP.
It was spread westward and northward by around 3,000 BP to China and India by Austronesian traders, where it further hybridized with Saccharum sinense and Saccharum barberi. From there it spread further into the Mediterranean. India, where the process of refining cane juice into granulated crystals was developed, was visited by imperial convoys to learn about cultivation and sugar refining. By the sixth century AD, sugar cultivation and processing had reached Persia, from there that knowledge was brought into the Mediterranean by the Arab expansion. "Wherever they went, the Arabs brought with them sugar, the product and the technology of its production."Spanish and Portuguese exploration and conquest in the fifteenth century carried sugar south-west of Iberia. Henry the Navigator introduced cane to Madeira in 1425, while the Spanish, having subdued the Canary Islands, introduced sugar cane to them. In 1493, on his second voyage, Christopher Columbus carried sugarcane seedlings to the New World, in particular Hispaniola.
Sugarcane originated in Southeast Asia. Different species originated in different locations with S. barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea. People chewed sugarcane raw to extract its sweetness. Indians discovered how to crystallize sugar during the Gupta dynasty, around 350 AD. There are lot of mentions in Tamil sangam literatures like Purananuru, Perumpaanaatruppadai, Paṭṭiṉappālai and Akananuru about cultivation of sugarcane, sugarcane juice extraction using machines, sugar extraction in the Tamil regions of South India, it is mentioned in Purananuru: here, the sugar cane is brought to Tamil land from an unknown place during the Sangam period. In Purananuru and Ainkurunuru, sugarcane juice extraction with use of huge machineries was compared with the sound made by elephants and the smoke produced during the process of making of sugar spread over a heap of unwinnowed paddy was like clouds over mountains. Indian sailors, consumers of clarified butter and sugar, carried sugar by various trade routes.
Travelling Buddhist monks brought sugar crystallization methods to China. During the reign of Harsha in North India, Indian envoys in Tang China taught sugarcane cultivation methods after Emperor Taizong of Tang made his interest in sugar known, China soon established its first sugarcane cultivation in the seventh century. Chinese documents confirm at least two missions to India, initiated in 647 AD, for obtaining technology for sugar-refining. In the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and
Molasses or black treacle is a viscous product resulting from refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar. Molasses varies by amount of sugar, method of extraction, age of plant. Sugarcane molasses is used for sweetening and flavoring foods in the United States and elsewhere. Molasses is a defining component of fine commercial brown sugar. Sweet sorghum syrup may be colloquially called "sorghum molasses" in the southern United States. Similar products include honey, maple syrup, corn syrup, invert syrup. Most of these alternative syrups have milder flavors; the word comes from the Portuguese melaço. Cognates include Ancient Greek μέλι, Latin mel, Spanish melaza, French miel. Cane molasses is an ingredient used in cooking, it was popular in the Americas prior to the 20th century. To make molasses, sugar cane is stripped of leaves, its juice is extracted by cutting, crushing, or mashing. The juice is boiled promoting sugar crystallization; the result of this first boiling is called first syrup, it has the highest sugar content.
First syrup is referred to in the Southern states of the United States as cane syrup, as opposed to molasses. Second molasses is created from a second boiling and sugar extraction, has a bitter taste; the third boiling of the sugar syrup yields dark, viscous"blackstrap molasses", known for its robust flavor. The majority of sucrose from the original juice has been removed; the caloric content of blackstrap molasses is due to the small remaining sugar content. Unlike refined sugars, it contains significant amounts of vitamin B6 and minerals, including calcium, magnesium and manganese. Blackstrap is a good source of potassium. Blackstrap molasses has long been sold as a dietary supplement. Blackstrap molasses is more bitter than "regular" molasses, it is sometimes used in baking or for producing ethanol and rum, as an ingredient in cattle feed, as fertilizer. The term "black-strap" or "blackstrap" is an Americanism dating from 1875 or before, its first known use is in a book by detective Allan Pinkerton in 1877.
The exaggerated health benefits sometimes claimed for blackstrap molasses were the topic of a 1951 novelty song, "Black Strap Molasses", recorded by Groucho Marx, Jimmy Durante, Jane Wyman, Danny Kaye. Molasses made from sugar beets differs from sugarcane molasses. Only the syrup left from the final crystallization stage is called molasses. Intermediate syrups are called high green and low green, these are recycled within the crystallization plant to maximize extraction. Beet molasses is 50% sugar by dry weight, predominantly sucrose, but contains significant amounts of glucose and fructose. Beet molasses is limited in biotin for cell growth; the nonsugar content includes many salts, such as calcium, potassium and chloride. It contains the trisaccharide raffinose; these are a result of concentration from the original plant material or chemicals in processing, make it unpalatable to humans. So, it is used as an additive to animal feed or as a fermentation feedstock. Extracting additional sugar from beet molasses is possible through molasses desugarization.
This exploits industrial-scale chromatography to separate sucrose from non-sugar components. The technique is economically viable in trade-protected areas, where the price of sugar is supported above market price; as such, it is practiced in the U. S. and parts of Europe. Sugar beet molasses is consumed in Europe. Molasses is used for yeast production. Many kinds of molasses on the market come branded as "unsulphured". Many foods, including molasses, were once treated with sulfur dioxide as a preservative, helping to kill off molds and bacteria. Sulfur dioxide is used as a bleaching agent, helped to lighten the color of molasses. Most brands have moved away from using sulphured molasses, due to the stable natural shelf life of untreated molasses and the off flavor and trace toxicity of low doses of sulfur dioxide. In Middle Eastern cuisine, molasses is produced from carob, dates and mulberries. In Nepal it is called chaku used in the preparation of Newari foods such as yomari. Molasses can be used: The principal ingredient in the distillation of rum In dark rye breads or other whole grain breads In some cookies and pies In gingerbread In barbecue sauces In beer styles such as stouts and porters To stabilize emulsification of home-made vinaigrette As a humectant in jerky processing A source for yeast production An additive in mu'assel, the tobacco smoked in a hookah.
