The Sukhoi Su-27 is a twin-engine supermaneuverable fighter aircraft designed by Sukhoi. It was intended as a direct competitor for the large United States fourth-generation fighters such as the Grumman F-14 Tomcat and F-15 Eagle, with 3,530-kilometre range, heavy aircraft ordnance, sophisticated avionics and high maneuverability; the Su-27 was designed for air superiority missions, subsequent variants are able to perform all aerial warfare operations. It was designed with the Mikoyan MiG-29 as its complement; the Su-27 entered service with the Soviet Air Forces in 1985. The primary role was long range air defence against American SAC B-1B and B-52G/H bombers, protecting the Soviet coast from aircraft carriers and flying long range fighter escort for Soviet heavy bombers such as the Tu-95 "Bear", Tu-22M "Backfire" and Tu-160 "Blackjack". There are several related developments of the Su-27 design; the Su-30 is a two-seat, dual-role fighter for all-weather, air-to-air and air-to-surface deep interdiction missions.
The Su-33'Flanker-D' is a naval fleet defense interceptor for use on aircraft carriers. Further versions include the side-by-side two-seat Su-34'Fullback' strike/fighter-bomber variant, the Su-35'Flanker-E' improved air superiority and multi-role fighter; the Shenyang J-11 is a Chinese licence-built version of the Su-27. In 1969, the Soviet Union learned of the U. S. Air Force's "F-X" program; the Soviet leadership soon realized that the new American fighter would represent a serious technological advantage over existing Soviet fighters. What was needed was a better-balanced fighter with both good agility and sophisticated systems. In response, the Soviet General Staff issued a requirement for a Perspektivnyy Frontovoy Istrebitel. Specifications were ambitious, calling for long range, good short-field performance, excellent agility, Mach 2+ speed, heavy armament; the aerodynamic design for the new aircraft was carried out by TsAGI in collaboration with the Sukhoi design bureau. When the specification proved too challenging and costly for a single aircraft in the number needed, the PFI specification was split into two: the LPFI and the TPFI.
The LPFI program resulted in the Mikoyan MiG-29, a short-range tactical fighter, while the TPFI program was assigned to Sukhoi OKB, which produced the Su-27 and its various derivatives. The Sukhoi design, altered progressively to reflect Soviet awareness of the F-15's specifications, emerged as the T-10, which first flew on 20 May 1977; the aircraft had a large wing, with two separate podded engines and a twin tail. The ‘tunnel’ between the two engines, as on the F-14 Tomcat, acts both as an additional lifting surface and hides armament from radar; the T-10 was spotted by Western observers and assigned the NATO reporting name'Flanker-A'. The development of the T-10 was marked by considerable problems, leading to a fatal crash of the second prototype, the T-10-2 on 7 July 1978, due to shortcomings in the FBW control system. Extensive redesigns followed and a revised version of the T-10-7, now designated the T-10S, made its first flight on 20 April 1981, it crashed due to control problems and was replaced by T-10-12 which became T-10S-2.
This one crashed on 23 December 1981 during a high-speed test, killing the pilot. The T-10-15 demonstrator, T-10S-3, evolved into the definitive Su-27 configuration; the T-10S-3 was modified and designated the P-42, setting a number of world records for time-to-height, beating those set in 1975 by a modified F-15 called "The Streak Eagle". The P-42 "Streak Flanker" was stripped of all armament and operational equipment; the fin tips, tail-boom and the wingtip launch rails were removed. The composite radome was replaced by a lighter metal version; the aircraft was stripped of paint and all drag-producing gaps and joints were sealed. The engines were modified to deliver an increase in thrust of 1,000 kg, resulting in a thrust-to-weight ratio of 2:1; the production Su-27 began to enter VVS operational service in 1985, although manufacturing difficulties kept it from appearing in strength until 1990. The Su-27 served with both the Frontal Aviation. Operational conversion of units to the type occurred using the Su-27UB twin-seat trainer, with the pilots seated in tandem.
