Furosemide, sold under the brand name Lasix among others, is a medication used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease. It may be used for the treatment of high blood pressure, it can be taken by injection by mouth. When taken by mouth, it begins working within an hour, while intravenously, it begins working within five minutes. Common side effects include feeling lightheaded with standing, ringing in the ears, sensitivity to light. Serious side effects include electrolyte abnormalities, low blood pressure, hearing loss. Blood tests are recommended for those on treatment. Furosemide is a type of loop diuretic that works by decreasing the reabsorption of sodium by the kidneys. Furosemide was patented in 1959 and approved for medical use in 1964, it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, which lists the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale price in the developing world is between US$0.004 and US$0.02 per day.
In the United States, it is available as costs about US$0.15 per day. In 2016, it was the 15th most prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 32 million prescriptions, it is on the World Anti-Doping Agency's banned drug list due to concerns that it may mask other drugs. It has been used in race horses for the treatment and prevention of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. Furosemide is used for the treatment of edema, but in some cases of hypertension, it is the first-line agent in most people with edema caused by congestive heart failure. It is used for liver cirrhosis, kidney impairment, nephrotic syndrome, in adjunct therapy for swelling of the brain or lungs where rapid diuresis is required, in the management of severe hypercalcemia in combination with adequate rehydration. In chronic kidney diseases with hypoalbuminemia, it is used along with albumin to increase diuresis, it is used along with albumin in nephrotic syndrome to reduce edema. It is excreted by tubular secretion in the kidney.
In kidney impairment, clearance is reduced. Lower initial doses are recommended in older patients and high doses may be needed in renal failure, it can cause kidney damage. Furosemide acts within 1 hour of oral administration. Diuresis is complete within 6–8 hours of oral administration, but there is significant variation between individuals. Furosemide can lead to gout caused by hyperuricemia. Hyperglycemia is a common side effect; the tendency, as for all loop diuretics, to cause low serum potassium concentration has given rise to combination products, either with potassium or with the potassium-sparing diuretic amiloride. Other electrolyte abnormalities that can result from furosemide use include hyponatremia, hypochloremia and hypocalcemia. In the treatment of heart failure, many studies have shown that the long-term use of furosemide can cause varying degrees of thiamine deficiency, so thiamine supplementation is suggested. Although disputed, it is considered ototoxic: "usually with large intravenous doses and rapid administration and in renal impairment".
Other precautions include: nephrotoxicity, sulfonamide allergy, increases free thyroid hormone effects with large doses. Furosemide has potential interactions with these medications: Aspirin and other salicylates Other diuretics Synergistic effects with other antihypertensives SucralfatePotentially hazardous interactions with other drugs: Analgesics: increased risk of kidney damage with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Antibacterials: increased risk of ototoxicity with aminoglycosides and vancomycin. Furosemide, like other loop diuretics, acts by inhibiting the luminal Na-K-Cl cotransporter in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle, by binding to the chloride transport channel, thus causing sodium and potassium loss in urine; the action on the distal tubules is independent of any inhibitory effect on carbonic anhydrase or aldosterone. Because of the large NaCl absorptive capacity of the loop of Henle, diuresis is not limited by development of acidosis
Streptococcus is a genus of gram-positive coccus or spherical bacteria that belongs to the family Streptococcaceae, within the order Lactobacillales, in the phylum Firmicutes. Cell division in streptococci occurs along a single axis, so as they grow, they tend to form pairs or chains that may appear bent or twisted; the term was coined in 1877 by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth, by combining the prefix "strepto-", together with the suffix "-coccus" Most streptococci are oxidase-negative and catalase-negative, many are facultative anaerobes. In 1984, many bacteria grouped in the genus Streptococcus were separated out into the genera Enterococcus and Lactococcus. Over 50 species are recognised in this genus; this genus has been found to be part of the salivary microbiome. In addition to streptococcal pharyngitis, certain Streptococcus species are responsible for many cases of pink eye, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis and necrotizing fasciitis. However, many streptococcal species are not pathogenic, form part of the commensal human microbiota of the mouth, skin and upper respiratory tract.
