E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA. The "E" stands for "Europe". Found on food labels, their safety assessment and approval are the responsibility of the European Food Safety Authority. Having a single unified list for food additives was first agreed upon in 1962 with food colouring. In 1964, the directives for preservatives were added, 1970 for antioxidants and 1974 for the emulsifiers, stabilisers and gelling agents; the numbering scheme follows that of the International Numbering System as determined by the Codex Alimentarius committee, though only a subset of the INS additives are approved for use in the European Union as food additives. Outside the European continent plus Russia, E numbers are encountered on food labelling in other jurisdictions, including the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, South Africa, New Zealand and Israel, they are though still found on North American packaging on imported European products.
In some European countries, "E number" is sometimes used informally as a pejorative term for artificial food additives, products may promote themselves as "free of E numbers". This is incorrect, because many components of natural foods have assigned E numbers, e.g. vitamin C and lycopene, found in carrots. NB: Not all examples of a class fall into the given numeric range. Moreover, many chemicals in the E400–499 range, have a variety of purposes; the list shows all components that had an E-number assigned. Not all additives listed are still allowed in the EU, but are listed as they used to have an E-number. For an overview of allowed additives see information provided by the Food Standards Agency of the UK. Food Chemicals Codex List of food additives List of food additives, Codex Alimentarius Codex Alimentarius, the international foods standards, established by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization in 1963 See their document "Class Names and the International Numbering System for Food Additives" Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives publications at the World Health Organization Food Additive Index, JECFA, Food and Agriculture Organization E-codes and ingredients search engine with details/suggestions for Muslims Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers Food Additives in the European Union Food Additives, Food Safety, website of the European Union.
Includes Lists of authorised food additives Food additives database The Food Additives and Ingredients Association, FAIA website, UK
Fermentation in winemaking
The process of fermentation in winemaking turns grape juice into an alcoholic beverage. During fermentation, yeasts transform sugars present in the juice into carbon dioxide. In winemaking, the temperature and speed of fermentation are important considerations as well as the levels of oxygen present in the must at the start of the fermentation; the risk of stuck fermentation and the development of several wine faults can occur during this stage, which can last anywhere from 5 to 14 days for primary fermentation and another 5 to 10 days for a secondary fermentation. Fermentation may be done in stainless steel tanks, common with many white wines like Riesling, in an open wooden vat, inside a wine barrel and inside the wine bottle itself as in the production of many sparkling wines; the natural occurrence of fermentation means it was first observed long ago by humans. The earliest uses of the word "fermentation" in relation to winemaking was in reference to the apparent "boiling" within the must that came from the anaerobic reaction of the yeast to the sugars in the grape juice and the release of carbon dioxide.
The Latin fervere means to boil. In the mid-19th century, Louis Pasteur noted the connection between yeast and the process of the fermentation in which the yeast act as catalyst and mediator through a series of a reaction that convert sugar into alcohol; the discovery of the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway by Gustav Embden, Otto Fritz Meyerhof and Jakub Karol Parnas in the early 20th century contributed more to the understanding of the complex chemical processes involved in the conversion of sugar to alcohol. In winemaking, there are distinctions made between ambient yeasts which are present in wine cellars, vineyards and on the grapes themselves and cultured yeast which are isolated and inoculated for use in winemaking; the most common genera of wild yeasts found in winemaking include Candida, Klöckera/Hanseniaspora, Metschnikowiaceae and Zygosaccharomyces. Wild yeasts can produce unique-flavored wines. Few yeast, lactic and acetic acid bacterial colonies live on the surface of grapes, but traditional wine makers in Europe, advocate use of ambient yeast as a characteristic of the region's terroir.
The cultured yeasts most used in winemaking belong to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae species. Within this species are several hundred different strains of yeast that can be used during fermentation to affect the heat or vigor of the process and enhance or suppress certain flavor characteristics of the varietal; the use of different strains of yeasts is a major contributor to the diversity of wine among the same grape variety. Alternative, non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yeasts are being used more prevalently in the industry to add greater complexity to wine. After a winery has been in operation for a number of years, few yeast strains are involved in the fermentation process; the use of active dry yeasts reduces the variety of strains that appear in spontaneous fermentation by outcompeting those strains that are present. The addition of cultured yeast occurs with the yeast first in a dried or "inactive" state and is reactivated in warm water or diluted grape juice prior to being added to the must.
