Analytic philosophy is a style of philosophy that became dominant in English-speaking countries at the beginning of the 20th century. In the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, New Zealand, and Scandinavia, as a historical development, analytical philosophy refers to certain developments in early 20th-century philosophy that were the historical antecedents of the current practice. Central figures in historical development are Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, G. E. Moore, Gottlob Frege. This may be contrasted with the traditional foundationalism, which considers philosophy to be a science that investigates the fundamental reasons. Consequently, many philosophers have considered their inquiries as continuous with, or subordinate to. This is an attitude that begins with John Locke, who described his work as that of an underlabourer to the achievements of scientists such as Newton. During the twentieth century, the most influential advocate of the continuity of philosophy with science was Willard Van Orman Quine, the principle that the logical clarification of thoughts can be achieved only by analysis of the logical form of philosophical propositions.
The logical form of a proposition is a way of representing it, to reduce it to simpler components if necessary, analytic philosophers disagree widely about the correct logical form of ordinary language. The neglect of generalized philosophical systems in favour of more restricted inquiries stated rigorously and it is thus able, in regard to certain problems, to achieve definite answers, which have the quality of science rather than of philosophy. Its methods, in respect, resemble those of science. Analytic philosophy is often understood in contrast to other traditions, most notably continental philosophies such as existentialism and phenomenology. British idealism, as taught by such as F. H. Bradley and Thomas Hill Green. With reference to this basis the initiators of analytic philosophy, G. E. Moore and Bertrand Russell. Inspired by developments in logic, the early Russell claimed that the problems of philosophy can be solved by showing the simple constituents of complex notions. An important aspect of British idealism was logical holism — the opinion that the aspects of the world cannot be wholly without knowing the whole world.
This is closely related to the opinion that relations between items are actually internal relations, that is, properties internal to the nature of those items. Russell, along with Wittgenstein, in response promulgated logical atomism, Frege was influential as a philosopher of mathematics in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Like Frege, Russell attempted to show that mathematics is reducible to logical fundamentals in The Principles of Mathematics, his book written with Whitehead, Principia Mathematica, encouraged many philosophers to renew their interest in the development of symbolic logic
A nightclub is an entertainment venue and bar which serves alcoholic beverages that usually operates late into the night. Another distinction is that whereas many pubs and sports bars aim at a market, nightclubs typically aim at a niche market of music and dancing enthusiasts. The upmarket nature of nightclubs can be seen in the inclusion of VIP areas in some nightclubs, for celebrities, nightclubs are much more likely than pubs or sports bars to use bouncers to screen prospective clubgoers for entry. Some nightclub bouncers do not admit people with ripped jeans or other clothing or gang apparel as part of a dress code. The busiest nights for a nightclub are Friday and Saturday night, most clubs or club nights cater to certain music genres, such as house music or gothic rock. A nightclub may be called a discothèque, disco, or dance club, from about 1900 to 1920, working class Americans would gather at honky tonks or juke joints to dance to music played on a piano or a jukebox. Webster Hall is credited as the first modern nightclub, being built in 1886 and starting off as a hall, originally functioning as a home for dance.
During Prohibition in the United States, nightclubs went underground as illegal speakeasy bars, with Webster Hall staying open, with rumors circulating of Al Capones involvement and police bribery. With the repeal of Prohibition in February 1933, nightclubs were revived, such as New Yorks 21 Club, Copacabana, El Morocco, in Germany, possibly the first discothèque was Scotch-Club. These discothèques were patronized by anti-Vichy youth called zazous, there were underground discothèques in Nazi Germany patronized by anti-Nazi youth called the swing kids. In Harlem, Connies Inn and the Cotton Club were popular venues for white audiences, before 1953 and even some years thereafter, most bars and nightclubs used a jukebox or mostly live bands. The Whisky à Gogo set into place the elements of the modern post World War II discothèque-style nightclub. At the end of the 1950s, several of the bars in Soho introduced afternoon dancing. In the early 1960s, Mark Birley opened a members-only discothèque nightclub, Annabels, in Berkeley Square, in 1962, the Peppermint Lounge in New York City became popular and is the place where go-go dancing originated.