Streptococci are a necessary ingredient in producing Emmentaler cheese. Species of Streptococcus are classified based on their hemolytic properties. Alpha-hemolytic species cause oxidization of iron in hemoglobin molecules within red blood cells, giving it a greenish color on blood agar. Beta-hemolytic species cause complete rupture of red blood cells. On blood agar, this appears. Gamma-hemolytic species cause no hemolysis. Beta-hemolytic streptococci are further classified by Lancefield grouping, a serotype classification; the 20 described serotypes are named Lancefield groups A to V. This system of classification was developed by Rebecca Lancefield, a scientist at Rockefeller University. In the medical setting, the most important groups are the alpha-hemolytic streptococci S. pneumoniae and Streptococcus viridans group, the beta-hemolytic streptococci of Lancefield groups A and B. Table: Medically relevant streptococci When alpha-hemolysis is present, the agar under the colony will appear dark and greenish due to the conversion of hemoglobin to green biliverdin.
Streptococcus pneumoniae and a group of oral streptococci display alpha-hemolysis. Alpha-hemolysis is termed incomplete hemolysis or partial hemolysis because the cell membranes of the red blood cells are left intact; this is sometimes called green hemolysis because of the color change in the agar. S. pneumoniae, is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia and occasional etiology of otitis media, sinusitis and peritonitis. Inflammation is thought to be the major cause of how pneumococci cause disease, hence the tendency of diagnoses associated with them to involve inflammation; the viridans streptococci are a large group of commensal bacteria that are either alpha-hemolytic, producing a green coloration on blood agar plates, or nonhemolytic. They possess no Lancefield antigens. Beta hemolysis, sometimes called complete hemolysis, is a complete lysis of red cells in the media around and under the colonies: the area appears lightened and transparent. Streptolysin, an exotoxin, is the enzyme produced by the bacteria which causes the complete lysis of red blood cells.
There are two types of streptolysin: Streptolysin O and streptolysin S. Streptolysin O is an oxygen-sensitive cytotoxin, secreted by most group A Streptococcus, interacts with cholesterol in the membrane of eukaryotic cells, results in beta-hemolysis under the surface of blood agar. Streptolysin S is an oxygen-stable cytotoxin produced by most GAS strains which results in clearing on the surface of blood agar. SLS affects immune cells, including polymorphonuclear leukocytes and lymphocytes, is thought to prevent the host immune system from clearing infection. Streptococcus pyogenes, or GAS, displays beta hemolysis; some weakly beta-hemolytic species cause intense hemolysis when grown together with a strain of Staphylococcus. This is called the CAMP test. Streptococcus agalactiae displays this property. Clostridium perfringens can be identified presumptively with this test. Listeria monocytogenes is positive on sheep's blood agar. Group A S. pyogenes is the causative agent in a wide range of group A streptococcal infections.
These infections may be invasive. The noninvasive infections tend to be less severe; the most common of these infections include impetigo. Scarlet fever is a noninvasive infection, but has not been as common in recent years; the invasive infections caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci tend to be more severe and less common. This occurs when the bacterium is able to infect areas where it is not found, such as the blood and the organs; the diseases that may
Philipp Heinrich Hörlein, was a German entrepreneur, scientist and Nazi Wehrwirtschaftsführer. Hörlein was the son of Heinrich Hörlein, a farmer, his wife, Philippina, he studied chemistry at Technische Universität Darmstadt in 1900, moving on to the University of Jena in 1902 and graduating with his doctorate the following year. Having completed his studies under Ludwig Knorr, he worked as his assistant until 1909 when he took a position with the Bayer research laboratory in Elberfeld. Hörlein succeeded Arthur Eichengrün as the head of the pharmaceutical research laboratories at Bayer in 1911. In this role he developed the soporific Luminal in 1912, an important drug in the treatment of epilepsy. In 1914 Hörlein became an authorised signatory at the company, adding a deputy directorship in 1919 before in 1921 becoming an alternate member of the managing board of the company. In 1925 the conglomerate IG Farben was established, bringing together Bayer and several other chemical companies. Hörlein was an alternate member of the new company's managing board and in 1926 was made the head of their pharmaceutical research department.