To thrive and be active in fermentation, the yeast needs access to a continuous supply of carbon, sulfur, phosphorus as well as access to various vitamins and minerals. These components are present in the grape must but their amount may be corrected by adding nutrients to the wine, in order to foster a more encouraging environment for the yeast. Newly formulated time-release nutrients manufactured for wine fermentations, offer the most advantageous conditions for yeast. Oxygen is needed as well, but in wine making, the risk of oxidation and the lack of alcohol production from oxygenated yeast requires the exposure of oxygen to be kept at a minimum. Upon the introduction of active yeasts to the grape must, phosphates are attached to the sugar and the six-carbon sugar molecules begin to be split into three-carbon pieces and go through a series of rearrangement reactions. During this process, the carboxylic carbon atom is released in the form of carbon dioxide with the remaining components becoming acetaldehyde.
The absence of oxygen in this anaerobic process allows the acetaldehyde to be converted, by reduction, to ethanol. During the conversion of acetaldehyde, a small amount is converted, by oxidation, to acetic acid which, in excess, can contribute to the wine fault known as volatile acidity. After the yeast has exhausted its life cycle, they fall to the bottom of the fermentation tank as sediment known as lees. Yeast ceases its activity whenever all of the sugar in must has been converted into other chemicals or whenever the alcohol content has reached 15% alcohol per unit volume; the metabolism of amino acids and breakdown of sugars by yeasts has the effect of creating other biochemical compounds that can contribute to the flavor and aroma of wine. These compounds can be considered "volatile" like aldehydes, ethyl acetate, fatty acids, fusel oils, hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans or "non-volatile" like glycerol, acetic acid and succinic acid. Yeast has the effect during fermentation of releasing glycoside hydrolase which can hydrolyse the
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds. A chemical element bonded to an identical chemical element is not a chemical compound since only one element, not two different elements, is involved. There are four types of compounds, depending on how the constituent atoms are held together: molecules held together by covalent bonds ionic compounds held together by ionic bonds intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds certain complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements, subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved. For example, water is composed of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom: the chemical formula is H2O. Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service: its CAS number.
A compound can be converted to a different chemical composition by interaction with a second chemical compound via a chemical reaction. In this process, bonds between atoms are broken in both of the interacting compounds, bonds are reformed so that new associations are made between atoms. Any substance consisting of two or more different types of atoms in a fixed stoichiometric proportion can be termed a chemical compound, it follows from their being composed of fixed proportions of two or more types of atoms that chemical compounds can be converted, via chemical reaction, into compounds or substances each having fewer atoms. The ratio of each element in the compound is expressed in a ratio in its chemical formula. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements, subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved. For example, water is composed of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom: the chemical formula is H2O.
In the case of non-stoichiometric compounds, the proportions may be reproducible with regard to their preparation, give fixed proportions of their component elements, but proportions that are not integral. Chemical compounds have a unique and defined chemical structure held together in a defined spatial arrangement by chemical bonds. Chemical compounds can be molecular compounds held together by covalent bonds, salts held together by ionic bonds, intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds, or the subset of chemical complexes that are held together by coordinate covalent bonds. Pure chemical elements are not considered chemical compounds, failing the two or more atom requirement, though they consist of molecules composed of multiple atoms. Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service: its CAS number. There is varying and sometimes inconsistent nomenclature differentiating substances, which include non-stoichiometric examples, from chemical compounds, which require the fixed ratios.
Many solid chemical substances—for example many silicate minerals—are chemical substances, but do not have simple formulae reflecting chemically bonding of elements to one another in fixed ratios. It may be argued that they are related to, rather than being chemical compounds, insofar as the variability in their compositions is due to either the presence of foreign elements trapped within the crystal structure of an otherwise known true chemical compound, or due to perturbations in structure relative to the known compound that arise because of an excess of deficit of the constituent elements at places in its structure. Other compounds regarded as chemically identical may have varying amounts of heavy or light isotopes of the constituent elements, which changes the ratio of elements by mass slightly. Compounds are held together through a variety of different types of bonding and forces; the differences in the types of bonds in compounds differ based on the types of elements present in the compound.