However, the first rock and roll generation preferred rough and tumble bars and taverns to nightclubs, disco has its roots in the underground club scene. It brought together people from all walks of life and backgrounds and these clubs acted as safe havens for homosexual partygoers to dance in peace and away from public scrutiny. Disco allowed patrons to explore sexuality and push the envelope on the dance floor, disco clubs acted as an escape from such depressing environments and acted as the fantasy marginalized peoples could escape to forget oppression and racism. Disco clubs originally functioned as liberated party spaces and were seen as places of political statement, a smooth mix of long single records to keep people dancing all night long
Intellectual property refers to creations of the intellect for which a monopoly is assigned to designated owners by law. Intellectual property rights are the protections granted to the creators of IP, and include trademarks, patents, industrial design rights, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets. Artistic works including music and literature, as well as discoveries, words, symbols, the Statute of Monopolies and the British Statute of Anne are seen as the origins of patent law and copyright respectively, firmly establishing the concept of intellectual property. The first known use of the intellectual property dates to 1769. The first clear example of modern usage goes back as early as 1808, the German equivalent was used with the founding of the North German Confederation whose constitution granted legislative power over the protection of intellectual property to the confederation. According to Lemley, it was only at point that the term really began to be used in the United States. The history of patents does not begin with inventions, but rather with royal grants by Queen Elizabeth I for monopoly privileges, the evolution of patents from royal prerogative to common-law doctrine.
The term can be used in an October 1845 Massachusetts Circuit Court ruling in the patent case Davoll et al. v. Brown. The statement that discoveries are. property goes back earlier, in Europe, French author A. Nion mentioned propriété intellectuelle in his Droits civils des auteurs, artistes et inventeurs, published in 1846. Until recently, the purpose of property law was to give as little protection as possible in order to encourage innovation. Historically, they were granted only when they were necessary to encourage invention, limited in time, the concepts origins can potentially be traced back further. In 500 BCE, the government of the Greek state of Sybaris offered one years patent to all who should discover any new refinement in luxury. Intellectual property rights include patents, industrial design rights, plant variety rights, trade dress, geographical indications, a copyright gives the creator of an original work exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time. Copyright may apply to a range of creative, intellectual, or artistic forms.
Copyright does not cover ideas and information themselves, only the form or manner in which they are expressed, an industrial design right protects the visual design of objects that are not purely utilitarian. An industrial design consists of the creation of a shape, configuration or composition of pattern or color, or combination of pattern, an industrial design can be a two- or three-dimensional pattern used to produce a product, industrial commodity or handicraft. Plant breeders rights or plant variety rights are the rights to use a new variety of a plant. The variety must amongst others be novel and distinct and for registration the evaluation of propagating material of the variety is examined, a trademark is a recognizable sign, design or expression which distinguishes products or services of a particular trader from the similar products or services of other traders
In a vernacular sense, the term political philosophy often refers to a general view, or specific ethic, political belief or attitude, about politics, synonymous to the term political ideology. Chinese political philosophy dates back to the Spring and Autumn period, Chinese political philosophy was developed as a response to the social and political breakdown of the country characteristic of the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period. The major philosophies during the period, Legalism, Mohism and Taoism, philosophers such as Confucius and Mozi, focused on political unity and political stability as the basis of their political philosophies. Confucianism advocated a hierarchical, meritocratic government based on empathy, Legalism advocated a highly authoritarian government based on draconian punishments and laws. Mohism advocated a communal, decentralized government centered on frugality and ascetism, the Agrarians advocated a peasant utopian communalism and egalitarianism. Legalism was the dominant political philosophy of the Qin Dynasty, but was replaced by State Confucianism in the Han Dynasty, prior to Chinas adoption of communism, State Confucianism remained the dominant political philosophy of China up to the 20th century.