When the naval Flanker trainer was being conceived the Soviet Air Force was evaluating a replacement for the Su-24 "Fencer" strike aircraft, it became evident to Soviet planners at the time that a replacement for the Su-24 would need to be capable of surviving engagements with the new American F-15 and F-16. The Sukhoi bureau concentrated on adaptations of the standard Su-27UB tandem seat trainer; however the Soviet Air Force favoured the crew station approach used in the Su-24 as it worked better for the high workload and long endurance strike roles. Therefore, the conceptual naval side-by-side seated trainer was used as the basis for development of the Su-27IB as an Su-24 replacement in 1983; the first production airframe was flown in early 1994 and renamed the Su-34. Development of a version for the Soviet Navy called the Su-27K (
An aircraft engine is a component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power. Aircraft engines are always either lightweight piston engines or gas turbines, except for small multicopter UAVs which are always electric aircraft. In commercial aviation, the major players in the manufacturing of turbofan engines are Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Rolls-Royce, CFM International. A major entrant into the market launched in 2016 when Aeroengine Corporation of China was formed by organizing smaller companies engaged in designing and manufacturing aircraft engines into a new state owned behemoth of 96,000 employees. In general aviation, the dominant manufacturer of turboprop engines has been Whitney. General Electric announced in 2015 entrance into the market. 1848: John Stringfellow made a steam engine for a 10-foot wingspan model aircraft which achieved the first powered flight, albeit with negligible payload. 1903: Charlie Taylor built an inline aeroengine for the Wright Flyer.
1903: Manly-Balzer engine sets standards for radial engines. 1906: Léon Levavasseur produces a successful water-cooled V8 engine for aircraft use. 1908: René Lorin patents a design for the ramjet engine. 1908: Louis Seguin designed the Gnome Omega, the world's first rotary engine to be produced in quantity. In 1909 a Gnome powered Farman III aircraft won the prize for the greatest non-stop distance flown at the Reims Grande Semaine d'Aviation setting a world record for endurance of 180 kilometres. 1910: Coandă-1910, an unsuccessful ducted fan aircraft exhibited at Paris Aero Salon, powered by a piston engine. The aircraft never flew, but a patent was filed for routing exhaust gases into the duct to augment thrust. 1914: Auguste Rateau suggests using exhaust-powered compressor – a turbocharger – to improve high-altitude performance. VI heavy bomber becomes the earliest known supercharger-equipped aircraft to fly, with a Mercedes D. II straight-six engine in the central fuselage driving a Brown-Boveri mechanical supercharger for the R.30/16's four Mercedes D.
IVa engines. 1918: Sanford Alexander Moss picks up Rateau's idea and creates the first successful turbocharger 1926: Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar IV, the first series-produced supercharged engine for aircraft use. 1930: Frank Whittle submitted his first patent for a turbojet engine. June 1939: Heinkel He 176 is the first successful aircraft to fly powered by a liquid-fueled rocket engine. August 1939: Heinkel HeS 3 turbojet propels the pioneering German Heinkel He 178 aircraft. 1940: Jendrassik Cs-1, the world's first run of a turboprop engine. It is not put into service. 1943 Daimler-Benz DB 670, first turbofan runs 1944: Messerschmitt Me 163B Komet, the world's first rocket-propelled combat aircraft deployed. 1945: First turboprop-powered aircraft flies, a modified Gloster Meteor with two Rolls-Royce Trent engines. 1947: Bell X-1 rocket-propelled aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. 1948: 100 shp 782, the first turboshaft engine to be applied to aircraft use. 1949: Leduc 010, the world's first ramjet-powered aircraft flight.
1950: Rolls-Royce Conway, the world's first production turbofan, enters service. 1968: General Electric TF39 high bypass turbofan enters service delivering greater thrust and much better efficiency. 2002: HyShot scramjet flew in dive. 2004: NASA X-43, the first scramjet to maintain altitude. In this entry, for clarity, the term "inline engine" refers only to engines with a single row of cylinders, as used in automotive language, but in aviation terms, the phrase "inline engine" covers V-type and opposed engines, is not limited to engines with a single row of cylinders; this is to differentiate them from radial engines. A straight engine has an number of cylinders, but there are instances of three- and five-cylinder engines; the greatest advantage of an inline engine is that it allows the aircraft to be designed with a low frontal area to minimize drag. If the engine crankshaft is located above the cylinders, it is called an inverted inline engine: this allows the propeller to be mounted high up to increase ground clearance, enabling shorter landing gear.