London dispersion forces are the weakest force of all intermolecular forces. They are temporary attractive forces that form when the electrons in two adjacent atoms are positioned so that they create a temporary dipole. Additionally, London dispersion forces are responsible for condensing non polar substances to liquids, to further freeze to a solid state dependent on how low the temperature of the environment is. A covalent bond known as a molecular bond, involves the sharing of electrons between two atoms; this type of bond occurs between elements that fall close to each other on the periodic table of elements, yet it is observed between some metals and nonmetals. This is due to the mechanism of this type of bond. Elements that fall close to each other on the periodic table tend to have similar electronegativities, which means they have a similar affinity for electrons. Since neither element has a stronger affinity to donate or gain electrons, it causes the elements to share electrons so both elements have a more stable octet.
Ionic bonding occurs when valence electrons are transferred between elements. Opposite to covalent bonding, this chemical bond creates two oppositely charged ions; the metals in ionic bonding
Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices, animal foods & feed and veterinary products; as of 2017, 3/4th of the FDA budget is paid by people who consume pharmaceutical products, due to the Prescription Drug User Fee Act. The FDA was empowered by the United States Congress to enforce the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act, which serves as the primary focus for the Agency; these include regulating lasers, cellular phones and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction. The FDA is led by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The Commissioner reports to the Secretary of Human Services. Scott Gottlieb, M. D. is the current commissioner, who took over in May 2017. The FDA has its headquarters in Maryland; the agency has 223 field offices and 13 laboratories located throughout the 50 states, the United States Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico. In 2008, the FDA began to post employees to foreign countries, including China, Costa Rica, Chile and the United Kingdom. In recent years, the agency began undertaking a large-scale effort to consolidate its 25 operations in the Washington metropolitan area, moving from its main headquarters in Rockville and several fragmented office buildings to the former site of the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in the White Oak area of Silver Spring, Maryland; the site was renamed from the White Oak Naval Surface Warfare Center to the Federal Research Center at White Oak. The first building, the Life Sciences Laboratory, was dedicated and opened with 104 employees on the campus in December 2003. Only one original building from the naval facility was kept.
All other buildings are new construction. The project is slated to be completed by 2021, assuming future Congressional funding While most of the Centers are located in the Washington, D. C. area as part of the Headquarters divisions, two offices – the Office of Regulatory Affairs and the Office of Criminal Investigations – are field offices with a workforce spread across the country. The Office of Regulatory Affairs is considered the "eyes and ears" of the agency, conducting the vast majority of the FDA's work in the field. Consumer Safety Officers, more called Investigators, are the individuals who inspect production and warehousing facilities, investigate complaints, illnesses, or outbreaks, review documentation in the case of medical devices, biological products, other items where it may be difficult to conduct a physical examination or take a physical sample of the product; the Office of Regulatory Affairs is divided into five regions, which are further divided into 20 districts. Districts are based on the geographic divisions of the federal court system.
Each district comprises a main district office and a number of Resident Posts, which are FDA remote offices that serve a particular geographic area. ORA includes the Agency's network of regulatory laboratories, which analyze any physical samples taken. Though samples are food-related, some laboratories are equipped to analyze drugs and radiation-emitting devices; the Office of Criminal Investigations was established in 1991 to investigate criminal cases. Unlike ORA Investigators, OCI Special Agents are armed, don't focus on technical aspects of the regulated industries. OCI agents pursue and develop cases where individuals and companies have committed criminal actions, such as fraudulent claims, or knowingly and willfully shipping known adulterated goods in interstate commerce. In many cases, OCI pursues cases involving Title 18 violations, in addition to prohibited acts as defined in Chapter III of the FD&C Act. OCI Special Agents come from other criminal investigations backgrounds, work with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Assistant Attorney General, Interpol.
