CHCH-DT, virtual channel 11, is an independent television station licensed to Hamilton, Canada. The station is owned by Channel Zero. CHCH's studios are located near the corner of Jackson and Caroline Streets in downtown Hamilton, with additional offices at the Marriott on the Falls in Niagara Falls, Ontario, its transmitter is located at 481 First Road West in Stoney Creek. On cable, the station is available on Cogeco Cable channel 12 in Hamilton and Niagara Region, channel 10 in Halton Region, Rogers Cable channels 11 and 121 in the Greater Toronto Area. There is a high definition feed on Cogeco digital channel 707 in Hamilton and Niagara, Rogers Cable digital channel 521 in the Greater Toronto Area, on Shaw Direct classic lineup channel 36 and advanced lineup channel 536. On satellite, the station is available nationwide on Shaw Direct classic lineup channel 345 and advanced lineup channel 41, on Bell TV on channels 211 and 1057. CHCH streams all of its local programming and a limited amount of syndicated programming live on the Internet, with no provider or geographic restrictions.
Prior to 2009, it was the flagship station for the E! programming service. The station signed on the air on June 7, 1954, operating as an affiliate of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, its studios at 163 Jackson Street West were used by CJSH-FM. After CJSH's shutdown, its studios were converted for CHCH, it is the oldest owned television station in the Hamilton-Toronto area. At the time, all owned television stations in Canada were required to be CBC affiliates. CHCH-TV was founded by Ken Soble, a leader of Hamilton's urban renewal movement, owner of radio station CHML. In 1961, CHCH became an independent station. There were three reasons for disaffiliating from CBC: Hamilton is part of the Toronto market, Toronto-based CBLT provided full network service to some of CHCH's viewing area. CHCH became the first television station in Canada not to be affiliated with any network, as the other private stations that were not affiliated with the CBC had formed the CTV network in October 1961. In the mid-1960s, CHCH was the lead station in United Program Purchase, a consortium of Canadian television stations which began purchasing some programming rights separately from the CTV and CBC networks.
By 1966, UPP was attracting media coverage as the potential foundation for a third Canadian television network. In the fall of that year, Soble's Niagara Television, the licensee of CHCH, put forward a proposal for a network to be branded as NTV. In the original plan, CHCH would have served as the network's flagship station for the Greater Toronto Area. However, the application faced numerous regulatory hurdles and delays, its main financial backer, Power Corporation of Canada, backed out in 1969. By 1970, the network application was revived by former CHCH executive Al Bruner's new Global Communications corporation, with Niagara Television and CHCH no longer involved in the bid. Despite the station's lack of success in becoming a full-fledged network, it did become one of Canada's most prominent syndicators of non-network programming in the 1970s and 1980s, with many of its locally produced entertainment programs airing on television stations across Canada and sometimes internationally. CHCH became a national superstation on January 1, 1982, when Cancom began carrying the station and three others to cable television providers in remote regions of the country that otherwise only had access to the CBC.
In 1990, Western International Communications purchased CHCH. Although the station had been available on cable television in many Ontario markets for years, its broadcast signal coverage was expanded throughout Ontario in 1997 with the launch of several rebroadcasters, in an effort to compete with the reach of Global's Ontario station CIII, with the Baton Broadcast System, a group of CTV-affiliated stations that served most of the province. In turn, WIC rebranded the station as "ONtv", in line with the branding conventions of many of the company's other stations, such as CHAN-TV in Vancouver, CITV-TV in Edmonton, CHCA-TV in Red Deer, Alberta. Local news programming shifted focus from the station's core market, the Hamilton area, toward Ontario as a whole, in an attempt to challenge what was a regional news service provided by Global. However, with Hamilton now being an afterthought, other local stations strong in the ratings, the shift was unsuccessful, CHCH's ratings decreased. During the ONtv years, the station aired WIC's nightly Canada Tonight newscast.
In 2000, Canwest purchased WIC's television assets. Since Global had served the Hamilton area through flagship station CIII-TV's transmitter in Paris, Canwest rebranded the station "CH" on February 12, 2001 and launched the CH television system in September of that year; this move launched a secondary television system for Canwest's stations
CJOH-DT, VHF channel 13, is a CTV owned-and-operated television station located in Ottawa, Canada. The station is owned by Bell Media, as part of a twinstick with CTV Two outlet CHRO-TV; the two stations share studios – alongside Bell's Ottawa radio properties – located at the Market Media Mall building on 87 George Street in downtown Ottawa's ByWard Market, its transmitter on the Ryan Tower at Camp Fortune in Chelsea, north of Gatineau. It operates rebroadcasters on channel 8 from Lancaster, channel 6 from Deseronto and on channel 47 in Pembroke; this station can be seen on Rogers Cable channel 7 and in high definition on digital channel 518 in Ottawa and Glengarry-Prescott-Russell and on Vidéotron channel 7 and in high definition on digital channel 607 in Gatineau. Bell TV only carried CJOH's local programming, which consisted of newscasts, on channel 197; this changed on October 18, 2010, when Bell carried the local and Canadian programming as well as simsubs on standard definition channel 229.