The carbon source for in situ remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons Blended with magnesium chloride and used for de-icing A stock for ethanol fermentation to produce an alternative fuel for motor vehicles As a brightener in copper electroforming solution when used in tandem with thiourea As a minor component of mortar for brickwork Mixed with gelatin glue and glycerine when casting composition ink rollers on early printing presses As a soil additive to promote microbial activity Molasses is composed of 22% water, 75% carbohydrates, no protein or fat. In a 100 gram reference amount, molasses is a rich source of vitamin B6 and several dietary minerals, including manganese, m
Guar gum called guaran, is a galactomannan polysaccharide extracted from guar beans that has thickening and stabilizing properties useful in the food and industrial applications. The guar seeds are mechanically dehusked, hydrated and screened according to application, it is produced as a free-flowing, off-white powder. The guar bean is principally grown in India, Pakistan, U. S. Australia and Africa. India produces about 2.5 - 3 million tons of guar annually, making it the largest producer, with about 80% of world production. In India, Rajasthan and Haryana are the main producing regions, Jodhpur, Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh in Rajasthan are the major Guar trading markets; the US has produced 4,600 to 14,000 tonnes of guar over the last 5 years. Texas acreage since 1999 has fluctuated from about 7,000 to 50,000 acres; the world production for guar gum and its derivatives is about 1.0 Million tonnes. Non-food guar gum accounts for about 40% of the total demand. India and Pakistan are producers of guar guar gum.
Around 85% guar is produced in India. Guar gum is traded in two forms. Guar gum guar gum powder. India exports both the forms. India exports guar gum to 145 countries. Guar gum splits are further processed in some countries for different applications; the major part of guar gum is consumed by Oil and Natural Gas industry after that major quantity goes to food processing industry. Guar gum is used as a proppant transport / proppant suspending agent in hydraulic fracturing. At its peak the price was $8000 per ton. In addition, it is used in food processing. Chemically, guar gum is an exo-polysaccharide composed of the sugars mannose; the backbone is a linear chain of β 1,4-linked mannose residues to which galactose residues are 1,6-linked at every second mannose, forming short side-branches. Guar gum has the ability to withstand temperatures of 80 °C for five minutes. Guar gum is more soluble than locust bean gum due to its extra galactose branch points. Unlike locust bean gum, it is not self-gelling.
Either borax or calcium can cross-link guar gum. In water, it is hydrocolloidal, it will degrade at extreme pH and temperature. It remains stable in solution over pH range 5-7. Strong acids cause hydrolysis and loss of viscosity, alkalies in strong concentration tend to reduce viscosity, it is insoluble in most hydrocarbon solvents. The viscosity attained is dependent on time, concentration, pH, rate of agitation and particle size of the powdered gum used; the lower the temperature, the lower the rate at which viscosity increases, the lower the final viscosity. Above 80°, the final viscosity is reduced. Finer guar powders swell more than coarse powdered gum. Guar gum shows a clear low shear plateau on the flow curve and is shear thinning; the rheology of guar gum is typical for a random coil polymer. It does not show the high low shear plateau viscosities seen with more rigid polymer chains such as xanthan gum, it is thixotropic above 1% concentration, but below 0.3%, the thixotropy is slight. Guar gum shows viscosity synergy with xanthan gum.
Guar gum and micellar casein mixtures can be thixotropic if a biphase system forms. One use of guar gum is a thickening agent in medicines for humans and animals; because it is gluten free, it is used as an additive to replace wheat flour in baked goods. It has been shown to be beneficial to health, it has been shown to reduce lower blood glucose levels. Additional benefits have been seen in one's efforts to lose weight where, when ingested, its water-absorbing properties cause it to swell in the stomach causing a'full' sensation sooner. Guar gum is economical as well; because it has eight times the water-thickening ability of other agents, only a small quantity is needed for producing sufficient viscosity. Because less is required, costs are reduced; this would help explain its presence in so many things today. In addition to guar gum's effects on viscosity, its high ability to flow, or deform, gives it favorable rheological properties, it forms breakable gels. It is used in various multi-phase formulations for hydraulic fracturing, in some as an emulsifier because it helps prevent oil droplets from coalescing, in others as a stabilizer to help prevent solid particles from settling and/or separating.
Fracking entails the pumping of sand-laden fluids into an oil or natural gas reservoir at high pressure and flow rate. This cracks the reservoir rock, props the cracks open. Water alone is too thin to be effective at carrying proppant sand, so guar gum is one of the ingredients added to thicken the slurry mixture and improve its ability to carry proppant. There are several properties which are important 1. Thixotropic: the fluid should be thixotropic, meaning it should gel within few hours. 2. Gelling and degelling: The desired viscosity changes over the course of a few hours; when the fracking slurry is mixed, it needs to be thin enough to make it easier to pump. As it flows down the pipe, the fluid needs to gel to support the proppant and flush it deep into the fractures. After that process, the gel has to break down so that it is possible to recover the fracking fluid, but leave the proppant behind; this requires a chemical process which produces breaks the gel cross-linking at a predictable rate.
Guar + boron. Guar gum retards ice crystal growth by slowing mass transfer across the solid/liquid interface, it shows good stability during freeze-thaw cycles. Thus, it is used in egg-free ice cream