The disadvantages of an inline engine include a poor power-to-weight ratio, because the crankcase and crankshaft are long and thus heavy. An in-line engine may be either air-cooled or liquid-cooled, but liquid-cooling is more common because it is difficult to get enough air-flow to cool the rear cylinders directly. Inline engines were common in early aircraft. However, the inherent disadvantages of the design soon became apparent, the inline design was abandoned, becoming a rarity in modern aviation. For other configurations of aviation inline engine, such as U-engines, H-engines, etc.. See Inline engine. Cylinders in this engine are arranged in two in-line banks tilted 60–90 degrees apart from each other and driving a common crankshaft; the vast majority of V engines are water-cooled. The V design provides a higher power-to-weight ratio than an inline engine, while still providing a small frontal area; the most famous example of this design is the legendary Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, a 27-litre 60° V12 engine used in, among others, the Spitfires that played a major role in the Battle of Britain.
A horizontally opposed engine called a flat or boxer engine, ha
The Sukhoi Su-30 is a twin-engine, two-seat supermaneuverable fighter aircraft developed by Russia's Sukhoi Aviation Corporation. It is a multirole fighter for air-to-air and air-to-surface deep interdiction missions; the Su-30 started out as an internal development project in the Sukhoi Su-27 family by Sukhoi. The design plan was revamped and the name was made official by the Russian Defense Ministry in 1996. Of the Flanker family, the Su-27, Su-30, Su-33, Su-34 and Su-35 have been ordered into limited or serial production by the Defense Ministry; the Su-30 has two distinct version branches, manufactured by competing organisations: KnAAPO and the Irkut Corporation, both of which come under the Sukhoi group's umbrella. KnAAPO manufactures the Su-30MKK and the Su-30MK2, which were designed for and sold to China, Indonesia, Uganda and Vietnam. Due to KnAAPO's involvement from the early stages of developing Su-35, these are a two-seat version of the mid-1990s Su-35; the Chinese chose an older but lighter radar so the canards could be omitted in return for increased payload.
It is a fighter with both air supremacy and attack capabilities similar to the U. S. F-15E. Irkut traditionally served the Soviet Air Defense and, in the early years of Flanker development, was given the responsibility of manufacturing the Su-27UB, the two-seat trainer version; when India showed interests in the Su-30, Irkut offered the multirole Su-30MKI, which originated as the Su-27UB modified with avionics appropriate for fighters. Along with its ground-attack capabilities, the series adds features for the air-superiority role, such as canards, thrust-vectoring, a long-range phased-array radar, its derivatives include the Su-30MKM, MKA, SM for Malaysia and Russia, respectively. The Russian Air Force has ordered the Su-30SM version. While the original Su-27 had good range, it still did not have enough range for the Soviet Air Defense Forces; the Air Defense Forces needed to cover the vast expanse of the Soviet Union. Hence, development began in 1986 on the Su-27PU, an improved-capability variant of the Su-27 capable of serving as a long-range interceptor or airborne command post.
The two-seat Su-27UB combat trainer was selected as the basis for the Su-27PU, because it had the performance of a single-seat Su-27 with seating for two crew members. A "proof-of-concept" demonstrator flew 6 June 1987, this success led to the kick-off of development work on two Su-27PU prototypes; the first Su-27PU flew at Irkutsk on 31 December 1989, the first of three pre-production models flew on 14 April 1992. The Su-30 is a multirole fighter, it has a two-seat cockpit with an airbrake behind the canopy. The integrated aerodynamic configuration, combined with the thrust vectoring control ability, results in high manoeuvrability and unique takeoff and landing characteristics. Equipped with a digital fly-by-wire system, the Su-30 is able to perform some advanced manoeuvres, including the Pugachev's Cobra and the tailslide; these manoeuvers decelerate the aircraft, causing a pursuing fighter to overshoot, as well as breaking a Doppler radar-lock, as the relative speed of the aircraft drops below the threshold where the signal registers to the radar.