CJOH provides CTV network coverage for all of Eastern Ontario, a large segment of Western Quebec and portions of Northern New York in the United States. Founded by Ernie Bushnell, CJOH signed on for the first time on March 12, 1961. Studio facilities were located at 29 Bayswater Avenue until that September when operations were shifted over several weeks to a $2 million complex at 1500 Merivale, it acquired former Cornwall, Ontario CBC affiliate CJSS-TV as a rebroadcaster in 1963, making CJSS the first television station in Canada to cease operations. The channel 6 transmitter in Deseronto became operational in 1972 to serve the Kingston and Belleville markets. Standard Broadcasting owned the station from 1975 to 1987. Baton was renamed CTV Inc. in 1998 after gaining control of the CTV network the preceding year. CTV in turn would be purchased by Bell Canada and folded into Bell Globemedia, now Bell Media, in 2001. CJOH was available on cable in Montreal for most of the 1980s and 1990s, as the Cornwall transmitter's footprint reaches the western Montreal suburbs.
In the 1980s and early 1990s, when CTV offered Toronto Blue Jays baseball, the Cornwall repeater had to show alternate programming instead, since the area was considered Montreal Expos territory. This substitute programming had no commercials, had no definite end, as the length of baseball games varied; this was discontinued when the Blue Jays left CTV. Well-known celebrities who first appeared on CJOH include Rich Little, The Amazing Kreskin, Alanis Morissette, Sandra Oh and Peter Jennings. Jennings started his professional career with the station during its early years, anchoring the local newscasts and hosting a teen dance show, Saturday Date, on Saturdays. Morissette was part of the cast on a local sketch comedy show, You Can't Do That On Television, aimed at the preteen and teen demographics. Conceived as a local and live production in 1979, it was derided by parents from its beginning as a local show on CJOH in 1979 for its ubiquitous bathroom humour and for breaking with the Canadian tradition of kind and educational shows for children, as well as for the shock value of certain sketches such as its infamous "green slime".
The controversy did not stop it from either going national on the CTV network or becoming a huge hit and globally. From 1990 to 1997, the station was co-owned with Pembroke-based CHRO-TV, for the majority of that period a CTV affiliate for the Upper Ottawa Valley. In 1997, as part of a major trade, CHRO was transferred to CHUM Limited, became a NewNet station serving Ottawa. In 2007, CTVglobemedia received Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission approval to acquire CHUM; this once again made CJOH and CHRO sister stations in a market with only one other local English-language station, CBOT. Although the CRTC forced the Citytv sale because of concerns about media concentration with multiple stations in the same city, it had no problem allowing the Ottawa twinstick due to the precedent set by the stations having common ownership in the 1990s. On August 1, 1995, the station's longtime sports anchor Brian Smith was shot in the station's parking lot by Jeffrey Arenburg, a released mental patient with a history of threatening media personalities, who claimed the station was broadcasting messages inside his head.
Smith died in hospital the following day. The incident led to renewed calls across Canada for strengthening of the Canadian government's gun control legislation and provided the impetus for Brian's Law - an amendment of the Mental Health Act and Health Care Consent Act which introduced community treatment orders and new criteria for involuntary commitment to psychiatric facilities. Arenburg was released from a mental hospital in Penetanguishene in 2006 imprisoned for two years for assaulting a U. S. border guard in 2008. CJOH changed its branding to "CTV Ottawa" in 2005, when CTV's owned-and-operated stations began to stop using their callsi
Citytv is a Canadian television network owned by the Rogers Media subsidiary of Rogers Communications. The network consists of six owned-and-operated television stations located in the metropolitan areas of Toronto, Winnipeg, Calgary and Vancouver, a cable-only service that serves the province of Saskatchewan, three independently owned affiliates serving smaller cities in Alberta and British Columbia; the Citytv brand's name originates from its flagship station, CITY-TV in Toronto, a station which became known for an intensely local format based on newscasts aimed at younger viewers, nightly movies, music and cultural programming. The Citytv brand first expanded with CHUM Limited's acquisition of former Global O&O CKVU-TV in Vancouver, followed by its purchase of Craig Media's stations and the re-branding of its A-Channel system in Central Canada as Citytv in August 2005. CHUM Limited was acquired by CTVglobemedia in 2007; the network grew through further affiliations with three Jim Pattison Group-owned stations, along with Rogers' acquisition of the cable-only Saskatchewan Communications Network and Montreal's CJNT-DT.
