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A sulfonate is a salt or ester of a sulfonic acid. It contains the functional group R-SO3 −. Sulfonates are the conjugate base of sulfonic acids. Sulfonates are stable in water, non-oxidizing, colorless. Many useful compounds and some biochemicals feature sulfonates. Anions with the general formula RSO3− are called sulfonates, they are the conjugate bases of sulfonic acids with formula RSO2OH. As sulfonic acids tend to be strong acids, the corresponding sulfonates are weak bases. Due to the stability of sulfonate anions, the cations of sulfonate salts such as scandium triflate have application as Lewis acids. A classic organic reaction for the preparation of sulfonates is that of alkyl halides with sulfites such as sodium sulfite, first described by Adolph Strecker in 1868; the general reaction is: RX + M2SO3 → RSO3M + MXIodide is used as a catalyst. Esters with the general formula R1SO2OR2 are called sulfonic esters. Individual members of the category are named analogously to. For example, if the R2 group is a methyl group and the R1 group is a trifluoromethyl group, the resulting compound is methyl trifluoromethanesulfonate.

Sulfonic esters are used as reagents in organic synthesis, chiefly because the RSO3− group is a good leaving group when R is electron-withdrawing. Methyl triflate, for example, is a strong methylating reagent. Sulfonates are used to confer water solubility to protein crosslinkers such as N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide, BS3, Sulfo-SMCC, etc. Cyclic sulfonic esters are called sultones. One example is 1,3-propane sultone; some sultones are short-lived intermediates, used as strong alkylating agents to introduce a negatively charged sulfonate group. In the presence of water, they hydrolyze to the hydroxy sulfonic acids. Sultone oximes are key intermediates in the synthesis of the anti-convulsant drug zonisamide. Tisocromide is an example of a sultone. Mesylate, CH3SO3− Triflate, CF3SO3− Ethanesulfonate, C2H5SO3− Tosylate, CH3C6H4SO3− Benzenesulfonic acid, C6H5SO3− Closilate, ClC6H4SO3− Camphorsulfonate, SO3− Pipsylate. Nosylate Sulfate Sulfoxide Sulfonyl

Paul Chabanaud

Paul Chabanaud was a French ichthyologist and herpetologist. Beginning in 1915, he worked as a volunteer under zoologist Louis Roule at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris. In 1919–1920, he undertook a scientific expedition to French West Africa on behalf of the museum, during which he collected thousands of zoological specimens. Following his return to Paris, he served as a preparator in the laboratory of biologist Jean Abel Gruvel at the museum, he specialized in the anatomy and systematics of the flatfish and was the taxonomic authority of many herpetological and ichthyological species. The skink genus Chabanaudia is named after him, being circumscribed by Gaston-François de Witte and Raymond Ferdinand Laurent in 1943, his name is associated with numerous zoological species, including: The catfish species, Atopochilus chabanaudi, circumscribed by Jacques Pellegrin in 1938. Chabanaud's fringe-fingered lizard, Acanthodactylus boueti, described by Chabanaud in 1917. Chabanaud's mabuya, Trachylepis breviparietalis, described by Chabanaud in 1917.

The reed frog species, Hyperolius chabanaudi, circumscribed by Ernst Ahl in 1931. Reptiles et batraciens, 1922. Les soles de l'Atlantique Oriental Nord et des mers adjacentes, 1927. Observations morphologiques et remarques sur la systématique des poissons hétérosomes soléiformes, 1927. Les genres de poissons Hétérosomates, 1930. Poissons hétérosomes, 1933. Le neurocrâne osseux des téléostéens dyssymétriques après la métamorphose, 1936. Les téléostéens dyssymétriques du Mokattam inférieur de Tourah, 1937. Contribution à la morphologie et à la systématique des Téléostéens dyssymétriques, 1938. Contribution à la morphologie du tube digestif des téléostéens dyssymétriques, 1947

Balthasar Walther

Balthasar Walther was a Silesian physician and Christian Kabbalist of German ethnicity. Born in Liegnitz in modern Poland, Walther was a significant influence on the thought of the German theosopher Jakob Böhme; as an itinerant Paracelsian enthusiast, Walther was active throughout the Holy Roman Empire, in Poland and elsewhere. He died in Paris sometime before December 1631. Born in Liegnitz, Walther attended the University of Frankfurt/Oder where he studied medicine. A gifted student and an evident enthusiast of Paracelsian medicine, he thereafter received a series of appointments to Ducal courts throughout the Holy Roman Empire as a physician and laboratory technician. Intensely interested in magic and kabbalistic wisdom, early in his life Walther collected several magical tracts, the manuscripts of which survive in European libraries to this day. In order to deepen his acquaintance with kabbalistic and magical teachings, between 1597 and 1599 Walther traveled to Africa and the Holy Land in order to learn at the feet of Jewish and Arab practitioners.