The aircraft's powerplant incorporates two Saturn AL-31F afterburning low-bypass turbofan engines, fed through intake ramps. Two AL-31Fs, each rated at 123 kN of full afterburning thrust ensures Mach 2 in level flight, 1,350 km/h speed at low altitude, a 230 m/s climbing rate. With a normal fuel reserve of 5,270 kg, the Su-30MK is capable of performing a 4.5-hour combat mission with a range of 3,000 km. An aerial refueling system increases the range to 5,200 km or flight duration up to 10 hours at cruise altitudes; the aircraft features autopilot ability at all flight stages including low-altitude flight in terrain-following radar mode, individual and group combat employment against air and ground/sea-surface targets. Automatic control system interconnected with the navigation system ensures route flight, target approach, recovery to airfield and landing approach in automatic mode; the Russian Defence Ministry ordered 60 Su-30SMs under two contracts signed in March and December 2012 with deliveries completed by 2016.
On 21 September 2012, the Su-30SM performed its maiden flight and first two aircraft were delivered to the Russian Air Force on 22 November 2012. Another contract for 28 aircraft was signed in April 2016, with deliveries completed in 2018. On 12 January 2018, the Su-30SM was accepted into service with the Russian Aerospace Forces by a resolution of the Russian president. In September 2015, Su-30SM fighters were deployed for the first time to the Bassel Al-Assad International Airport in Latakia, Syria. At least four Su-30SM fighters were spotted in a satellite photo. In late December 2015, there were 16 Su-30SMs at Khmeimim Air Base; as a part of their combat deployment, they provided target illumination for bombers that launch airstrikes against Islamist rebel groups. Su-30SMs were tasked with aerial escort of Russian attack jets or strategic bombers. During the operations, they were tasked to air to ground duties too. On 21 March 2017, rebel forces launched a new offensive in the Hama province.
On 3 May 2018, a Russian Air Force Su-30 crashed shortly after take-off from the Khmeimim Air Base, killing both crew members. According to the Yury Borisov, the reliability indicators of the Su-30SM and Su-35S deployed to Syria exceeded
The Sukhoi Su-28 is a downgraded variant of the Su-25UB/Su-25T, with reductions in avionics and aircraft systems, together with the elimination of all weapon-carrying capability. The Su-28 trainer is intended for general flight and formation flying training, it is used as an aerobatic aircraft The Su-28 is a maneuverable and robust aircraft with the ability to perform take-off and landing with only one of its two engines running. The aircraft's engines can run on a diesel based fuel as opposed to more traditional aviation fuel. Like the MiG-29, it has the ability to operate from unpaved runways while maintaining high reliability and a low maintenance requirement. In addition, the Su-28 can withstand heavy landings, allowing it to be more forgiving in the training role. Range can be extended by up to four PTB-800 drop tanks, each of 800 L capacity. Differences between the Su-28 and its parent Su-25UB model include the absence of targeting systems, weapon-operating systems, internal guns, wing pylons.
It lacks armor protection for the engines, electronic countermeasures and any systems dedicated to ground attack operations. RussiaRussian Air Force General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 15.36 m Wingspan: 14.36 m Height: 4.80 m Wing area: 33.70 m² Empty weight: 4500 kg Loaded weight: 12,000 kg Max. Takeoff weight: 17,222 kg * Fuel capacity: 2,750 kg Fuel capacity: 4 × 1,150 kg drop tanks Powerplant: 2 × Tumansky TRD R-95Sh, 40 kN eachPerformance Maximum speed: 950 km/h Range: 1000 km Service ceiling: 7000 m Maximum g limit: 6 g Related development Sukhoi Su-25 AirWar.ru
The Sukhoi Su-57 is the designation for a stealth, single-seat, twin-engine multirole fifth-generation jet fighter being developed for air superiority and attack operations. The aircraft is the product of the PAK FA, a fifth-generation fighter programme of the Russian Air Force. Sukhoi's internal name for the aircraft is T-50; the Su-57 is planned to be the first aircraft in Russian military service to use stealth technology. The fighter is designed to have supercruise, supermaneuverability and advanced avionics to overcome the prior generation fighter aircraft as well as ground and naval defences; the Su-57 is intended to succeed the Su-27 in the Russian Air Force. The prototypes and initial production batch are to be delivered with a upgraded variant of the Lyulka AL-31 engine used by the Su-27 family as an interim powerplant while an advanced clean-sheet design engine, the Saturn izdeliye 30, is under development; the aircraft is expected to have a service life of up to 35 years. Its first flight took place on 29 January 2010.