OCI receives cases from a variety of sources—including ORA, local agencies, the FBI—and works with ORA Investigators to help develop the technical and science-based aspects of a case. OCI is a smaller branch; the FDA works with other federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture, Drug Enforcement Administration and Border Protection, Consumer Product Safety Commission. Local and state government agencies work with the FDA to provide regulatory inspections and enforcement action; the FDA regulates more than US$2.4 trillion worth of consumer goods, about 25% of consumer expenditures in the United States. This includes $466 billion in food sales, $275 billion in drugs, $60 billion in cosmetics and $18 billion in vitamin supplements. Much of these expenditures are for goods imported into the United States; the FDA's federal budget request for fiscal year 2012 totaled $4.36 billion, while the proposed 2014 budget is $4.7 billion. About $2 billion of this budget is generated by user fees.
Pharmaceutical firms pay th
The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary. Used broadly, shrimp may cover any of the groups with elongated bodies and a swimming mode of locomotion – most Caridea and Dendrobranchiata. In some fields, the term is used more narrowly and may be restricted to Caridea, to smaller species of either group or to only the marine species. Under the broader definition, shrimp may be synonymous with prawn, covering stalk-eyed swimming crustaceans with long narrow muscular tails, long whiskers, slender legs. Any small crustacean which resembles a shrimp tends to be called one, they swim forward by paddling with swimmerets on the underside of their abdomens, although their escape response is repeated flicks with the tail driving them backwards quickly. Crabs and lobsters have strong walking legs, whereas shrimp have thin, fragile legs which they use for perching. Shrimp are abundant. There are thousands of species adapted to a wide range of habitats.
They can be found feeding near the seafloor on most coasts and estuaries, as well as in rivers and lakes. To escape predators, some species flip off the dive into the sediment, they live from one to seven years. Shrimp are solitary, though they can form large schools during the spawning season, they play important roles in the food chain and are an important food source for larger animals ranging from fish to whales. The muscular tails of many shrimp are edible to humans, they are caught and farmed for human consumption. Commercial shrimp species support an industry worth 50 billion dollars a year, in 2010 the total commercial production of shrimp was nearly 7 million tonnes. Shrimp farming became more prevalent during the 1980s in China, by 2007 the harvest from shrimp farms exceeded the capture of wild shrimp. There are significant issues with excessive bycatch when shrimp are captured in the wild, with pollution damage done to estuaries when they are used to support shrimp farming. Many shrimp species are small as the term shrimp suggests, about 2 cm long, but some shrimp exceed 25 cm.
Larger shrimp are more to be targeted commercially and are referred to as prawns in Britain. Shrimp are swimming crustaceans with long antennae. Unlike crabs and lobsters, shrimp have well developed slender walking legs, it was the distinction between walking and swimming that formed the primary taxonomic division into the former suborders Natantia and Reptantia. Members of the Natantia were adapted for swimming while the Reptantia were adapted for crawling or walking; some other groups have common names that include the word "shrimp". The following description refers to the external anatomy of the common European shrimp, Crangon crangon, as a typical example of a decapod shrimp; the body of the shrimp is divided into two main parts: the head and thorax which are fused together to form the cephalothorax, a long narrow abdomen. The shell which protects the cephalothorax is harder and thicker than the shell elsewhere on the shrimp and is called the carapace; the carapace surrounds the gills, through which water is pumped by the action of the mouthparts.
The rostrum, eyes and legs issue from the carapace. The rostrum, from the Latin rōstrum meaning beak, looks like a beak or pointed nose at the front of the shrimp's head, it can be used for attack or defense. It may stabilize the shrimp when it swims backward. Two bulbous eyes on stalks sit either side of the rostrum; these are compound eyes which have panoramic vision and are good at detecting movement. Two pairs of whiskers issue from the head. One of these pairs is long and can be twice the length of the shrimp, while the other pair is quite short; the antennae have sensors on them which allow the shrimp to feel where they touch, allow them to "smell" or "taste" things by sampling the chemicals in the water. The long antennae help the shrimp orient itself with regard to its immediate surroundings, while the short antennae help assess the suitability of prey. Eight pairs of appendages issue from the cephalothorax; the first three pairs, the maxillipeds, Latin for "jaw feet", are used as mouthparts.