While patterned after the original station in Toronto, since the 2000s, since its acquisition by Rogers, Citytv has moved towards a series-based primetime schedule much like its competitors, albeit one still focused on younger demographics. The licence of the original Citytv station, granted the callsign of CITY-TV by the CRTC, was awarded in Toronto on November 25, 1971, began broadcasting for the first time using the "Citytv" brand on September 28, 1972, under the ownership of Channel Seventy-Nine Ltd. with its studios located at 99 Queen Street East near Church Street. The station was in debt by 1975. Multiple Access Ltd. purchased a 45% interest in the station, sold its stake to CHUM Limited three years later. CHUM Limited acquired the station outright in 1981. Broadcasting on UHF channel 79 during its first decade, the station moved to channel 57 in 1983, until moving to channel 44 with the digital transition. In 1987, the station moved its headquarters to 299 Queen Street West known as the Ryerson Press Building.
On September 8, 2009, CITY moved to its current location at Yonge-Dundas Square at 33 Dundas Street East. Citytv gained a second station in Vancouver when CHUM bought CKVU from Canwest Global Communications in 2001; the station became known as "Citytv Vancouver" on July 22, 2002. Prior to CHUM's acquisition of CKVU, some Citytv programming was syndicated to KVOS in nearby Bellingham, Washington. In 2004, CHUM bought parent of the A-Channel system in Manitoba and Alberta; the Craig-owned A-Channel stations were relaunched as Citytv on August 2, 2005. CHUM Limited announced plans to sell its broadcasting assets to CTV parent CTVglobemedia on July 12, 2006. CTVgm intended to retain CHUM's Citytv system while divesting CHUM's A-Channel stations and Alberta cable channel Access to get the CRTC to approve the acquisition. On the same day that the takeover was announced, Citytv cancelled its supper-hour, late-night and weekend newscasts at its local Vancouver, Edmonton and Winnipeg stations, laying off hundreds of news department staff.
In October 2006, Citytv launched a daily national newscast, CityNews International, produced in Toronto for broadcast on the western Canadian stations and on CHUM's Toronto news channel CP24. The Edmonton and Calgary stations began broadcasting a daily 30-minute magazine show, Your City, instead of a full-fledged newscast; the Vancouver news operation, which had operated for 30 years under various owners and station identities, was not maintained aside from Breakfast Television. In the same month, Citytv Toronto became the first television station in Canada to begin broadcasting its local newscasts in high definition; the following year on June 8, the CRTC approved the CTV takeover of CHUM. However, the CRTC made the deal conditional on CTV divesting itself of Citytv, because there were CTV owned-and-operated stations serving the same cities. Without the divestment, CTV would have exceeded the CRTC's concentration of media ownership limits. CTV announced on June 11, 2007, that it would retain the A-Channel stations, sell the Citytv stations to Rogers Communications for $375 million.
The transaction was approved by the CRTC on September 28 and was completed on October 31, 2007. On December 6, 2010, CityNews Tonight Toronto anchor and continuity announcer Mark Dailey died after a long battle with cancer; the Citytv system began to phase in a modified branding in October 2012, with a new logo consisting only of the name "City", some promotions using the verbal branding "City Television" instead of Citytv. The change marked the first major alteration to the Citytv brand since its introduction in 1972; the network adopted the name City on December 2012 during its New Year's Eve special. For the 2018-19 television season, the network reintroduced its original "Citytv" branding, its social media accounts; the Jim Pattison Group announced in July 2009 that its three television stations in western Canada affiliated with E!, would join Citytv starting on September 1, 2009. These stations do not ca
CBET-DT, virtual and VHF digital channel 9, is a CBC Television owned-and-operated television station licensed to Windsor, Canada. The station is owned by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. CBET's studios are located on Riverside Drive West and Crawford Avenue in Downtown Windsor, its transmitter is located near Concession Road 12 in Essex. On cable, the station is available on Cogeco channel 10 and in high definition on digital channel 702, it is available on Comcast Xfinity on channel 99, on both Charter Spectrum and WOW! on channel 9. CBET's signal covers the Detroit metropolitan area across the international border in the United States, it has long been counted as a Detroit station for the purposes of territorial programming rights. It is carried on American cable systems as far south as Sandusky, Ohio and in many parts of Michigan. By 1953, CBC Television's distribution throughout Canada was growing; the Windsor market, was being served by the Detroit stations across the border. That same year, Western Ontario Broadcasting Company, Ltd. parent company of CKLW radio, applied for a television license for Windsor.