Western political philosophy originates in the philosophy of ancient Greece, where political philosophy dates back to at least Plato, ancient Greece was dominated by city-states, which experimented with various forms of political organization, grouped by Plato into four categories, tyranny and oligarchy. One of the first, extremely important classical works of philosophy is Platos Republic. Roman political philosophy was influenced by the Stoics and the Roman statesman Cicero, Indian political philosophy evolved in ancient times and demarcated a clear distinction between nation and state religion and state. The constitutions of Hindu states evolved over time and were based on political and legal treatises, the institutions of state were broadly divided into governance, defense and order. Mantranga, the governing body of these states, consisted of the King, Prime Minister, Commander in chief of army. The Prime Minister headed the committee of ministers along with head of executive, chanakya, 4th century BC Indian political philosopher.
Another influential extant Indian treatise on philosophy is the Sukra Neeti. An example of a code of law in ancient India is the Manusmṛti or Laws of Manu, the early Christian philosophy of Augustine of Hippo was heavily influenced by Plato. Augustine preached that one was not a member of his or her city, augustines City of God is an influential work of this period that attacked the thesis, held by many Christian Romans, that the Christian view could be realized on Earth. Thomas Aquinas meticulously dealt with the varieties of law, according to Aquinas, there are four kinds of law, Eternal law Divine positive law Natural law Human law Aquinas never discusses the nature or categorization of canon law. There is scholarly debate surrounding the place of law within the Thomistic jurisprudential framework. Aquinas was an influential thinker in the Natural Law tradition
A self-service laundry, coin laundry or coin wash is a facility where clothes are washed and dried. They are known in the United Kingdom as launderettes or laundrettes, george Edward Pendray created the word laundromat for Westinghouse. Some laundries employ staff to service for the customers. Minimal service centres may provide an attendant behind a counter to provide change, sell washing powder. Others allow customers to drop off clothing to be washed and this is often referred to as Fluff & Fold, Wash-n-Fold, Drop Off, bachelor bundles, a service wash or full-service wash. Some staffed laundry facilities provide dry cleaning pick-up and drop-off, there are over 35,000 laundries throughout the United States. Similar services exist in the United Kingdom where the terms service wash or full-service wash are in use, the evolution of self-serve laundry services have been seen in some fluff and fold services provided by various laundromats. These services provide the end user with washing, some services offer free pickup and delivery, as well as complimentary laundry bags as part of their customer appreciation.
Additionally, dry-cleaning services have been known to utilize the pickup, washateria is an alternate name for laundromat, especially in Texas. The first washateria so named was opened in 1934 in Fort Worth, though steam-powered laundry machines were invented in the 19th century, their cost put them out of reach of many. John F. Cantrell and others began renting short-term use of their machines, most laundromats and washaterias in the US are fully automated and coin-operated and generally unmanned, with many operating 24 hours a day. The United States Census Bureau estimates that there are 11,000 of this style of laundromats in the US, employing 39,000 people, the first UK launderette was opened on 9 May 1949 in Queensway. UK launderettes are mainly fully automated, coin-operated and are either manned or unmanned, some may be manned during fewer hours than the operating time each week. They are generally only in urban and suburban areas and have been common features of urban life since the 1960s.
