Jugurtha or Jugurthen was a King of Numidia, born in Cirta. Until the reign of Jugurthas grandfather Masinissa, the Numidians were semi-nomadic, Masinissa established a kingdom and became a Roman ally in 206 BC. After a long reign he was succeeded in 148 BC by his son Micipsa, Micipsas adopted son, was so popular among the Numidians that Micipsa was obliged to send him away to Spain. Unfortunately for Micipsa, instead of keeping out of the way. He served at the siege of Numantia alongside Gaius Marius and learned of Romes weakness for bribes and he famously described Rome as urbem venalem et mature perituram, si emptorem invenerit. When Micipsa died in 118, he was succeeded jointly by Jugurtha and Jugurtha quarrelled immediately after the death of Micipsa. Jugurtha had Hiempsal killed, which led to war with Adherbal. After Jugurtha defeated him in battle, Adherbal fled to Rome for help. The Roman officials settled the fight by dividing Numidia into two parts, probably in 116, but this settlement was tainted by accusations that the Roman officials accepted bribes to favor Jugurtha, among the officials found guilty was Lucius Opimius.
Jugurtha was assigned the western half, Roman propaganda claimed that this half was richer, by 112 Jugurtha resumed his war with Adherbal, penning the latter up in his capital of Cirta. Adherbal was encouraged to hold out by a corps of Italian residents, Roman troops were engaged in the Cimbrian War and the Senate merely sent two successive embassies to remonstrate with Jugurtha who delayed until he had captured Cirta. His troops massacred many residents including the Italians and this brought Jugurtha into direct conflict with Rome, who sent troops under the Consul Lucius Calpurnius Bestia. Although the Romans made significant inroads into Numidia, their infantry was unable to inflict any significant casualties on Jugurthas army which included large numbers of light cavalry. Bestia accepted an offer of negotiations from Jugurtha, who surrendered and received a favourable peace treaty. However once Jugurtha had reached Rome, another tribune used his veto to prevent evidence being given, Jugurtha severely damaged his reputation and weakened his position by using his time in Rome to set gangs onto a cousin, named Massiva, a potential rival for the Numidian throne.
War again broke out between Numidia and the Roman Republic, and several legions were dispatched to North Africa under the command of the consul, the war dragged out into a long and seemingly endless campaign, as the Romans tried to inflict a decisive defeat on Jugurtha. Frustrated at the apparent lack of action, Metelluss lieutenant, Gaius Marius, after winning the election, Marius returned to Numidia to take control of the war. He sent his quaestor, Sulla, to neighbouring Mauretania to eliminate their support for Jugurtha, with the help of Bocchus I of Mauretania, Sulla was able to capture Jugurtha and bring the war to a conclusive end
First Macedonian War
The First Macedonian War was fought by Rome, allied with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the Second Punic War against Carthage. There were no decisive engagements, and the war ended in a stalemate, during the war, Macedon attempted to gain control over parts of Illyria and Greece, but without success. It is commonly thought that these skirmishes in the east prevented Macedon from aiding the Carthaginian general Hannibal in the war with Rome, the Peace of Phoenice, a treaty drawn up at Phoenice, in 205 BC, formally ended the war. Romes preoccupation with its war against Carthage provided an opportunity for Philip V of Macedon to attempt to extend his power westward, according to the ancient Greek historian Polybius, an important factor in Philips decision to take advantage of this opportunity was the influence of Demetrius of Pharos. Demetrius had been, after the First Illyrian War in 229 BC, however, in 219 BC, during the Second Illyrian War he was defeated by the Romans and fled to the court of Philip.