He joined the Nazi Party in June 1934, one of a number of leading figures at IG Farben to do so once Hitler came to power. The previous year he had fallen foul of the Nazis when he campaigned against Hermann Göring's law banning testing on animals, something Hörlein considered essential to his research, he was able to secure a partial lifting of the ban. Although he was not responsible for developing the powerful nerve agent tabun, Hörlein was the one who recognised its potential value as a weapon of war and passed on information about the discovery to the Wehrmacht. Hörlein sat on the vorstand of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Schadlingsbekampfung, an IG Farben subsidiary company concerned with the production of Zyklon B, he was privy to the sales figures for the gas and was aware of the company's close relationship to the extermination camps. He received detailed reports of the human experimentation carried out by Helmuth Vetter, who purchased most of his subjects from the concentration camps.
Towards the end of the war Hörlein, sensing that a German defeat was imminent, moved his operations to Leverkusen and began to maintain a much lower profile. As a member of the managing board of the company he was one of those to face charges at the IG Farben trial, he was acquitted and released. He returned to Leverkusen, his wife Marie Hörlein donated 5,000 Euro for and designed the Hörlein Prize, for large scientific papers in the field of human medicine. In 1952, he received an honorary doctorate from Technische Universität Darmstadt. In 1955, the city of Leverkusen named a street after him. Hörlein Memorial Award
Bayer AG is a German multinational pharmaceutical and life sciences company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world. Headquartered in Leverkusen, where its illuminated corporate logo, the Bayer cross, is a landmark, Bayer's areas of business include human and veterinary pharmaceuticals; the company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Werner Baumann has been CEO since 2016. Founded in Barmen in 1863 as a dyestuffs factory, Bayer's first and best-known product was aspirin. In 1898 Bayer trademarked the name heroin for the drug diacetylmorphine and marketed it as a cough suppressant and non-addictive substitute for morphine until 1910. Bayer introduced phenobarbital. In 1925 Bayer was one of six chemical companies that merged to form IG Farben, the world's largest chemical and pharmaceutical company; the Allied Control Council seized IG Farben after World War II, because of its role in the Nazi war effort and involvement in the Holocaust, which included using slave labour from concentration camps.
It was split into its six constituent companies in 1951 split again into three: BASF, Bayer and Hoechst. Bayer played a key role in the Wirtschaftswunder in post-war West Germany regaining its position as one of the world's largest chemical and pharmaceutical corporations. In 2006 the company acquired Schering, in 2014 it acquired Merck & Co.'s consumer business, with brands such as Claritin, Coppertone and Dr. Scholl's, in 2018 it acquired Monsanto, a leading producer of genetically engineered crops, for $63 billion. Bayer CropScience develops genetically modified pesticides. Bayer AG was founded as a dyestuffs factory in 1863 in Barmen, Germany, by Friedrich Bayer and his partner, Johann Friedrich Weskott, a master dyer. Bayer was responsible for the commercial tasks. Fuchsine and aniline became; the headquarters and most production facilities moved from Barmen to a larger area in Elberfeld in 1866. Friedrich Bayer, son of the company's founder, was a chemist and joined the company in 1873. After the death of his father in 1880, the company became a joint-stock company, Farbenfabriken vorm.
Friedr. Bayern & Co known as Elberfelder Farbenfabriken. A further expansion in Elberfeld was impossible, so the company moved to the village Wiesdorf at Rhein and settled in the area of the alizarin producer Leverkus and Sons. A new city, was founded there in 1930 and became home to Bayer AG's headquarters; the company's corporate logo, the Bayer cross, was introduced in 1904, consisting of the word BAYER written vertically and horizontally, sharing the Y and enclosed in a circle. An illuminated version of the logo is a landmark in Leverkusen. Bayer's first major product was acetylsalicylic acid—first described by French chemist Charles Frederic Gerhardt in 1853—a modification of salicylic acid or salicin, a folk remedy found in the bark of the willow plant. By 1899 Bayer's trademark Aspirin was registered worldwide for Bayer's brand of acetylsalicylic acid, but it lost its trademark status in the United States and the United Kingdom after the confiscation of Bayer's US assets and trademarks during World War I by the United States, because of the subsequent widespread usage of the word.
The term aspirin continued to be used in the US, UK and France for all brands of the drug, but it is still a registered trademark of Bayer in over 80 countries, including Canada, Mexico and Switzerland. As of 2011 40,000 tons of aspirin were produced each year and 10–20 billion tablets consumed in the United States alone for prevention of cardiovascular events, it is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system. There is an unresolved controversy over the roles played by Bayer scientists in the development of aspirin. Arthur Eichengrün, a Bayer chemist, said he was the first to discover an aspirin formulation that did not have the unpleasant side effects of nausea and gastric pain, he said he had invented the name aspirin and was the first person to use the new formulation to test its safety and efficacy. Bayer contends. Various sources support the conflicting claims. Most mainstream historians attribute the invention of aspirin to Hoffmann and/or Eichengrün.