Several years after his return to Europe, he made the acquaintance of Jakob Böhme in late 1617. In 1612 he became a close friend of Boehme. In 1619-20 he studied with Boehme. Along with the likes of the Torgau chiliast Paul Nagel, Walther became a fiery propagandist and promoter of Böhme's work, although for several years he was torn between Böhme's doctrines and those of Böhme's arch-rival, the antinomian Esajas Stiefel. After several years of proselytizing on Böhme's behalf, Walther died in Paris before 1631. A complete bibliography of Walther's printed works can be found in a recent article. Despite his influence, as well as his enthusiasm for kabbalistic and magical tracts, Walther himself only composed two major works, neither of which reflected these interests to any great extent: Ode | Dicolos Tetrastrophos, totum re-|demtionis opus, à Christo Seruatore nostro hu-|mano generi praestitum, breuiter com-|plectens.... A devotional poetic work. BREVIS ET VERA | DESCRIPTIO | RERVM AB | ILLVST.

AMPLISS. | ET FORTISS. MILITIAE | CON-|trapatriæ suæ Reiq Pub. Christianæ hostes | Duce ac Dn. Dn. Jön Michaele, Mol-|dawiæ Transalpinæ sive VValachiæ | Palatino gestarum, | In eiusdem aula Tervvisana fideliter collecta | opera & studio.. A biography of the Wallachian Prince Michael the Brave. A third work, although written by Jakob Böhme, was inspired by 40 questions proposed to the philosopher by Walther himself concerning the nature of the human soul, it seems clear. The first edition of these Forty Questions on the Soul was provided by Johann Angelius Werdenhagen, a friend of Walther, shortly after the physician's death in Paris: Ψυχολογια Vera I. B. T. XL Quæstionibus explicata, et rerum publicarum vero regimini: ac earum Maiestatico iuri applicata, a Iohanne Angelio Werdenhagen I. C. C.. Despite his significance to and influence upon the theosophy of Jakob Böhme, Walther has attracted little scholarly attention and remained something of a historical cipher. A contemporary biographical account, printed within 20 years following Walther's death is provided in: Abraham von Franckenberg, ‘Gründlicher und warhafter Bericht von dem Leben und Abschied des in Gott selig-ruhenden Jacob Böhmens...’ in Jakob Böhme, Sämtliche Schriften.

Faksimile-Neudruck der Ausgabe von 1730, vol. 10, § 18, p. 15. Ulmann Weiß: Die Lebenswelten des Esajas Stiefel oder Vom Umgang mit Dissidenten, Stuttgart 2007, 452-462, 551-553 ISBN 978-3-515-08856-5 Jacob Böhmes Weg in die Welt. Ed. by Theodor Harmsen, Amsterdam 2007, 73-83, 461-474 & passim Scholarly articles dedicated to Walther's life and works are: Leigh T. I. Penman, ‘A Second Christian Rosencreuz? Jakob Böhme's the Kabbalah. With a Bibliography of Walther’s Printed Works.’ Western Esotericism. Selected Papers Read at the Symposium on Western Esotericism held at Åbo, Finland, on 15-17 August 2007.. T. Ahlbäck, ed. Åbo, Finland: Donner Institute, 2008: 154-172. Erich Worbs, ‘Balthasar Walther. Ein Porträt aus dem schlesischen Frühbarock.’ Schlesien 11, 8-13. Georg Gustav Fülleborn. ‘Balthasar Walther aus Glogau, ein Schüler Jakob Böhmes.’ Die schlesischen Provinzialblätter. Literarische Beilage 20, 353-360

Random testing

Random testing is a black-box software testing technique where programs are tested by generating random, independent inputs. Results of the output are compared against software specifications to verify that the test output is pass or fail. In case of absence of specifications the exceptions of the language are used which means if an exception arises during test execution it means there is a fault in the program, it is used as way to avoid biased testing. Random testing for hardware was first examined by Melvin Breuer in 1971 and initial effort to evaluate its effectiveness was done by Pratima and Vishwani Agrawal in 1975. In software and Ntafos had examined random testing in 1984. Consider the following C++ function: Now the random tests for this function could be. Only the value'-35' triggers the bug. If there is no reference implementation to check the result, the bug still could go unnoticed. However, an assertion could be added to check the results, like: The reference implementation is sometimes available, e.g. when implementing a simple algorithm in a much more complex way for better performance.

For example, to test an implementation of the Schönhage–Strassen algorithm, the standard "*" operation on integers can be used: While this example is limited to simple types, tools targeting object-oriented languages explore the program to test and find generators and call them using random inputs. Such approaches maintain a pool of randomly generated objects and use a probability for either reusing a generated object or creating a new one. According to the seminal paper on random testing by D. Hamlet the technical, mathematical meaning of "random testing" refers to an explicit lack of "system" in the choice of test data, so that there is no correlation among different tests. Random testing is praised for the following strengths: It is cheap to use: it does not need to be smart about the program under test, it does not have any bias: unlike manual testing, it does not overlook bugs because there is misplaced trust in some code. It is quick to find bug candidates: it takes a couple of minutes to perform a testing session.