Involved in a war with the Aetolians, Philip learned by messenger of the victory of Hannibal over the Romans, Philip at first showed the letter only to Demetrius. Perhaps seeing a chance to recover his kingdom, Demetrius immediately advised the king to make peace with the Aetolians. Italy, and your crossing into it, is the first step in the acquirement of universal empire, and now is the moment to act when the Romans have suffered a reverse. Philip at once began negotiations with the Aetolians, at a conference on the coast near Naupactus, Philip met the Aetolian leaders, and a peace treaty was concluded. They will move forward, and will extend their forces and their designs farther than we could wish, wherefore, I beseech you all to be on your guard against the danger of the crisis, and above all you, O King. If you are eager for action, turn your eyes to the west, wait with coolness the turn of events there, and seize the opportunity to strike for universal dominion. Nor is the present crisis unfavourable for such a hope, Macedon probably lacked the resources to build and maintain the kind of fleet necessary to match the Romans.
Polybius says that Philip had no hope of fighting the Romans at sea, perhaps referring to a lack of experience, at any rate, Philip chose to build lembi. These were the small fast galleys used by the Illyrians and they had a single bank of oars and were able to carry 50 soldiers in addition to the rowers. With these, Philip could hope to avoid or evade the Roman fleet, preoccupied as he hoped it would be with Hannibal, Philip had in the meantime expanded his territories west along the Apsus and Genusus river valleys, right up to the borders of Illyria. Informed that it was still at Lilybaeum, he sailed north to Apollonia in Illyria, however, as the Macedonian fleet neared the island of Sazan, Philip heard a report that some Roman quinqueremes had been seen headed for Apollonia. Convinced that the entire Roman fleet was sailing to apprehend him, after hearing of Romes disastrous defeat at the hands of Hannibal at Cannae in 216 BC, Philip sent ambassadors to Hannibals camp in Italy to negotiate an alliance.
There they concluded in the summer of 215 BC a treaty, in it they pledge, in general terms, mutual support and defense and to be enemies to each others enemies
Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.
Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth
Campaign history of the Roman military
These accounts were written by various authors throughout and after the history of the Empire. The Roman army battled first against its neighbours and Etruscan towns within Italy. From the outset, Romes military typified this pattern, and the majority of Romes campaigns were characterised by one of two types, the second is the civil war, which plagued Rome from its foundation to its eventual demise. Roman armies were not invincible, despite their reputation and host of victories. Nevertheless, it was generally the fate of even the greatest of Romes enemies, such as Pyrrhus and Hannibal, to win the battle, the history of Romes campaigning is, if nothing else, a history of obstinate persistence overcoming appalling losses. Knowledge of Roman history stands apart from other civilizations in the ancient world and its chronicles and otherwise, document the citys very foundation to its eventual demise. Romes earliest history, from the time of its founding as a tribal village. Although the early Romans were literate to some degree, this void may be due to the lack of will to record their history at that time, or such histories as they did record were lost.
Although the Roman historian Livy lists a series of seven kings of early Rome in his work Ab urbe condita, from its establishment through its earliest years, a number of points of view have been proposed. Very little is known of Romes military history from this era, Romulus, after founding the city, fortified the Palatine Hill, and shortly thereafter, Rome was equal to any of the surrounding cities in her prowess in war. The first of the campaigns fought by the Romans in this account are the wars with various Latin cities. According to Livy, the Latin village of Caenina responded to the event of the abduction of the Sabine women by invading Roman territory, the Latins of Antemnae and those of Crustumerium were defeated next in a similar fashion. The remaining main body of the Sabines attacked Rome and briefly captured the citadel, there was a further war in the 8th century BC against Fidenae and Veii. In the 7th century BC there was a war with Alba Longa, a war with Fidenae and Veii. Ancus Marcius led Rome to victory against the Latins and, according to the Fasti Triumphales, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus first war was waged against the Latins.
Tarquinius took the Latin town of Apiolae by storm and took great booty from there back to Rome, according to the Fasti Triumphales, the war occurred prior to 588 BC. His military ability was tested by an attack from the Sabines, Tarquinius doubled the numbers of equites to help the war effort, and defeat the Sabines. Tarquinius returned to Rome and celebrated a triumph for his victories that, according to the Fasti Triumphales, the Latin cities of Corniculum, old Ficulea, Crustumerium, Ameriola and Nomentum were subdued and became Roman
The Galatian War was a war between the Galatian Gauls and the Roman Republic supported by their allies Pergamum in 189 BC. The war was fought in Galatia in central Asia Minor, in present-day Turkey, the Romans had just defeated the Seleucids in the Roman-Syrian War and had forced them to thereby sue for peace. Gnaeus Manlius Vulso, the consul, excused the invasion by saying that it was in retaliation for the Galatians supplying troops to the Seleucids during the war, Vulso embarked on this campaign without the permission of the Roman Senate. Joined by Pergamum, the Romans marched inland and attacked the Galatians and they defeated the Galatians in a battle on Mount Olympus and followed up the victory by defeating a larger army near Ankara. These defeats forced the Galatians to sue for peace and the Romans returned to the coast of Asia Minor, when Manlius Vulso returned to Rome, he was charged with threatening the peace between the Seleucids and Rome. He was cleared and was granted a triumph by the Senate, in 191 BC, Antiochus the Great, the Emperor of the Seleucid Empire of Asia invaded Greece.
The Romans decided to intervene and they defeated the Seleucids at the Battle of Thermopylae, the defeat by Rome forced the Seleucids to retreat back to Asia Minor. The Romans followed them across the Aegean Sea and together with their allies, the Seleucids sued for peace and began settling it with Scipio Asiaticus. In spring, the new consul, Gnaeus Manlius Vulso arrived to control of the army from Scipio Asiaticus. He was sent to conclude the treaty that Scipio was arranging, however, he was not content with the task given to him and he started to plan a new war. He addressed the soldiers and congratulated them on their victory and proposed a new war, the pretext he used for the invasion was that the Galatians had supplied soldiers to the Seleucid army at the Battle of Magnesia. The principal reason for the invasion was Manlius desire to seize the wealth of the Galatians who had become rich from plundering their neighbours and this war was the first occasion that a Roman general had started a war without the permission of the senate or the people.
This was a precedent and this became an example for the future. Manlius started his war preparation by summoning the Pergamese to help, the King of Pergamum, Eumenes II was in Rome so his brother, Attalus who was the regent took command of the Pergamese army. He joined the Roman army a few with 1,000 infantry and 500 cavalry. The combined Roman-Pergamese army started their march from Ephesus and they advanced inland passing Magnesia on the Maeander and into the territory of Alabanda where they were met by 1,000 infantry and 300 cavalry led by Attalus brother. They marched to Antiochia where they were met by Antiochus son, as they marched inland through the upper Maeander valley and Pamphylia gathering levies from local princes and tyrants without much opposition. However, they advanced into the territory of Cibrya, ruled by the tyrant Moagetes, when the Roman envoys reached the city, the tyrant begged them not to ravage the territory because he was a Roman ally and promised to give them fifteen talents
Mithridates VI of Pontus
He is often considered the greatest ruler of the Kingdom of Pontus. Mithridates VI was a prince of Persian and Greek ancestry, Mithridates was born in the Pontic city of Sinope, and was raised in the Kingdom of Pontus. He was the first son among the children born to Laodice VI and his father, Mithridates V, was a prince and the son of the former Pontic monarchs Pharnaces I of Pontus and his wife-cousin Nysa. His mother, Laodice VI, was a Seleucid princess and the daughter of the Seleucid monarchs Antiochus IV Epiphanes, Mithridates V was assassinated in about 120 BC in Sinope, poisoned by unknown persons at a lavish banquet which he held. He left the kingdom to the joint rule of Mithridates mother, Laodice VI, neither Mithridates nor his younger brother were of age, and their mother retained all power as regent for the time being. Laodice VI’s regency over Pontus was from 120 BC to 116 BC, during his mother’s regency, he escaped from his mothers plots against him, and went into hiding. Mithridates emerged from hiding, returning to Pontus between 116 BC and 113 BC and was hailed as king and he removed his mother and brother from the throne, imprisoning both, becoming the sole ruler of Pontus.
Laodice VI died in prison, ostensibly of natural causes, Mithridates Chrestus may have died in prison also, or may have been tried for treason and executed. Mithridates first married his younger sister Laodice, aged 16 and his goal was to preserve the purity of their bloodline, solidify his claim to the throne, to co-rule over Pontus, and to ensure the succession to his legitimate children. Mithridates entertained ambitions of making his state the dominant power in the Black Sea and he first subjugated Colchis, a region east of the Black Sea, and prior to 164 BC, an independent kingdom. He clashed for supremacy on the Pontic steppe with the Scythian King Palacus, the young king turned his attention to Anatolia, where Roman power was on the rise. He contrived to partition Paphlagonia and Galatia with King Nicomedes III of Bithynia and it soon became clear to Mithridates that Nicomedes was steering his country into an anti-Pontic alliance with the expanding Roman Republic. When Mithridates fell out with Nicomedes over control of Cappadocia, and defeated him in a series of battles, the next ruler of Bithynia, Nicomedes IV of Bithynia, was a figurehead manipulated by the Romans.
Mithridates plotted to overthrow him, but his attempts failed and Nicomedes IV, instigated by his Roman advisors, Rome itself was involved in the Social War, a civil war with its Italian allies. Thus, in all of Roman Asia Province there were two legions present in Macedonia. These legions combined with Nicomedes IVs army to invade Mithridates kingdom of Pontus in 89 BC, however, won a decisive victory, scattering the Roman-led forces. His victorious forces were welcomed throughout Anatolia, the following year,88 BC, Mithridates orchestrated a massacre of Roman and Italian settlers remaining in several Anatolian cities, essentially wiping out the Roman presence in the region. This episode is known as the Asiatic Vespers, the Kingdom of Pontus comprised a mixed population in its Ionian Greek and Anatolian cities
First Punic War
The First Punic War was the first of three wars fought between Ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic. For more than 20 years, the two struggled for supremacy, primarily on the Mediterranean island of Sicily and its surrounding waters. The war signaled the beginning of a transformation in the western Mediterranean. Carthage began the war as the great sea-power of the western Mediterranean, while Rome had, the series of wars between Rome and Carthage took the name Punic from the Latin name for the Carthaginians, Punici. This is derived from Phoenicis, and it refers to the Carthaginian heritage as Phoenician colonists, a Carthaginian name for the conflicts does not survive in any records. Rome had recently emerged as the leading city-state in the Italian Peninsula, over the past one hundred years, Rome had come into conflict, and defeated rivals on the Italian peninsula, incorporated them into the Roman political world. By the beginning of the First Punic War, the Romans had secured the whole of the Italian peninsula and it originated as a Phoenician colony in Africa, near modern Tunis.
At the height of power, just before the First Punic War, North African peoples such as the Berbers in the area around Carthage were loosely associated with Carthage. In the midst of the First Punic War some tribes would rebel against Carthage, the rich, strategically influential, and well-fortified Greek colony of Syracuse was politically independent of Rome and Carthage. Hostilities of the First Punic War began with developments involving the Romans, Carthaginians, at the same time, a group of Roman troops made up of Campanian citizens without the vote seized control of Rhegium, lying across the Straits of Messina on the mainland of Italy. In 270 BC, the Romans regained control of Rhegium and severely punished the survivors of the revolt, in Sicily, the Mamertines ravaged the countryside and collided with the expanding regional empire of the independent city of Syracuse. Hiero II, tyrant of Syracuse, defeated the Mamertines near Mylae on the Longanus River, following their defeat, the Mamertines appealed to both Rome and Carthage for assistance.
The Carthaginians acted first, approached Hiero to take no further action, the rivalry between Rome and Carthage had grown since the war with Pyrrhus and that alliance was simply no longer feasible. According to the historian Polybius, considerable debate took place in Rome on the question as to whether to accept the Mamertines appeal for help, many were unwilling to see Carthaginian power in Sicily expand even further. Leaving them at Messana would give the Carthaginians a free hand to deal with Syracuse, after the Syracusans had been defeated, the Carthaginian takeover of Sicily would essentially be complete. Sicily is a volcanic island, with geographical obstacles and rough terrain making lines of communication difficult to maintain. For this reason, land warfare played a role in the First Punic War. Land operations were confined to small raids and skirmishes, with few pitched battles
Third Punic War
The Third Punic War was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage and the Roman Republic. The Punic Wars were named because of the Roman name for Carthaginians, the Third Punic War ended Carthages independent existence. Carthage, stripped of allies and territory, was suffering under a huge indemnity of 200 silver talents to be paid every year for 50 years, cicero put a similar statement in the mouth of Cato in his dialogue De Senectute. He was opposed by the senator Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica Corculum, who favoured a different course that would not destroy Carthage, and who usually prevailed in the debates. Moreover, the retirement of the indemnity removed one of the incentives the Romans had to keep the peace with Carthage – there were no further payments that might be interrupted. The Romans had other reasons to conquer Carthage and her remaining territories, by the middle of the 2nd century BC, the population of the city of Rome was about 400,000 and rising.
Feeding the growing populace was becoming a major challenge, the farmlands surrounding Carthage represented the most productive, most accessible and perhaps the most easily obtainable agricultural lands not yet under Roman control. In 151 BC Numidia launched another raid on Carthaginian soil, besieging the Punic town of Oroscopa. As a result, Carthage suffered a defeat and was charged with another fifty year debt to Numidia. ”In 149 BC. Even after this was done the allied Punic city of Utica defected to Rome, the consuls demanded that Carthage hand over all weapons and armour. After those had been handed over, Rome additionally demanded that the Carthaginians move at least 16 kilometres inland, when the Carthaginians learned of this, they abandoned negotiations and the city was immediately besieged, beginning the Third Punic War. Censorius lost more than 500 men when they were surprised by the Carthaginian cavalry while collecting timber around the Lake of Tunis, a worse disaster fell upon the Romans when their fleet was set ablaze by fire ships which the Carthaginians released upwind.
Manilius was replaced by consul Calpurnius Piso Caesonius in 149 after a defeat of the Roman army at Nepheris. Scipio Aemilianuss intervention saved four cohorts trapped in a ravine, Nepheris eventually fell to Scipio in the winter of 147-146. In the autumn of 148, Piso was beaten back while attempting to storm the city of Aspis, undeterred, he laid siege to the town of Hippagreta in the north, but his army was unable to defeat the Punics there before winter and had to retreat. When news of these setbacks reached Rome, he was replaced as consul by Scipio Aemilianus, the Carthaginians endured the siege, starting 149 BC to the spring of 146 BC, when Scipio Aemilianus successfully assaulted the city. Though the Punic citizens offered a strong resistance, they were pushed back by the overwhelming Roman military force. Many Carthaginians died from starvation during the part of the siege
The Jugurthine War took place in 112–106 BC, between Rome and Jugurtha of Numidia, a kingdom on the north African coast approximating to modern Algeria. Jugurtha was the nephew and adopted son of Micipsa, King of Numidia, whom he succeeded on the throne, overcoming his rivals through assassination and bribery. The war constituted an important phase in the Roman subjugation of Northern Africa, following Jugurthas usurpation of the throne of Numidia, a loyal ally of Rome since the Punic Wars, Rome felt compelled to intervene. Numidia was a located in North Africa not far from Romes arch enemy. King Micipsa died in 118 BC and he was survived by two natural sons and Hiempsal, and his adopted nephew, Jugurtha. It was Micipsas wish that all three would share his kingdom after his death, after King Micipsas death, Jugurtha proved to be a ruthless and unscrupulous man who would do anything to achieve what he wanted, including murder, bribery and assassination. Jugurtha learned Roman ways and military tactics while commanding the Numidian army under Scipio Aemilianus at the Siege of Numantia, after Micipsa died, Jugurtha ordered Hiempsal assassinated and Adherbal fled to Rome for assistance against his half-brother.