In Crangon crangon, the first pair, the maxillula, pumps water into the gill cavity. After the maxilliped come five more pairs of appendages, the pereiopods; these form the ten decapod legs. In Crangon crangon, the first two pairs of pereiopods have claws or chela; the chela can bring them to the mouth. They can be used for fighting and grooming; the remaining six legs are long and slender, are used for walking or perching. The muscular abdomen has a thinner shell than the carapace; each segment has a separate overlapping shell. The first five segments each have a pair of appendages on the underside, which are shaped like paddles and are used for swimming forward; the appendages are called pleopods or swimmerets, can be used for purposes other than swimming. Some shrimp species use them for brooding eggs, others have gills on them for breathing, the males in some species use the first pair or two for insemination; the sixth segment terminates in the telson flanked by two pairs of appendages called the uropods.
The uropods allow the shrimp to swim backward, function like rudders, steering the shrimp when it
Sodium metabisulfite or sodium pyrosulfite is an inorganic compound of chemical formula Na2S2O5. The substance is sometimes referred to as disodium metabisulfite, it is used as a disinfectant and preservative agent. Sodium metabisulfite can be prepared by evaporating a solution of sodium bisulfite saturated with sulfur dioxide: 2 HSO3− ⇌ H2O + S2O52−which yields a residue of colorless solid Na2S2O5; the anion metabisulfite is a hybrid of dithionate. The anion consists of an SO2 group linked to an SO3 group, with the negative charge more localized on the SO3 end; the S–S bond length is 2.22 Å, the "thionate" and "thionite" S–O distances are 1.46 and 1.50 Å respectively. It is used as a preservative and antioxidant in food and is known as E223, it may cause allergic reactions in those who are sensitive to sulfites, including respiratory reactions in asthmatics and other allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. Sodium metabisulfite and potassium metabisulfite are the primary ingredients in Campden tablets, used for wine and beer making.
The acceptable daily intake is up to 0.7 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. Sodium metabisulfite oxidizes in the liver to sulfate, excreted in the urine, it is used in homebrewing and winemaking to sanitize equipment. It is used as a cleaning agent for potable water reverse osmosis membranes in desalination systems, it is used to remove chloramine from drinking water after treatment. Added to local anaesthetic solutions to prevent oxidation of vasoconstrictor adrenaline and thus improve the shelf life of the solution It is used in photography. Concentrated sodium metabisulfite can be used to remove tree stumps; some brands contain 98% sodium metabisulfite, cause degradation of lignin in the stumps, facilitating removal. It is used as an excipient in some tablets, such as paracetamol. 0.5 mg is used in epinephrine autoinjectors such as the EpiPen. A important health related aspect of this substance is that it can be added to a blood smear in a test for sickle cell anaemia; the substances causes defunct cells to sickle hence confirming disease.
It is used as the source of SO2 in wine, an important anti-oxidant and bactericide It is used to precipitate gold from auric acid. It is used in waste treatment to chemically reduce hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium which can be precipitated and removed from an aqueous waste stream, it is used as a bleaching agent in the production of coconut cream It is used as a reducing agent to break sulfide bonds in shrunken items of clothing made of natural fibers, thus allowing the garment to go back to its original shape after washing It is used as an SO2 source for the destruction of cyanide in commercial gold cyanidation processes. It is used in the gas industry as a corrosion inhibitor/oxygen scavenger, it is used in the water treatment industry to quench chlorine residual It is used in tint etching iron-based metal samples for microstructural analysis. When mixed with water, sodium metabisulfite releases sulfur dioxide, a pungent, unpleasant smelling gas that can cause breathing difficulties in some people.