The city's Chamber of Commerce approved the deal, feeling that the market was lacking in a television station, distinctly Canadian in nature. The station first signed on the air at 2:50 p.m. on September 16, 1954 as CKLW-TV. Channel 9 –, the first television station in Windsor – operated as a CBC affiliate, though it maintained a secondary affiliation with the DuMont Television Network until that network's demise in 1956. In 1956, American industrial and communications firm General Tire and Rubber purchased a controlling interest in Western Ontario Broadcasting; this move, done through General Tire's broadcasting subsidiary General Teleradio, made the CKLW stations the only stations in Canada to be owned by an American company. In 1959, General Teleradio was renamed RKO General. In 1963, RKO bought out Western Ontario Broadcasting's other shareholders and gained full ownership of the CKLW stations. CKLW-AM-FM-TV was now integrated with RKO General's American broadcast interests, located in New York City, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Washington, D.
C. and Hartford, among other cities. CKLW-TV transmitted its programming in black and white until 1968 when it upgraded its transmitter and began broadcasting in colour. Under RKO's ownership, CKLW-TV aired only the minimum block of CBC programming. During this period, the CBC carried a number of U. S.-originated shows that were broadcast on the Detroit stations. The blackout of American network shows allowed RKO General an opportunity to reach the more lucrative American audience across the border. Outside of network programming, most of channel 9's schedule consisted of the standard fare of independent stations in the United States—old movies, children's programs and off-network syndicated programming, its lineup was similar to the programming on RKO's two American independent stations, WOR-TV in New York City and KHJ-TV in Los Angeles. Much like its radio counterparts, the station looked more American than Canadian. There was some local programming and personalities during this era, including Toby David as Captain Jolly, Art Cervi as Bozo the Clown, Bill Kennedy hosting Bill Kennedy's Showtime.
Another popular show on CKLW-TV during the 1960s was Swingin' Time, a local teenage dance party show similar to American Bandstand, hosted by WKNR radio personality Robin Seymour. The show featured recording artists, both nationally and locally popular, lip-synching to their latest releases while teenagers showcased the latest dances on the show's huge dance floor. Due to the show's connection to Detroit's popular rock-and-roll AM radio stations, Swingin' Time was used by many artists local acts such as The Supremes, Martha Reeves and the Vandellas, the MC5, Mitch Ryder, to reach a larger teen audience than they could have achieved through working the record hop circuit. Through the 1968 Broadcasting Act, the Canadian Radio-television Commission decreed that broadcast stations licensed within Canada must be at least 80 percent owned by Canadians. With this ordinance in effect, RKO General was forced to put the CKLW stations up for sale. Western Ontario Broadcasting's licence to operate the stations was renewed for only one year, in 1969, General Tire decided to get out altogether rather than accept a 20 percent share.
Two Canadian broadcasting firms, Maclean Hunter, Baton Broadcasting, made a joint offer to purchase the stations, but were turned down by the CRTC. Both Maclean Hunter and Baton wanted to convert CKLW-TV into a CTV affiliate – an unrealistic prospect, given the large number of American imports on CTV's schedule. Maclean Hunter owned CFCO in Chatham, neither company could agree whether to sell CFCO or the CKLW stations. Baton was undeterred in its quest and reapplied again, with a new partner – the CBC, whi
Columbus International Film & Video Festival
The Columbus International Film + Video Festival is a Columbus, United States annual film festival, designed to encourage and promote the use of film and video in all forms of education and communication. It is held each year in November, it is the oldest film festival in the United States, having existed since 1952. The present organization has been known as the Columbus International Film and Video Festival since the 1980s; as a competitive festival, it is known as'The Chris Awards'. The Festival is supported by a number of sponsors including the Ohio Arts Council and the Columbus College of Art & Design; the Columbus Film Festival has existed since 1952, but was preceded by the foundation of the Columbus Film Council. A number of awards are presented for each of the following categories: The Arts Animation Education & Information Narrative The Humanities Mental Health +Physical Health Experimental Shorts Religion + Spirituality Science + Technology Social Issues Student Competition Chris Awards website
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations