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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Sulfide (organic)

An organic sulfide or thioether is a functional group in organosulfur chemistry with the connectivity C–S–C as shown on right. Like many other sulfur-containing compounds, volatile sulfides have foul odors. A sulfide is similar to an ether; the grouping of oxygen and sulfur in the periodic table suggests that the chemical properties of ethers and sulfides are somewhat similar, though the extent to which this is true in practice varies depending on the application. Sulfides are sometimes called thioethers in the old literature; the two organic substituents are indicated by the prefixes. 2S is called dimethylsulfide. Some sulfides are named by modifying the common name for the corresponding ether. For example, C6H5SCH3 is methyl phenyl sulfide, but is more called thioanisole, since its structure is related to that for anisole, C6H5OCH3. Sulfide is an angular functional group, the C–S–C angle approaching 90°, smaller than the C-O-C angle in ether; the C–S bonds are about 180 pm. Sulfides are characterized by their strong odors.

This odor limits the applications of volatile sulfides. In terms of their physical properties they resemble ethers, but are less volatile, higher melting, less hydrophilic; these properties follow from the polarizability of the divalent sulfur center, greater than that for oxygen in ethers. Thiophenes are a special class of sulfide-containing heterocyclic compounds; because of their aromatic character, they are non-nucleophilic. The nonbonding electrons on sulfur are delocalized into the π-system; as a consequence, thiophene exhibits few properties expected for a sulfide – thiophene is non-nucleophilic at sulfur and, in fact, is sweet-smelling. Upon hydrogenation, thiophene gives tetrahydrothiophene, C4H8S, which indeed does behave as a typical sulfide. Sulfides are important in biology, notably in the cofactor biotin. Petroleum contains many organosulfur compounds, including sulfides. Polyphenylene sulfide is a useful high temperature plastic. Coenzyme M, CH3SCH2CH2SO−3, is the precursor to methane via the process of methanogenesis.

Sulfides are prepared by alkylation of thiols: R–Br + HS–R′ → R–S–R′ + HBrSuch reactions are conducted in the presence of a base, which converts the thiol into the more nucleophilic thiolate. Analogously, the reaction of disulfides with organolithium reagents produces thioethers: R3CLi + R1S–SR2 → R3CSR1 + R2SLiAnalogous reactions are known starting with Grignard reagents. Alternatively, sulfides can be synthesized by the addition of a thiol to an alkene in the thiol-ene reaction: R–CH=CH2 + HS–R′ → R–CH2–CH2–S–R′This reaction is catalysed by free radicals produced from a photoinitiator. Sulfides can be prepared by many other methods, such as the Pummerer rearrangement. Trialkysulfonium salts react with nucleophiles with a dialkyl sulfide as a leaving group: Nu− + R3S+ → Nu–R + R–S–RThis reaction is exploited in biological systems as a means of transferring an alkyl group. For example, S-adenosylmethionine acts as a methylating agent in biological SN2 reactions. While, in general, ethers are non-oxidizable at the oxygen, sulfides can be oxidized to sulfoxides, which can themselves be further oxidized to sulfones.

Hydrogen peroxide is a typical oxidant. For example, dimethyl sulfide can be oxidized as follows: S2 + H2O2 → OS2 + H2O OS2 + H2O2 → O2S2 + H2O Ethers can be alkylated at oxygen only with difficulty, but sulfides are alkylated to give stable sulfonium salts, such as trimethylsulfonium iodide: S2 + CH3I → +I− In analogy to their easy alkylation, sulfides bind to metals to form coordination complexes, they are classified as soft ligands. Chelating thioethers are known, such as 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane. Sulfides undergo hydrogenolysis in the presence of certain metals: R–S–R′ + 2 H2 → RH + R′H + H2SRaney nickel is useful for stoichiometric reactions in organic synthesis whereas molybdenum-based catalysts are used to "sweeten" petroleum fractions, in the process called hydrodesulfurization

Tockholes

Tockholes is a village and civil parish which forms part of the Blackburn with Darwen unitary authority in the North west of England. Tockholes consists of the village of Tockholes itself and the Hamlet of Ryal Fold, has a population of 454, increasing to 478 at the 2011 Census, it lies on the West Pennine Moors and is surrounded by the towns of Blackburn to the North and Darwen to the East and by the villages of Belmont to the south and Withnell to the West. Darwen Tower is a prominent local landmark that lies to the east of Tockholes and The Roddlesworth Reservoirs and Tockholes forest plantation lie to the south with the M65 passing to the north and the A675 to the south. Archaeological records for the area in and around Tockholes reveal the presence of Tribal communities as early as 2,000BC; the area is thought to have been inhabited by both Anglo-Saxon settlers. Artifacts found in the area to support early settlement include a stone axe head, bronze spear head and coins. There is a strong connection with early settlers nearby with Bronze Age barrows, stone circles, settlements and a variety of objects all being found over the surrounding countryside.

Despite running close to an ancient Roman route between Preston and Bolton, There is little evidence of any Roman settlement at Tockholes. In the first half of the 13th century Tockholes was found to be held in thegnage by a local family of the name of Pleasington for a yearly service of 2s; the manor was split in half between Elias de Pleasington. The manor was subsequently held in demesne by a Geoffrey de Sutton. In around 1250 Joice de Tockholes released his tenement to His Lord Elias de Pleasington and at some point during the early reign of Edward I, A William de Livesey was mesne tenant here and was granted the feudal rights and services due from Geoffrey de Sutton. In 1314–15 the son of John de Pleasington, Robert conveyed his land to William de Holand and in 1332 he granted the manor of Tockholes in fee to Robert de Radcliffe. In 1833 a large pit was discovered in Tockholes located in a field with the official title of "Pit Field", this field had been known locally as "Kill Field". In the pit were found the remains of some forty horses along with Cannonballs and Large Buttons.

At some point during the Civil War, either during the course of the Earl of Derby's movements between Preston and Blackburn in 1643, or in 1644 with the passage of Prince Rupert's army, severe fighting took place about the lower part of Tockholes, in the vicinity of the church and on to Cartridge-hill and Hollinshead Hall. Several cannonballs have been picked up in other parts of Tockholes, One was found in a field just above the Bethesda Chapel and another was found on Cartridge-hill, a lofty fell a mile or so further to the south above Hollinshead Hall. Musket bullets have been found in a field behind the Old Independent Chapel only a short distance from the "Kill Field" Pit; the artifacts recovered in Tockholes seem to indicate a severe battle in which troops and musketeers were engaged and in which at least one piece of ordnance was brought into use by one side or the other. A battle in which at least forty horses were killed must have been quite a fierce one for such a small village; as the pit was found so close to the old Church of Tockholes, it is supposed that the bodies of the soldiers killed in the Battle would have been removed and buried in consecrated ground, their weapons and items of value being claimed by the prevailing side.

Two miles to the south are the ruins of Hollinshead Hall, the former Tockholes manor house and what may be an older Manor house can be found on the road from the centre of the village known as Top o't Low past Victoria Terrace and the Bethesda Chapel towards Abbey Village. This Manor house was still occupied during the 1930s though not by the original family. Tockholes itself has quite a lot of history. During the time of the religious purges it was a centre for nonconformist followers to come to worship; the Chapel situated at the bottom of Long Lane was one of the earliest Congregational Chapels in Lancashire though not in the present building. When slavery was still practised in England, I believe one of the local farmers went to Liverpool and bought a slave to work on his farm but the villagers objected so at this that he was made to declare him a free man and pay him his due wages; the row of cottages in Silk Hall fold were built during the 17th century to accommodate silk weavers and the old weaving rooms are situated in the rooms at the top of the stone staircase the roof windows are still to be seen.

Tockholes was host to the'Live the Dream' rave that took place on 16 September 1989. Listed buildings in Tockholes Media related to Tockholes at Wikimedia Commons

List of reporting marks: R

Note: Marks ending in U are for container owners. All other marks are of common-carrier railroads. RABU - Rabanco Companies RACN - Raccoon River Railroad RACU - Acciona Logistica RACX - General Electric Rail Services Corporation RACX - Union Tank Car Company RAEU - Reach America Esg Ltd RAFU - Oxitec S R L RAFX - Rose Acre Farms Inc RAGU - Rabanco Companies RAHU - IGL Limited RAIL - Railinc Corporation RAIU - Rainbow Containers Gmbh RAIX - Union Carbide Corporation RAJX - Rail Logix Alamo Junction, LLC RALU - Royal Arctic Line A/S RALX - Radnor Rail Ltd RAMX - RailAmerica RAMX - Rail Merchants International RANU - Rabanco Companies RAPX - Rapco Transportation Company RARW - Rarus Railway Company RASU - Raseef Containers Services LLC RASX - C A Rasmussen RATU - Royal Atlantic LLC RATX - Railtex Service Co Inc RAVU - Flex Box Limited RAWX - Platte River Power Authority RAX - RPI-AAR Cooperative Test Program RAX - Railroad Passenger Car Numbering Bureau RBBN - Burlington Northern Railway RBBQ - Burlington Northern Railway RBBU - Besed RBBX - Western Fruit Express.

RCSX - Red-Corn Scrap Metals, Inc. RDG - Reading Railroad. E. D. Technologies, LLC RE - Relco RECX - Central Louisiana Electric Company REDX - Saudi Research and Development Corporation, Ltd. REDZ - REDON Incorporated REGX - Regus Industries LLC RELX - Relco Nevada Corporation RESX - Rescar, Inc. RFCX - R&F Coal Company RFMX - Robert F. Miller. RHBX - R. H. Bogle Company RHRX - Rahr Malting Company RI - Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Chicago Rock Island & Pacific Railroad LLC RIIX - Reilly Industries, Inc. RILX - Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad LLC/Rock Island Lines RJCC - R. J. Corman Railroad/Central Kentucky Lines RJCP - R. J. Corman Railroad/Pennsylvania Lines RJCW - R. J. Corman Railroad/Western Ohio Line RJNX - R. H. Bogle Company RKCX - Knox Kershaw, Inc. RKGX - River King Coal Company RKMW - Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Milwaukee Road directed operations RLAX - Rail Logix, LLC RLGN - Mackenzie Northern Railway RLCX - RELCO RLGX - Rail Logix, LP RLIX - Rail Link Inc.

RLK - Rail Link RLKX - R. L. and S. S. Klein RLSX - Robert L. Shipp RMCX - Reynolds Metals Company RMDX - American Refrigerator Transit Company RMPX - Progress Rail Services Corporation. RMRX - Rocky Mountaineer RNDX - ACF Industries ROCK - Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad, Chicago Rock Island & Pacific Railroad LLC ROCX - Rock Island Improvement Company. ROYX - TCL, Inc. RPCX - Railroad Passenger Car Numbering Bureau RPDX - Rapido Trains Inc. RPRC - Richmond Pacific Railroad RPRX - Railpower Hybrid Technologies Corp RR - Conrail RRC - Respondek Railroad Corporation RREX - Rex Railway RRLX - Railroad Resources, Inc. RRLX - Rail Logistics Inc. / Rail Logistics LC RRMX - Robertson's Ready Mix / RRM Properties Ltd, A California Limited Partnership RRPX - Railroad Power Leasing RRRR - Rock & Rail Inc. RRRX - Rex Leasing, Inc. RS - Roberval and Saguenay Railway RSB - Rochester Subway RSLX - RSL Corporation RSOR - Riceboro Southern Railway RSP - Roscoe and Pacific Railway RSPX - Evans Railcar Leasing RSR - Rochester and Southern Railroad RSS - Rochester Subway.

RSUX - Riley Stoker Corporation RSVX - RAILSERV Management Corporation RSYX - Refined Sugars, Inc. RT - River Terminals Railway RTCX - Union Tank Car Company RTDZ - Regional Transportation District. RUT - Rutland Railroad.

Tuchola Forest

The Tuchola Forest known as Tuchola Pinewoods, is a large forest near the town of Tuchola in northern Poland, which lies between the Brda and Wda Rivers. It contains the Tuchola Forest National Park, at the core of the Tuchola Forest Biosphere Reserve, designated by UNESCO in 2010; the area was formed during the last glacial age and is covered with low hills and more than 900 post-glacial lakes. With 3,200 km² of dense spruce and pine forest, the area is one of the biggest forests in Poland and Central Europe. Since 1996, part of the area has been designated as the Tuchola Forest National Park, covering 46.13 square kilometres. 30% of the area is inhabited by the Kociewiacy people. The largest towns in the area are Tuchola. During the German Empire era, Truppenübungsplatz Gruppe was a military exercise area in which medical research was conducted, leading to publication of the name in scientific reports of the early 20th century. During World War I, pacifist doctor Georg Friedrich Nicolai was banished from Berlin to the remote area which had to be ceded in 1919 to Poland as a result of the Treaty of Versailles.

In 1939, during the invasion of Poland at the beginning of World War II, the major Battle of Tuchola Forest was fought in the area. Soon, the former military test area was occupied again by German troops, called Truppenübungsplatz Westpreußen, or by its code name, "Heidekraut". Between August 1944 and January 1945, SS troops under Hans Kammler and Walter Dornberger carried out extensive tests of the A-4 missiles, after the test site near Blizna was discovered by the Home Army and bombed by the Allies. 107 missiles were fired in a southbound direction for tests and training purposes. In January 1945 the site had to be evacuated before the Red Army offensive overran the area. After World War II, the forest was a safe haven for many anti-communist partisans, among them Zygmunt Szendzielarz. In June 2010 the Tuchola Forest area was designated by UNESCO as a Biosphere Reserve; the core area of the Biosphere Reserve consists of Tuchola Forest National Park and of the 25 nature reserves lying within the buffer zone.

The buffer zone consists of Tuchola, Wda and Zaborski Landscape Parks. There is a transit zone which includes the town of Tuchola and surrounding districts; the core area of the Reserve covers 78.81 square kilometres, the three zones together cover 3,195 square kilometres. The Borowiacy are a Polish ethnic group, they live next to the Kashubians. List of V-2 test launches Rocket launch site Erich Wernicke: Wanderungen durch die Tuchler Heide. Kafemann, Danzig 1913 Bory Tucholskie National Park Rocket launches at Heidekraut V2 rocket range Heidekraut today Website of the Tuchola Forest Biosphere Reserve Location of Bory Tucholskie Borowiacy - traditional ethnic group of this area

Bálint's syndrome

Bálint's syndrome is an uncommon and incompletely understood triad of severe neuropsychological impairments: inability to perceive the visual field as a whole, difficulty in fixating the eyes, inability to move the hand to a specific object by using vision. It was named in 1909 for the Austro-Hungarian neurologist and psychiatrist Rezső Bálint who first identified it. Bálint's syndrome occurs most with an acute onset as a consequence of two or more strokes at more or less the same place in each hemisphere. Therefore, it occurs rarely; the most frequent cause of complete Bálint's syndrome is said by some to be sudden and severe hypotension, resulting in bilateral borderzone infarction in the occipito-parietal region. More cases of progressive Bálint's syndrome have been found in degenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or certain other traumatic brain injuries at the border of the parietal and the occipital lobes of the brain. Lack of awareness of this syndrome may lead to a misdiagnosis and resulting inappropriate or inadequate treatment.

Therefore, clinicians should be familiar with its various etiologies. Bálint's syndrome symptoms can be quite debilitating since they impact visuospatial skills, visual scanning and attentional mechanisms. Since it represents impairment of both visual and language functions, it is a significant disability that can affect the patient's safety—even in one's own home environment, can render the person incapable of maintaining employment. In many cases the complete trio of symptoms—inability to perceive the visual field as a whole, difficulty in fixating the eyes, inability to move the hand to a specific object by using vision —may not be noticed until the patient is in rehabilitation. Therapists unfamiliar with Bálint's syndrome may misdiagnose a patient's inability to meet progress expectations in any of these symptom areas as indicating incapability of benefiting from further traditional therapy; the nature of each Bálint symptom frustrates rehabilitation progress in each of the other symptoms.

Much more research is needed to develop therapeutic protocols that address Bálint symptoms as a group since the disabilities are so intertwined. Simultanagnosia is the inability to perceive simultaneous objects in one's visual field. Victims of Bálint's syndrome perceive the world erratically, as a series of single objects rather than seeing the wholeness of a scene; this spatial disorder of visual attention—the ability to identify local elements of a scene, but not the global whole—has been referred to as a constriction of the individual's global gestalt window—their visual "window" of attention. People fixate their eyes to specific images in social scenes because they are informative to the meaning of the scene. Any forthcoming recovery in simultanagnosia may be related to somehow expanding the restricted attentional window that characterizes this disorder. Simultanagnosia is a profound visual deficit, it impairs the ability to perceive multiple items in a visual display, while preserving the ability to recognize single objects.

One study suggests that simultanagnosia may result from an extreme form of competition between objects which makes it difficult for attention to be disengaged from an object once it has been selected. Patients with simultanagnosia have a restricted spatial window of visual attention and cannot see more than one object at a time, they see their world in a spotty manner. Therefore, they pick out a single object, or components of an individual object, without being able to see the global "big picture." A study which directly tested the relationship between the restriction of the attentional window in simultanagnosia compared with the vision of healthy participants with normal limits of visual processing confirmed the limitations of difficulties of patients with simultanagnosia. There is considerable evidence that a person's cortex is divided into two functional streams: an occipital-parietal-frontal pathway that processes "where" information and an occipital-temporal-frontal pathway that provides "what" information to the individual.

Bálint referred to this as "psychic paralysis of gaze"—the inability to voluntarily guide eye movements, changing to a new location of visual fixation. A major symptom of Oculomotor apraxia is that a person has no control over their eye movements, vertical eye movements are unaffected. For example, they have difficulty moving their eyes in the desired direction. In other words, the saccades are abnormal; because of this, most patients with Oculomotor apraxia have to turn their heads in order to follow objects coming from their peripherals. Optic ataxia is the inability to guide the hand toward an object using visual information where the inability cannot be explained by motor, visual field deficits or acuity deficits. Optic ataxia is seen in Bálint's syndrome where it is characterized by an impaired visual control of the direction of arm-reaching to a visual target, accompanied by defective hand orientation and grip formation, it is considered independent of visual space misperception. Optic ataxia is known as misreaching or dysmetria, secondary to visual perceptual deficits.

A patient with Bálint's syndrome has defective hand movements under visual guidance, despite normal limb strength. The patient is unable to grab an object while looking at the object, due to a discoordination of eye and hand movement, it is true with their contralesional hand. Dysmetria refers to a lack of coordination of movement, typified by the undershoot or overshoot of intended positi

Qaryut

Qaryout is a Palestinian village of nearly 2,500 in the Nablus Governorate in the northern West Bank, located 28 kilometers southeast of Nablus. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, Qaryut had a population of 2,469 inhabitants in mid-year 2006. Qaryut is located 17 km south of Nablus, it is bordered by Duma and Jalud to the east and Talfit to the north, As Sawiya to the west, Turmus'ayya to the south. Shards from the Iron Age II, Persian/Hellenistic, Byzantine Crusader/Ayyubid and Mamluk era have been found here. Western travellers, like Edward Robinson, have suggested that Qaryut might be identical to ancient Coreae, it has been suggested that Qaryut is identical with Kariateri, a place mentioned in Crusader texts. It has been noted that: "This place, being at the head of Wady Fusail, seems to have given rise to the mediaeval identification of that valley as the Brook Cherith." Potsherds from the early Ottoman era have been found here. In 1838, Kuriyet was noted as being located in El-Beitawy district, east of Nablus.

In 1870, Victor Guérin noted: "This village is divided into two distinct districts, each under the jurisdiction of a particular Sheikh. Its population is seven hundred and fifty inhabitants. In the gardens around it grow fig trees and vines. Several old rock formations are dry, women are forced to fetch water as far as Ain Siloun. In two houses, I notice some blocks with boss cut." Guérin identified Qaryut with ancient Coreae. In 1882, the PEF's Survey of Western Palestine noted that Kuriyut was: "a small village, on the top of a high chain, with a spring between it and the ruin of Seilun." In the 1922 census of Palestine, conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Qariut had a population of 530 Muslims, increasing in the 1931 census to 732. In the 1945 statistics Qaryut had a population of 930, all Muslims, with 7,491 dunams of land, according to an official land and population survey. Of this, 2,611 dunams were plantations and irrigable land, 2,803 were used for cereals, while 63 dunams were built-up land.

In the wake of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, after the 1949 Armistice Agreements, Qaryut came under Jordanian rule. The Jordanian census of 1961 found 1,163 inhabitants. After the Six-Day War in 1967, Qaryut has been under Israeli occupation along with the rest of the Palestinian territories. After the 1995 accords, 23% of village land is classified as Area B land, while the remaining 77% is Area C; as of 2014, Israel has confiscated 2,221 dunams of Qaryat village land for 3 Israeli settlements: Eli and Mizpe Rahel. Israeli settlers from Eli have been blamed for uprooting more than 100 olive trees belonging to Qaryut village. Taysir Khalid, Palestinian politician Welcome To Qaryut Survey of Western Palestine, Map 14: IAA, Wikimedia commons Qaryut Village profile, Applied Research Institute–Jerusalem Qaryut, aerial photo, ARIJ Development Priorities and Needs in Qaryut, ARIJ