Heroin, now illegal as an addictive drug, was introduced as a non-addictive substitute for morphine, trademarked and marketed by Bayer from 1898 to 1910 as a cough suppressant and over-the-counter treatment for other common ailments, including pneumonia and tuberculosis. Bayer scientists were not the first to make heroin, but the company led the way in commercializing it. Heroin was a Bayer trademark until after World War I. In 1903 Bayer licensed the patent for the hypnotic drug diethylbarbituric acid from its inventors Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering, it was marketed under the trade name Veronal as a sleep aid beginning in 1904. Systematic investigations of the effect of structural changes on potency and duration of action at Bayer led to the discovery of phenobarbital in 1911 and the discovery of its potent anti-epileptic activity in 1912. Phenobarbital was among the most used drugs for the treatment of epilepsy through the 1970s, as of 2014 it remains on the World Health Organization's list of essential medications.
During World War I, Bayer's assets, including the rights to
Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2. Consisting of a phenyl group attached to an amino group, aniline is the prototypical aromatic amine, its main use is in the manufacture of precursors to polyurethane and other industrial chemicals. Like most volatile amines, it has the odor of rotten fish, it ignites burning with a smoky flame characteristic of aromatic compounds. Aniline is a pyramidalized molecule, with hybridization of the nitrogen somewhere between sp3 and sp2; the amine is flatter than an aliphatic amine, owing to conjugation of the lone pair with the aryl substituent. Thus, the experimental geometry reflects a balance between the stabilization of lone pairs in orbitals with higher s character and better stabilization via conjugation with the aryl ring for an orbital of pure p character; the pyramidalization angle between the C–N bond and the bisector of the H–N–H angle is 142.5°. The C−N distance is correspondingly shorter. In aniline, the C−N and C−C distances are close to 1.39 Å, indicating the π-bonding between N and C.
Industrial aniline production involves two steps. First, benzene is nitrated with a concentrated mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid at 50 to 60 °C to yield nitrobenzene; the nitrobenzene is hydrogenated in the presence of metal catalysts: The reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline was first performed by Nikolay Zinin in 1842, using inorganic sulfide as a reductant. Aniline can alternatively be prepared from phenol derived from the cumene process. In commerce, three brands of aniline are distinguished: aniline oil for blue, pure aniline. Many analogues of aniline are known; these include toluidines, chloroanilines, aminobenzoic acids and many others. They are prepared by nitration of the substituted aromatic compounds followed by reduction. For example, this approach is used to convert toluene into toluidines and chlorobenzene into 4-chloroaniline. Alternatively, using Buchwald-Hartwig coupling or Ullmann reaction approaches, aryl halides can be aminated with aqueous or gaseous ammonia The chemistry of aniline is rich because the compound has been cheaply available for many years.
Below are some classes of its reactions. The oxidation of aniline has been investigated, can result in reactions localized at nitrogen or more results in the formation of new C-N bonds. In alkaline solution, azobenzene results, whereas arsenic acid produces the violet-coloring matter violaniline. Chromic acid converts it into quinone, whereas chlorates, in the presence of certain metallic salts, give aniline black. Hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate give chloranil. Potassium permanganate in neutral solution oxidizes it to nitrobenzene, in alkaline solution to azobenzene and oxalic acid, in acid solution to aniline black. Hypochlorous acid gives para-amino diphenylamine. Oxidation with persulfate affords a variety of polyanilines compounds; these polymers exhibit rich acid-base properties. Like phenols, aniline derivatives are susceptible to electrophilic substitution reactions, its high reactivity reflects that it is an enamine, which enhances the electron-donating ability of the ring. For example, reaction of aniline with sulfuric acid at 180 °C produces sulfanilic acid, H2NC6H4SO3H.
If bromine water is added to aniline, the bromine water is decolourised and a white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromoaniline is formed. To generate the mono-substituted product, a protection with acetyl chloride is required: The reaction to form 4-bromoaniline is to protect the amine with acetyl chloride hydrolyse back to reform aniline; the largest scale industrial reaction of aniline involves its alkylation with formaldehyde. An idealized equation is shown: 2 C6H5NH2 + CH2O → CH22 + H2OThe resulting diamine is the precursor to 4,4'-MDI and related diisocyanates. Aniline is a weak base. Aromatic amines such as aniline are, in general, much weaker bases than aliphatic amines. Aniline reacts with strong acids to form anilinium ion. Traditionally, the weak basicity of aniline is attributed to a combination of inductive effect from the more electronegative sp2 carbon and resonance effects, as the lone pair on the nitrogen is delocalized into the pi system of the benzene ring.: Missing in such analysis is consideration of solvation.
Aniline is, for example, more basic than ammonia in the gas phase, but ten thousand times less so in aqueous solution. Aniline reacts with acyl chlorides such as acetyl chloride to give amides; the amides formed from aniline are sometimes called anilides, for example CH3-CO-NH-C6H5 is acetanilide. At high temperatures aniline and carboxylic acids react to give the anilides. N-Methylation of aniline with methanol at elevated temperatures over acid catalysts gives N-methylaniline and dimethylaniline: C6H5NH2 + 2 CH3OH → C6H5N2 + 2H2ON-Methylaniline and dimethylaniline are colorless liquids with boiling points of 193–195 °C and 192 °C, respectively; these derivatives are of importance in the color industry. Aniline combines directly with alkyl iodides to form tertiary amines. Boiled with carbon disulfide, it gives sulfocarbanilide, which may be decomposed into phen
Interessen‐Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG known as IG Farben, was a German chemical and pharmaceutical conglomerate. Formed in 1925 from a merger of six chemical companies—BASF, Hoechst, Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron, Chemische Fabrik vorm. Weiler Ter Meer—it was seized by the Allies after World War II and divided back into its constituent companies. In its heyday, IG Farben was the largest company in Europe and the largest chemical and pharmaceutical company in the world. IG Farben scientists made fundamental contributions to all areas of chemistry and the pharmaceutical industry. Otto Bayer discovered the polyaddition for the synthesis of polyurethane in 1937, three company scientists became Nobel laureates: Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius in 1931 "for their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods", Gerhard Domagk in 1939 "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"; the company had ties in the 1920s to the liberal German People's Party and was accused by the Nazis of being an "international capitalist Jewish company".
A decade it was a Nazi Party donor and, after the Nazi takeover of Germany in 1933, a major government contractor, providing significant materiel for the German war effort. Throughout that decade it purged itself of its Jewish employees. Described as "the most notorious German industrial concern during the Third Reich", IG Farben relied in the 1940s on slave labour from concentration camps, including 30,000 from Auschwitz. One of its subsidiaries supplied the poison gas, Zyklon B, that killed over one million people in gas chambers during the Holocaust; the Allies seized the company at the end of the war in 1945 and the US authorities put its directors on trial. Held from 1947 to 1948 as one of the subsequent Nuremberg trials, the IG Farben trial saw 23 IG Farben directors tried for war crimes and 13 convicted. By 1951 all had been released by the American high commissioner for John J. McCloy. What remained of IG Farben in the West was split in 1951 into its six constituent companies again into three: BASF, Bayer and Hoechst.
These companies continued to operate as an informal cartel and played a major role in the West German Wirtschaftswunder. Following several mergers the main successor companies are Agfa, BASF, Bayer and Sanofi. In 2004 the University of Frankfurt, housed in the former IG Farben head office, set up a permanent exhibition on campus, the Norbert Wollheim memorial, for the slave labourers and those killed by Zyklon B. At the beginning of the 20th century, the German chemical industry dominated the world market for synthetic dyes. Three major firms BASF, Bayer and Hoechst, produced several hundred different dyes. Five smaller firms, Cassella, Chemische Fabrik Kalle, Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron and Chemische Fabrik vorm. Weiler-ter Meer, concentrated on high-quality specialty dyes. In 1913 these eight firms produced 90 percent of the world supply of dyestuffs and sold about 80 percent of their production abroad; the three major firms had integrated upstream into the production of essential raw materials, they began to expand into other areas of chemistry such as pharmaceuticals, photographic film, agricultural chemicals and electrochemicals.