In 1979, the Soviet Union outlined a need for a next-generation aircraft intended to enter service in the 1990s. The project was designated the I-90 and required the fighter to have substantial ground attack capabilities and would replace the MiG-29s and Su-27s in frontline tactical aviation service; the subsequent programme designed to meet these requirements, the MFI, resulted in Mikoyan's selection to develop the MiG 1.44. Though not a participant in the MFI, Sukhoi started its own programme in 1983 to develop technologies for a next-generation fighter aircraft, resulting in the S-37 designated Su-47. Due to a lack of funds after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the MiG 1.44 programme was delayed and the first flight of the prototype did not occur until 2000, nine years behind schedule. The MiG 1.44 was subsequently cancelled and a new programme for a next-generation fighter, PAK FA, was initiated. The programme requirements reflected the capabilities of Western fighter aircraft, such as the Eurofighter Typhoon and F-22 Raptor.
In 2002, Sukhoi was selected over Mikoyan as the winner of the PAK FA competition and would lead the design of the new aircraft. To reduce the PAK FA's developmental risk and spread out associated costs, as well as to bridge the gap between it and older previous generation fighters, some of its technology and features, such as propulsion and avionics, were implemented in the Sukhoi Su-35S fighter, an advanced variant of the Su-27; the Novosibirsk Aircraft Production Association is manufacturing the new multi-role fighter at Komsomol'sk-on-Amur along with Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association, final assembly is to take place at Komsomol'sk-on-Amur. Following a competition held in 2003, the Tekhnokompleks Scientific and Production Center, Ramenskoye Instrument Building Design Bureau, the Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design, the Ural Optical and Mechanical Plant in Yekaterinburg, the Polet firm in Nizhny Novgorod and the Central Scientific Research Radio Engineering Institute in Moscow were selected for the development of the PAK-FA's avionics suite.
NPO Saturn is the lead contractor for the interim engines. On 8 August 2007, Russian Air Force Commander-in-Chief Alexander Zelin was quoted by Russian news agencies that the programme's development stage was complete and construction of the first aircraft for flight testing would begin, that by 2009 there would be three fifth-generation aircraft ready. In 2009, the aircraft's design was approved. In 2007, Russia and India agreed to jointly develop the Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft Programme for India. In September 2010, it was reported that India and Russia had agreed on a preliminary design contract where each country was to invest $6 billion; the agreement on the preliminary design was to be signed in December 2010. India planned on acquiring a modified version for its FGFA programme, it planned on buying 166 single-seat and 48 two-seat fighters, but changed it to 214 single-seat fighters, decreased its purchasing size to 144 fighters by 2012. In early 2018, India pulled out of the FGFA project, which it believed did not meet its requirements for stealth, combat avionics and sensors by that time.
This news lead some observers to question the future of the whole Su-57 project. The Russian Air Force was expected to procure more than 150 fighters for PAK FA with the first fighter to be delivered in 2016. In 2011, the Russia's Ministry of Defence planned on purchasing the first 10 evaluation aircraft after 2012 and 60 production standard aircraft after 2016. In December 2014, the Russian Air Force planned to receive 55 fighters by 2020. Russian Deputy Minister of Defence Yury Borisov stated in 2015 that the Air Force would slow production, reduce its initial order to 12 fighters, retain large fleets of fourth-generation fighters due to the nation's economy
In aerodynamics, a hypersonic speed is one that exceeds the speed of sound stated as starting at speeds of Mach 5 and above. The precise Mach number at which a craft can be said to be flying at hypersonic speed varies, since individual physical changes in the airflow occur at different speeds; the hypersonic regime is alternatively defined as speeds where Cp and Cv are no longer able to be reasonably considered constant. While the definition of hypersonic flow can be quite vague and is debatable, a hypersonic flow may be characterized by certain physical phenomena that can no longer be analytically discounted as in supersonic flow; the peculiarity in hypersonic flows are as follows: Shock layer Aerodynamic heating Entropy layer Real gas effects Low density effects Independence of aerodynamic coefficients with Mach number. As a body's Mach number increases, the density behind a bow shock generated by the body increases, which corresponds to a decrease in volume behind the shock due to conservation of mass.