In the last two decades there has been a decline in the number of launderettes, to approximately 3000 nationally, rapidly rising utility charges, premises rent and a lower purchase cost of domestic machines have been noted as principal reasons for the recent decline. High initial launch costs, specifically for commercial washing machines and dryers, have commented on as reasons for fewer new entrants into the market. Furthermore, machine updates can be expensive, which has held back premises investment. Most UK households have bedding which are far above the capacity of domestic machines, many of the manned operations in the UK have added value services such as ironing, dry cleaning and service washes, which prove popular to busy professionals and senior citizens
New York Court of Appeals
The New York Court of Appeals is the highest court in the U. S. state of New York. The Court of Appeals consists of seven judges, the Chief Judge, the Chief Judge of the Court of Appeals heads administration of the states court system, and thus is known as the Chief Judge of the State of New York. The 1842 Neoclassical courthouse is located in New Yorks capital, Albany, in most U. S. states and the Federal court system the court of last resort is known as the Supreme Court. New York, calls its trial and intermediate appellate courts the Supreme Court, further adding to misunderstanding is New Yorks terminology for jurists on its top two courts. Appeals are taken from the four departments of the New York Supreme Court, in some cases, an appeal lies of right, but in most cases, permission to appeal must be obtained, either from the Appellate Division itself or from the Court of Appeals. In some criminal cases, some decisions by an Appellate Term or County Court are appealable to the Court of Appeals.
In a few cases, an appeal can be taken from the court of first instance to the Court of Appeals, direct appeals are authorized from final trial-court decisions in civil cases where the only issue is the constitutionality of a federal or state statute. Decisions from the Court of Appeals are binding authority on all lower courts, every opinion and motion of the Court of Appeals sent to the New York State Reporter is required to be published in the New York Reports. The New York State Unified Court System is a state court system that functions under the Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals who is the ex officio Chief Judge of New York. The Chief Judge supervises the seven-judge Court of Appeals and is chair of the Administrative Board of the Courts, in addition, the Chief Judge establishes standards and administrative policies after consultation with the Administrative Board and approval by the Court of Appeals. The Court of Appeals promulgates rules for admission to law in New York.
The New York State Reporter is the reporter of decisions and is appointed by the Court of Appeals. For a complete list of Chief Judges see Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals, for a list of Associate Judges see Associate Judges of the New York Court of Appeals. The Court of Appeals was created by the New York State Constitution of 1846 to replace both the Court for the Correction of Errors and the Court of Chancery, and had eight members. Four judges were elected by general ballot at the State elections, the first four judges elected at the special judicial state election in June 1847 were Freeborn G. Jewett, Greene C. Bronson, Charles H. Ruggles, and Addison Gardiner and they took office on July 5,1847. Afterwards, every two years, one judge was elected in odd-numbered years to an eight-year term, in case of a vacancy, a judge was temporarily appointed by the Governor, and at the next odd-year state election a judge was elected for the remainder of the term. The Chief Judge was always one of the elected judges who had the shortest remaining term
Akitsiraq Law School
The Law School has no permanent classrooms, employees or assets, and the admissions process has no formal education requirements. The Akitsiraq Law School focuses on the abilities of potential students based on life experience. Akitsiraq programs have provided training to residents of Nunavut and the surrounding Arctic region. The original program offering was the Akitsiraq Jump-Start Program which partnered with Nunavut Arctic College to provide 16 students with a background in law. Through this work the Akitsiraq Society was able to develop the Law School model eventually implemented as Akitsiraq I and these four-year programs deliver the equivalent of a Canadian three-year law degree for students in this isolated region and in a strongly Inuit cultural context. The Akitsiraq I program was a partnership between the Faculty of Law at the University of Victoria, Nunavut Arctic College and the Akitsiraq Law School Society and it offered a Bachelor of Laws Degree in Iqaluit, Nunavut. to residents of Nunavut and the surrounding Arctic region.
This program accepted one intake of students in 2001-02 who graduated in 2004-05, the Akitsiraq II program has been announced by the parent society in conjunction with the University of Ottawa Law Faculty, using infrastructure and support from Nunavut Arctic College. The announced intention is to proceed with a cohort of students in 2011. The Akitsiraq Law School Society is a not-for-profit organization incorporated in Nunavut and its Board of Directors and membership are drawn from the Nunavut judiciary, legal profession and supporting members of the public, along with nominees of supporting agencies. Akitsiraq operates on a cohort model, students are admitted in distinct cohorts, forming strong supportive units which learn and live together over the four years of the program. In this way resources can be secured and opportunities developed appropriate to the cohort at each point in their learning, the program for Akitsiraq I was taught as a modified law curriculum. The focus in the first year was to ensure success for the students.