Contrary to other industries, the founders and their families had little influence on the top-level decision-making of the leading German chemical firms, in the hands of professional salaried managers. Because of this unique situation, the economic historian Alfred Chandler called the German dye companies "the world's first managerial industrial enterprises". With the world market for synthetic dyes and other chemical products dominated by the German industry, German firms competed vigorously for market shares. Although cartels were attempted, they lasted at most for a few years. Others argued for the formation of Interessen-Gemeinschaft. In contrast, the chairman of Bayer, Carl Duisberg, argued for a merger. During a trip to the United States in the spring of 1903, he had visited several of the large American trusts such as Standard Oil, U. S. Steel, International Paper and Alcoa. In 1904, after returning to Germany, he proposed a nationwide merger of the producers of dye and pharmaceuticals in a memorandum to Gustav von Brüning, the senior manager at Hoechst.
Hoechst and several pharmaceutical firms refused to join. Instead and Cassella made an alliance based on mutual equity stakes in 1904; this prompted chairman of BASF, to accelerate their negotiations. In October 1904 an Interessen-Gemeinschaft between Bayer, BASF and Agfa was formed known as the Dreibund or little IG. Profits of the three firms were pooled, with BASF and Bayer getting 43 percent and Agfa 14 percent of all profits; the two alliances were loosely connected with each other through an agreement between BASF and Hoechst to jointly exploit the patent on the Heumann-Pfleger indigo synthesis. Within the Dreibund, Bayer and BASF concentrated on dye, while Agfa concentrated on photographic film. Although there was some cooperation between the technical staff in production and accounting, there was little cooperation between the firms in other areas. Neither were production or distribution facilities consolidated nor did the commercial staff cooperate. In 1908 Hoechst and Cassella acquired 88 percent of the shares of Chemische Fabrik Kalle.
As Hoechst and Kalle were connected by mutual equity shares and were located close to each other in the Frankfurt area, this allowed them to cooperate more than the Dreibund, although they did not rationalize or consolidate their production facilitie
Elixir sulfanilamide was an improperly prepared sulfanilamide medicine that caused mass poisoning in the United States in 1937. It caused the deaths of more than 100 people; the public outcry caused by this incident and other similar disasters led to the passing of the 1938 Federal Food and Cosmetic Act. Aside from the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 and the Harrison Act of 1914 banning the sale of some narcotic drugs, there was no federal regulatory control in the United States of America ensuring the safety of new drugs until Congress enacted the 1938 Food and Cosmetic Act in response to the elixir sulfanilamide poisoning crisis. In 1937, S. E. Massengill Company, a pharmaceutical manufacturer, created a preparation of sulfanilamide using diethylene glycol as a solvent, called the preparation "Elixir Sulfanilamide". DEG is poisonous to humans and other mammals, but Harold Watkins, the company's chief pharmacist and chemist, was not aware of this. Watkins added raspberry flavoring to the sulfa drug which he had dissolved in DEG and the company marketed the product.
Animal testing was not required by law, Massengill performed none. The company started selling and distributing the medication in September 1937. By October 11, the American Medical Association received a report of several deaths caused by the medication; the Food and Drug Administration was notified, an extensive search was conducted to recover the distributed medicine. Frances Oldham Kelsey assisted on a research project that verified that the excipient DEG was responsible for the fatal adverse effects. At least 100 deaths were blamed on the medication; the owner of the company, when pressed to admit some measure of culpability, infamously answered, "We have been supplying a legitimate professional demand and not once could have foreseen the unlooked-for results. I do not feel that there was any responsibility on our part." Watkins, the chemist, committed suicide while awaiting trial. A woman wrote to U. S. President Roosevelt and described the death of her daughter: "The first time I had occasion to call in a doctor for and she was given Elixir of Sulfanilamide.
All, left to us is the caring for her little grave. The memory of her is mixed with sorrow for we can see her little body tossing to and fro and hear that little voice screaming with pain and it seems as though it would drive me insane.... It is my plea that you will take steps to prevent such sales of drugs that will take little lives and leave such suffering behind and such a bleak outlook on the future as I have tonight." Congress responded to public outrage by passing the 1938 Food and Cosmetic Act, which required companies to perform animal safety tests on their proposed new drugs and submit the data to the FDA before being allowed to market their products. The Massengill Company paid a minimum fine under provisions of the 1906 Pure Food and Drugs Act, which prohibited labeling the preparation an "elixir" if it contained no alcohol. List of medicine contamination incidents Human subject research legislation in the United States