The distance between the bow shock and the body decreases at higher Mach numbers. As Mach numbers increase, the entropy change across the shock increases, which results in a strong entropy gradient and vortical flow that mixes with the boundary layer. A portion of the large kinetic energy associated with flow at high Mach numbers transforms into internal energy in the fluid due to viscous effects; the increase in internal energy is realized as an increase in temperature. Since the pressure gradient normal to the flow within a boundary layer is zero for low to moderate hypersonic Mach numbers, the increase of temperature through the boundary layer coincides with a decrease in density; this causes the bottom of the boundary layer to expand, so that the boundary layer over the body grows thicker and can merge with the shock wave near the body leading edge. High temperatures due to a manifestation of viscous dissipation cause non-equilibrium chemical flow properties such as vibrational excitation and dissociation and ionization of molecules resulting in convective and radiative heat-flux.
Although "subsonic" and "supersonic" refer to speeds below and above the local speed of sound aerodynamicists use these terms to refer to particular ranges of Mach values. This occurs because a "transonic regime" exists around M=1 where approximations of the Navier–Stokes equations used for subsonic design no longer apply because the flow locally exceeds M=1 when the freestream Mach number is below this value; the "supersonic regime" refers to the set of Mach numbers for which linearised theory may be used. NASA defines "high" hypersonic as any Mach number from 10 to 25, re-entry speeds as anything greater than Mach 25. Among the aircraft operating in this regime are the Space Shuttle and various developing spaceplanes. In the following table, the "regimes" or "ranges of Mach values" are referenced instead of the usual meanings of "subsonic" and "supersonic"; the categorization of airflow relies on a number of similarity parameters, which allow the simplification of a nearly infinite number of test cases into groups of similarity.
For transonic and compressible flow, the Mach and Reynolds numbers alone allow good categorization of many flow cases. Hypersonic flows, require other similarity parameters. First, the analytic equations for the oblique shock angle become nearly independent of Mach number at high Mach numbers. Second, the formation of strong shocks around aerodynamic bodies means that the freestream Reynolds number is less useful as an estimate of the behavior of the boundary layer over a body; the increased temperature of hypersonic flows mean that real gas effects become important. For this reason, research in hypersonics is referred to as aerothermodynamics, rather than aerodynamics; the introduction of real gas effects means that more variables are required to describe the full state of a gas. Whereas a stationary gas can be described by three variables, a moving gas by four, a hot gas in chemical equilibrium requires state equations for the chemical components of the gas, a gas in nonequilibrium solves those state equations using time as an extra variable.
This means that for a nonequilibrium flow, something between 10 and 100 variables may be required to describe the state of the gas at any given time. Additionally, rarefied hypersonic flows do not follow the Navier–Stokes equations. Hypersonic flows are categorized by their total energy, expressed as total enthalpy, total pressure, stagnation pressure, stagnation temperature, or flow velocity. Wallace D. Hayes developed a similarity parameter, similar to the Whitcomb area rule, which allowed similar configurations to be compared. Hypersonic flow can be separated into a number of regimes; the selection of these regimes is rough, due to the blurring of the boundaries where a particular effect can be found. In this regime, the gas can be regarded as an ideal gas. Flow in this regime is still Mach number dependent. Simulations start to depend on the use of a constant-temperature wall, rather than the adiabatic wall used at lower speeds; the lower border of this region is around Mac
The Sukhoi Su-34 is a Russian twin-engine, twin-seat, all-weather supersonic medium-range fighter-bomber/strike aircraft. It first entered service in 2014 with the Russian Air Force. Based on the Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker air superiority fighter, the Su-34 has an armored cockpit for side-by-side seating of its two-man crew; the Su-34 is designed for tactical deployment against ground and naval targets on solo and group missions in daytime and at night, under favourable and adverse weather conditions and in a hostile environment with counter-fire and electronic Warfare counter-measures deployed, as well as for aerial reconnaissance. The Su-34 will replace the Su-24 tactical strike fighter and the Tu-22M3 long-distance bomber; the Su-34 had protracted beginning. In the mid-1980s, Sukhoi began developing a new tactical multirole combat aircraft to replace the swing-wing Su-24, which would incorporate a host of conflicting requirements; the bureau thus selected the Su-27, which excelled in maneuverability and range, could carry a large payload, as the basis for the new fighter-bomber.