The University of Victoria Faculty of Law developed a Legal Research and Writing Course, the first year exposed students to contract, criminal law and Legal Processes courses. In the remaining three years, Akitsiraq I students were required to all the standard law courses. The expertise of local elders and educators incorporated Inuit Traditional Law, students were encouraged to participate during their final year in courses at the University of Victoria or other major Canadian University. The Akitsiraq II program has continued to develop this approach, planning for two academic and one term each year. In order to practise as a lawyer, graduates of the program are required to article to a practising lawyer, Akitsiraq I program was largely funded by the Government of Nunavut through the Departments of Education, Human Resources and Justice. Student financial support was based on salaried sponsorships through various agencies including the Government of Nunavut, the Department of Justice, as of 2010 all Akitsiraq I graduates are working or studying for graduate degrees in Nunavut, or in positions related to Nunavut
The hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat. Above the hull is the superstructure and/or deckhouse, where present, the line where the hull meets the water surface is called the waterline. The structure of the hull varies depending on the vessel type, the uppermost continuous deck may be called the upper deck, weather deck, spar deck, main deck, or simply deck. The particular name given depends on the type of ship or boat. In a typical wooden sailboat, the hull is constructed of wooden planking, supported by transverse frames and bulkheads, often but not always there is a centerline longitudinal member called a keel. In fiberglass or composite hulls, the structure may resemble wooden or steel vessels to some extent, in many cases, composite hulls are built by sandwiching thin fiber-reinforced skins over a lightweight but reasonably rigid core of foam, balsa wood, impregnated paper honeycomb or other material. The shape of the hull is entirely dependent upon the needs of the design, shapes range from a nearly perfect box in the case of scow barges, to a needle-sharp surface of revolution in the case of a racing multihull sailboat.
Hulls come in varieties and can have composite shape, but are grouped primarily as follows. Examples are the flat-bottom, v-bottom, and multi-bottom hull and these types have at least one pronounced knuckle throughout all or most of their length. These hull shapes all have smooth curves, examples are the round bilge, semi-round bilge, and s-bottom hull. After this they can be categorized as, Displacement The hull is supported exclusively or predominantly by buoyancy, vessels that have this type of hull travel through the water at a limited rate that is defined by the waterline length. They are often, though not always, heavier than planing types, planing The planing hull form is configured to develop positive dynamic pressure so that its draft decreases with increasing speed. The dynamic lift reduces the surface and therefore the drag. They are sometimes flat-bottomed, sometimes V-bottomed and more rarely, round-bilged, the most common form is to have at least one chine, which makes for more efficient planing and can throw spray down.
Planing hulls are more efficient at speeds, although they still require more energy to achieve these speeds. An effective planing hull must be as light as possible with flat surfaces that are consistent with sea keeping. Sail boats that plane must sail efficiently in displacement mode in light winds, semi-displacement, or semi-planing The hull form is capable of developing a moderate amount of dynamic lift, most of the vessels weight is still supported through buoyancy. At present, the most widely used form is the round bilge hull, in the inverted bell shape of the hull, with a smaller payload the waterline cross-section is less, hence the resistance is less and the speed is higher
The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, song and dance. Elements of art, such as painted scenery and stagecraft such as lighting are used to enhance the physicality, the specific place of the performance is named by the word theatre as derived from the Ancient Greek θέατρον, itself from θεάομαι. Modern theatre, broadly defined, includes performances of plays and musical theatre, there are connections between theatre and the art forms of ballet and various other forms. The city-state of Athens is where western theatre originated, participation in the city-states many festivals—and mandatory attendance at the City Dionysia as an audience member in particular—was an important part of citizenship. The Greeks developed the concepts of dramatic criticism and theatre architecture, Actors were either amateur or at best semi-professional. The theatre of ancient Greece consisted of three types of drama, tragedy and the satyr play, the origins of theatre in ancient Greece, according to Aristotle, the first theoretician of theatre, are to be found in the festivals that honoured Dionysus.