For this reason, sodium metabisulfite has fallen from common use in recent times, with agents such as hydrogen peroxide becoming more popular for effective and odorless sterilization of equipment. Released sulfur dioxide however makes the water a strong reducing agent. Sodium metabisulfite releases sulfur dioxide in contact with strong acids: Na2S2O5 + 2 HCl → 2 NaCl + H2O + 2 SO2On heating to high temperature, it releases sulfur dioxide, leaving sodium sulfite behind: Na2S2O5 → Na2SO3 + SO2 Potassium metabisulfite International Chemical Safety Card 1461 The elusive crystal structure of sodium metabisulfite CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol, the bottling of the finished liquid. The history of wine-making stretches over millennia; the science of wine and winemaking is known as oenology. A winemaker may be called a vintner; the growing of grapes is viticulture and there are many varieties of grapes. Winemaking can be divided into two general categories: still wine production and sparkling wine production. Red wine, white wine, rosé are the other main categories. Although most wine is made from grapes, it may be made from other plants, see fruit wine. Other similar light alcoholic drinks include mead, made by fermenting honey and water, kumis, made of fermented mare's milk. There are five basic stages to the wine making process which begins with picking. After the harvest, the grapes are prepared for primary ferment. At this stage red wine making diverges from white wine making. Red wine is made from the must of red or black grapes and fermentation occurs together with the grape skins, which give the wine its color.
White wine is made by fermenting juice, made by pressing crushed grapes to extract a juice. White wine is made from red grapes. Rosé wines are either made from red grapes where the juice is allowed to stay in contact with the dark skins long enough to pick up a pinkish color or by blending red wine with white wine. White and rosé wines extract little of the tannins contained in the skins. To start primary fermentation yeast may be added to the must for red wine or may occur as ambient yeast on the grapes or in the air. Yeast may be added to the juice for white wine. During this fermentation, which takes between one and two weeks, the yeast converts most of the sugars in the grape juice into ethanol and carbon dioxide; the carbon dioxide is lost to the atmosphere. After the primary fermentation of red grapes the free run wine is pumped off into tanks and the skins are pressed to extract the remaining juice and wine; the press wine is blended with the free run wine at the winemaker's discretion. The wine is kept warm and the remaining sugars are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
The next process in the making of red wine is malo-lactic conversion. This is a bacterial process which converts "crisp, green apple" malic acid to "soft, creamy" lactic acid softening the taste of the wine. Red wine is sometimes transferred to oak barrels to mature for a period of months; the wine must be settled or clarified and adjustments made prior to bottling. The time from harvest to drinking can vary from a few months for Beaujolais nouveau wines to over twenty years for wine of good structure with high levels of acid, tannin or sugar. However, only about 10% of all red and 5% of white wine will taste better after five years than it will after just one year. Depending on the quality of grape and the target wine style, some of these steps may be combined or omitted to achieve the particular goals of the winemaker. Many wines of comparable quality are produced using similar but distinctly different approaches to their production. Variations on the above procedure exist. With sparkling wines such as Champagne, an additional, "secondary" fermentation takes place inside the bottle, dissolving trapped carbon dioxide in the wine and creating the characteristic bubbles.
Sweet wines or off-dry wines are made by arresting fermentation before all sugar has been converted into ethanol and allowing some residual sugar to remain. This can be done by chilling the wine and adding sulphur and other allowable additives to inhibit yeast activity or sterile filtering the wine to remove all yeast and bacteria. In the case of sweet wines, initial sugar concentrations are increased by harvesting late, freezing the grapes to concentrate the sugar, allowing or encouraging botrytis cinerea fungus to dehydrate the grapes or allowing the grapes to raisin either on the vine or on racks or straw mats. In these high sugar wines, the fermentation stops as the high concentration of sugar and rising concentration of ethanol retard the yeast activity. In fortified wines, such as port wine, high proof neutral grape spirit is added to arrest the ferment and adjust the alcohol content when the desired sugar level has been reached. In other cases the winemaker may choose to hold back some of the sweet grape juice and add it to the wine after the fermentation is done, a technique known in Germany as süssreserve.
The process produces wastewater and lees that require collection and disposal or beneficial use. Synthetic wines, engineered wines or fake wines, are a product that do not use grapes at all and start with water and ethanol and adds acids, amino acids and organic compounds; the quality of the grapes determines the quality of the wine more than any other factor. Grape quality is affected by variety as well as weather during the growing season, soil minerals and acidity, time of harvest, pruning method; the combination of these effects is referred to as the grape's terroir. Grapes are harvested from the vineyard from early September until early November in the northern hemisphere, mid February until early March in the southern hemisphere. In some cool areas in the southe