If software is properly specified: it finds real bugs. The following weaknesses are pointed out by detractors: It only finds basic bugs, it is only as precise as the specification and specifications are imprecise. It compares poorly with other techniques to find bugs. If different inputs are randomly selected on each test run, this can create problems for continuous integration because the same tests will pass or fail randomly; some argue that it would be better to thoughtfully cover all relevant cases with manually constructed tests in a white-box fashion, than to rely on randomness. Random input sequence generation Random sequence of data inputs - f.ex. A random sequence of method calls Random data selection from existing database undirected random test generation - with no heuristics to guide its search directed random test generation - f.ex. "feedback-directed random test generation" or "adaptive random testing" Some tools implementing random testing: QuickCheck - a famous test tool developed for Haskell but ported to many other languages, that generates random sequences of API calls based on a model and verifies system properties that should hold true after each run.

Randoop - generates sequences of methods and constructor invocations for the classes under test and creates JUnit tests from these Simulant - a Clojure tool that runs simulations of various agents based on a statistical model of their behavior, recording all the actions and results into a database for exploration and verification AutoTest - a tool integrated to EiffelStudio testing automatically Eiffel code with contracts based on the eponymous research prototype.· York Extensible Testing Infrastructure - a language agnostic tool which targets various programming languages. GramTest - a grammar based random testing tool written in Java, it uses BNF notation to specify input grammars. Random testing has only a specialized niche in practice because an effective oracle is available, but because of difficulties with the operational profile and with generation of pseudorandom input values. A test oracle is an instrument for verifying whether the outcomes match the program specification or not.

An operation profile is knowledge about usage patterns of the program and thus which parts are more important. For programming languages and platforms which have contracts contracts act as natural oracles and the approach has been applied successfully. In particular, random testing finds more bugs than manual inspections or user reports. Fuzz testing - a kind of random testing which provides invalid input to the tested program Lazy systematic unit testing#Systematic Testing - a systematic way of exploring "all" method calls, as implemented e.g. by NASA's Java Path Finder Constrained random generation in SystemVerilog Corner case Edge case Concolic testing Random testing by Andrea Arcuri. Random testing by Richard Hamlet, professor emeritus at Portland State University.

Candlestick (film)

Candlestick is a 2014 British film starring Andrew Fitch, Isla Ure, Nigel Thomas and Tom Knight. It was directed by Christopher Presswell and was released in the United States on 11 April 2015. A meeting of friends descends into a sinister game when one of them accuses the wife of his best friend of infidelity. Andrew Fitch as Jack Isla Ure as Vera Nigel Thomas as Frank Tom Knight as Major Burns Dan March as Inspector Marcus Evans The film was shot in London during November 2012. Presswell has cited the work of Alfred Hitchcock Rope and Dial M for Murder, as an influence on the film. Candlestick made its UK debut on 8 October 2014 at the Aberdeen Film Festival, with further festival screenings at IndieCork and the Bratislava International Film Festival. In November 2014, Candlestick opened the 30 Dies Fantastic Film Festival in Andorra, was among the first non-Chinese-language films shown at the Europe China Image Film Festival. In January 2015 the company announced that the film would open in the United States on 11 April of that year, be released on VOD, DVD and Blu-ray.

Following the film's Irish première, NextProjection called the film a "juicy jaunt of a tale," and said that "like a Raymond Chandler'cannibalisation', Candlestick may feed off the familiar, but it's the sport with which it spits it back out that makes it feel so fresh". The film won three awards at the 30 Dies Fantastic Film Festival, Andorra: best screenplay; the film received a mention for its screenplay at the Overlook: CinemAvvenire Film Festival 2014 in Rome. On 19 November 2015 a post on titled "This is how movies are delivered to your local theater" containing pictures of the film's DCP hard drive went viral, reaching the #1 spot on Reddit, gathering widespread social media attention; the images were viewed over 1 million times before being reposted by 9GAG, becoming the subject of an article in The Independent. Official website Candlestick on IMDb Candlestick on Twitter Candlestick at AllMovie Candlestick at Rotten Tomatoes Candlestick at Metacritic


NOAA-16, designated NOAA-L before launch, is one of the NASA-provided TIROS series of weather forecasting satellites operated by NOAA. It was launched on September 21, 2000, in a sun-synchronous orbit, 849 km above the Earth, orbiting every 102 minutes, it hosts the AMSU, AVHRR and High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder instruments' APT transmitter. NOAA-16 has the same suite of instruments. NOAA-16's APT has been inoperable due to sensor degradation since November 15, 2000, High Resolution Picture Transmission has been via STX-1 since November 9, 2010. NOAA-16 was decommissioned on June 2014 after a critical anomaly. On November 25, 2015, at 08:16, the JSpOC identified a possible breakup of NOAA 16. All associated objects have been added to conjunction assessment screenings, satellite operators will be notified of close approaches between the debris and active satellites; the JSpOC catalogs the debris objects. As of March 26, 2016, 275 pieces of debris were being tracked. Orbital Tracking