A Roman commission was sent to Numidia in 116 BC to make peace, Jugurtha bribed the Roman officials in the commission and the best regions of Numidia were given to Jugurtha. Nevertheless, it was accepted and peace was made, shortly after, in 113 BC, Jugurtha provoked a war with his brother and cornered Adherbal in Adherbals capital city of Cirta. Adherbal along with the Italians living there resisted, a second Roman commission was sent and, after being bribed, allowed Jugurtha to take the city. Jugurtha executed his brother, along many of the Italians who helped Adherbal defend Cirta. This execution of Italians and Romans moved the Roman Senate to declare war on Numidia in 112 BC, the Roman consul Lucius Calpurnius Bestia led an army against Jugurtha but Jugurtha surrendered and was given unusually favorable terms. It appears that Bestia was bribed, so favorable were Jugurthas terms of surrender that it led to an investigation in Rome. Upon his arrival in Rome, Jugurtha bribed two Roman Tribunes of the Plebs who in turn protected him and prevented him from testifying, Jugurtha attempted to arrange for the assassination of a potential rival and was expelled from the city.
In late 110 or early 109 Jugurtha defeated a Roman army led by the praetor Aulus Postumius Albinus Magnus, brother of the consul of that year, apparently by using bribery, treachery and he demanded to be recognized as the rightful ruler of Numidia. The consul Quintus Caecilius Metellus was sent to North Africa to defeat Jugurtha, for his efforts Metellus was given the title Numidicus. Quintus Caecilius Metellus was honest and able as a commander but was buying time in order to maximize his glory when he did actually defeat them and his successful war plan was to destroy Jugurthas supply lines and this forced Jugurtha to guerilla tactics. An internal Roman struggle developed between Metellus and his commander, Gaius Marius
Lucius Cornelius Cinna
Lucius Cornelius Cinna was a four-time consul of the Roman Republic, serving four consecutive terms from 87 to 84 BC, and a member of the ancient Roman Cinna family of the Cornelii gens. Cinnas influence in Rome exacerbated the tensions which existed between Gaius Marius and Lucius Cornelius Sulla, after the death of Marius, he became the leading power in Rome until his own death. His main impact upon Roman politics was his ability to veil his tyranny and his policies impinged on Julius Caesar, who married his daughter. Not much is known about Cinna before his bid for the consulship of 87 BC and he had praetorian rank in the Social War, and had most likely been praetor previous to this time. Cinna was elected as Roman consul in 87 BC, but historians disagree about who supported his election and what his own political goals. All seem to agree on a chain of events, however. The people had intentionally elected candidates who were not supported by Sulla, Sulla had a little more control over the election for consul, or at least, had enough power to be certain no one who supported his rival, could be elected.
Sulla seems to have supported Cinna as a candidate, but clearly did not trust him. Somehow then, Cinna had enough support to be elected, various theories on who supported him and why are postulated based on what he did while in office, but all agree that Sulla was correct in his distrust. Gnaeus Octavius was elected as Cinnas colleague under relatively similar circumstances, one of Cinnas first decisions as consul was not to let his oath to Sulla influence his decisions as consul. Cinna argued that the oath should not prevent him helping the people of Rome. Soon after this, Cinna sought to remove Sulla from the city and he brought some sort of charge against Sulla soon after coming to power. Sulla, rather than facing the charge, escaped with his army and this left only Octavius and the Senate to defend the causes of Sulla in Rome. Cinna eventually supported many causes, which leads to debate concerning his original goals. Two causes predominated, that of the exiles and that of the Italians and his supporters, as well as many prominent supporters of Publius Sulpicius Rufus, had been exiled from Rome under Sullas rule, but were still very popular amongst the people.
It is clear there were connections between Cinna and this group, but it is not clear at what point he took up this cause. The other cause, to which Cinna can be more connected, is that of the “novus homo” or “new citizen”. These were members of Italian tribes who had been promised citizenship as a condition of peace in the Social War, technically they had been given citizenship, but in such a way that they had no real power