More the aircraft was developed from T10KM-2, the naval trainer derivative of the Sukhoi Su-27K. The development, known internally as T-10V, was shelved at the end of the 1980s sharing the fate of the aircraft carrier Ulyanovsk. In August 1990, a photograph taken by a TASS officer showed an aircraft making a dummy approach towards the aircraft carrier Tbilisi; the aircraft and erroneously labelled Su-27KU by Western intelligence, made its maiden flight on 13 April 1990 with Anatoliy Ivanov at the controls. Converted from an Su-27UB with the new distinctive nose, while retaining the main undercarriage of previous Su-27s, it was a prototype for the Su-27IB, it was developed in parallel with the two-seat naval trainer, the Su-27KUB. However, contrary to earlier reports, the two aircraft are not directly related. Flight tests continued throughout 1990 and into 1991. In 1992, the Su-27IB was displayed to the public at the MosAeroshow, where it demonstrated aerial refuelling with an Il-78, performed an aerobatic display.
The aircraft was unveiled on 13 February 1992 at Machulishi, where Russian President Boris Yeltsin and the CIS leaders were holding a summit. The following year the Su-27IB was again displayed at the MAKS Airshow; the next prototype, first pre-production aircraft, T10V-2, first flew on 18 December 1993, with Igor Votintsev and Yevgeniy Revoonov at the controls. Built at Novosibirsk, where Su-24s were constructed, this aircraft was visibly different from the original prototype; the first aircraft built to production standard made its first flight on 28 December 1994. It was fitted with a fire-control system, at the heart of, the Leninets OKB-designed V004 passive electronically scanned array radar, it was different enough from the earlier versions that it was re-designated the "Su-34". However, at the 1995 Paris Air Show, the aircraft was allocated the "Su-32FN" designation, signalling the aircraft's potential role as a shore-based naval aircraft for the Russian Naval Aviation. Sukhoi promoted the Su-34 as the "Su-32MF".
Budget restrictions caused the programme to stall repeatedly. Flight testing continued, albeit at a slow pace; the third pre-production aircraft first flew in late 1996. Russia's Ministry of Defence plans to modernize the Su-34. Plane is in great demand in our armed forces, it has a great future."Russia is developing two new versions of the aircraft: one for electronic warfare and one for Intelligence and reconnaissance. Su-34M modernised version will feature a new electro-optical infrared targeting pod, a Kopyo-DL rear-ward facing radar that can warn the pilots if missiles are approaching, combined with automatic deployment of countermeasures and jamming. An initial batch of eight aircraft was completed by the Novosibirsk factory in 2004. In March 2006, Russia's Minister of Defence Sergei Ivanov announced the purchase of the first 5 pre-production Su-34s for the Russian Air Force. In late 2008, a second contract was signed for delivery of 32 aircraft by 2015. A total of 70 aircraft were to be purchased by 2015 to replace some 300 Russian Su-24s, which were undergoing a modernization program.
Ivanov claimed that as it is "many times more effective on all critical parameters", fewer of these newer bombers are required than the old Su-24 it replaces. In December 2006, Ivanov revealed that 200 Su-34s were expected to be in service by 2020. Two Su-34s were delivered in 2006–2007, three more were delivered by the end of 2009. On 9 January 2008, Sukhoi reported; the final stage of the state tests were completed on 19 September 2011. The Russian Air Force received another four Su-34s on 28 December 2010, as combat units in airbases first received six Su-34s in 2011. Delivery came in the form of two