The performances were given in semi-circular auditoria cut into hillsides, capable of seating 10, the stage consisted of a dancing floor, dressing room and scene-building area. Since the words were the most important part, good acoustics, the actors wore masks appropriate to the characters they represented, and each might play several parts. Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the culture of the city-state. Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE, it flowered during the 5th century BCE, no tragedies from the 6th century BCE and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in during the 5th century BCE have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus and Euripides, the origins of tragedy remain obscure, though by the 5th century BCE it was institution alised in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating Dionysus. As contestants in the City Dionysias competition playwrights were required to present a tetralogy of plays, the performance of tragedies at the City Dionysia may have begun as early as 534 BCE, official records begin from 501 BCE, when the satyr play was introduced.
More than 130 years later, the philosopher Aristotle analysed 5th-century Athenian tragedy in the oldest surviving work of dramatic theory—his Poetics, Athenian comedy is conventionally divided into three periods, Old Comedy, Middle Comedy, and New Comedy. Old Comedy survives today largely in the form of the surviving plays of Aristophanes. New Comedy is known primarily from the papyrus fragments of Menander. Aristotle defined comedy as a representation of people that involves some kind of blunder or ugliness that does not cause pain or disaster. In addition to the categories of comedy and tragedy at the City Dionysia, finding its origins in rural, agricultural rituals dedicated to Dionysus, the satyr play eventually found its way to Athens in its most well-known form. Satyrs themselves were tied to the god Dionysus as his loyal companions, often engaging in drunken revelry
In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic, for example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA, all species are given a two-part name, a binomial. The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs, the second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet. For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the Boa genus, Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped that species could evolve given sufficient time, Charles Darwins 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection.
Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal transfer, and species may become extinct for a variety of reasons. In his biology, Aristotle used the term γένος to mean a kind, such as a bird or fish, a kind was distinguished by its attributes, for instance, a bird has feathers, a beak, wings, a hard-shelled egg, and warm blood. A form was distinguished by being shared by all its members, Aristotle believed all kinds and forms to be distinct and unchanging. His approach remained influential until the Renaissance, when observers in the Early Modern period began to develop systems of organization for living things, they placed each kind of animal or plant into a context. Many of these early delineation schemes would now be considered whimsical, animals likewise that differ specifically preserve their distinct species permanently, one species never springs from the seed of another nor vice versa. In the 18th century, the Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus classified organisms according to shared physical characteristics and he established the idea of a taxonomic hierarchy of classification based upon observable characteristics and intended to reflect natural relationships.
At the time, however, it was widely believed that there was no organic connection between species, no matter how similar they appeared. However, whether or not it was supposed to be fixed, by the 19th century, naturalists understood that species could change form over time, and that the history of the planet provided enough time for major changes. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, in his 1809 Zoological Philosophy, described the transmutation of species, proposing that a species could change over time, in 1859, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace provided a compelling account of evolution and the formation of new species. Darwin argued that it was populations that evolved, not individuals and this required a new definition of species. Darwin concluded that species are what appear to be, ideas
A filling station is a facility that sells fuel and engine lubricants for motor vehicles. The most common fuels sold in the 2010s are gasoline and diesel fuel, Fuel dispensers are known as bowsers, petrol pumps or gas pumps. Also, many filling stations incorporate a convenience store, which like most other buildings generally have electricity sockets, the convenience stores found in filling stations typically sell candy, soda/pop, snacks and, in some cases, a small selection of grocery items. Some sell propane or butane and have added shops to their primary business, some chain stores, such as supermarkets, discount superstores, warehouse clubs, or traditional convenience stores, have provided filling stations on the premises. The term gas station is used in the United States and the English-speaking Caribbean. In some regions of Canada, the term gas bar is used, elsewhere in the English-speaking world, mainly in the Commonwealth, the fuel is known as petrol, and the term petrol station or petrol pump is used.
In the United Kingdom and South Africa garage is still commonly used, similarly, in Australia, the term service station describes any petrol station. In Japanese English, it is called a gasoline stand, in Indian English, it is called a petrol pump or a petrol bunk. In some regions of America and Australia, many filling stations have a mechanic on duty, latest figures show there are now 8,455 petrol stations in the UK down from about 18,000 in 1992 and a peak of around 40,000 in the mid-1960s. The USA had 114,474 filling stations in 2012, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, in Canada, the number is on the decline. As of December 2008,12,684 were in operation, significantly down from about 20,000 stations recorded in 1989 In Japan, in Germany, the number dropped down to 14,300 in 2011. In China, according to different reports, the number is about 95,000 to 97,000. India –43,000 Russia - there were about 25,000 gas stations in the Russian Federation In Argentina, as of 2014, the first places that sold gasoline were pharmacies, as a side business.
The first filling station was the city pharmacy in Wiesloch, since 2008 the Bertha Benz Memorial Route commemorates this event. The increase in automobile ownership after Henry Ford started to sell automobiles that the class could afford resulted in an increased demand for filling stations. The worlds first purpose built gas station was constructed in St. Louis, the second gas station was constructed in 1907 by Standard Oil of California in Seattle, Washington at what is now Pier 32. Reighards Gas Station in Altoona, Pennsylvania claims that it dates from 1909 and is the oldest existing gas station in the United States, early on, they were known to motorists as filling stations. The first drive-in filling station, Gulf Refining Company, opened to the public in Pittsburgh on December 1,1913 at Baum Blvd & St Clairs Street
The trademark owner can be an individual, business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a package, a label, for the sake of corporate identity, trademarks are often displayed on company buildings. A trademark identifies the owner of a particular product or service. The unauthorized usage of trademarks by producing and trading counterfeit consumer goods is known as brand piracy, the owner of a trademark may pursue legal action against trademark infringement. Most countries require formal registration of a trademark as a precondition for pursuing this type of action, the United States and other countries recognize common law trademark rights, which means action can be taken to protect an unregistered trademark if it is in use. Still, common law trademarks offer the holder in general less legal protection than registered trademarks. A trademark may be designated by the symbols, ™ ℠ ® A trademark is typically a name, phrase, symbol, image. There is a range of non-conventional trademarks comprising marks which do not fall into these categories, such as those based on colour, smell.
Trademarks which are considered offensive are often rejected according to a nations trademark law, the term trademark is used informally to refer to any distinguishing attribute by which an individual is readily identified, such as the well-known characteristics of celebrities. When a trademark is used in relation to services rather than products, it may sometimes be called a service mark, in other words, trademarks serve to identify a particular business as the source of goods or services. The use of a trademark in this way is known as trademark use, certain exclusive rights attach to a registered mark. Different goods and services have been classified by the International Classification of Goods, in trademark treatises it is usually reported that blacksmiths who made swords in the Roman Empire are thought of as being the first users of trademarks. Other notable trademarks that have used for a long time include Löwenbräu. The first trademark legislation was passed by the Parliament of England under the reign of King Henry III in 1266, the first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century.
In France the first comprehensive system in the world was passed into law in 1857 with the Manufacture. In Britain, the Merchandise Marks Act 1862 made it an offense to imitate anothers trade mark with intent to defraud or to enable another to defraud. In 1875 the Trade Marks Registration Act was passed which allowed formal registration of marks at the UK Patent Office for the first time. Registration was considered to comprise prima facie evidence of ownership of a trade mark, in the United States, Congress first attempted to establish a federal trademark regime in 1870