The Glyptothek is a museum in Munich, which was commissioned by the Bavarian King Ludwig I to house his collection of Greek and Roman sculptures. It was designed by Leo von Klenze in the Neoclassical style, today the museum is a part of the Kunstareal. He envisioned a German Athens, in which the ancient Greek culture would be remembered, colorful frescoes and stuccos made by distinguished artists such as Peter von Cornelius, Clemens von Zimmermann, and Wilhelm von Kaulbach adorned the walls of the museum. In the few years between 1806 and the opening of the museum in 1830, Ludwig completed a collection of Greek. Through his agents, he managed to such pieces as the Medusa Rondanini, the Barberini Faun, and, in 1813. The museum was designed in the Classical Greek - Italian style, the portico is Ionic, and the outer walls contain niches, in which 18 original Roman and Greek sculptures stand, six on each wall. The thirteen rectangular, square or round rooms are arranged around a courtyard, in front of the vestibule is the portico of twelve Ionic columns.
The overlying gabled includes a group of Johann Martin von Wagner represents Athena as protector of the plastic arts, the exterior walls are adorned with sculptures in niches, while the windows are open to the interior courtyard. The sculptures represent mythical or historical representatives of the arts, these are in the front of the Königsplatz Daedalus, Hadrian, Phidias, the museum was originally built completely out of marble. However, during World War II the museum was bombed, the walls from the interior are composed of red brick and painted with a light plaster. The Glyptothek contains sculptures dating from the age to the Roman era. Other notable sculptures and reliefs can be found here and this collection is complemented by the terracotta and bronze collections in the Staatliche Antikensammlung, which is located opposite the Glyptothek. Among the most famous sculptures covering Archaic Greece are the Munich Kouros, the Kouros of Tenea, of the latter, there are in fact two sets of similar sculptures at the Glyptothek.
The Greeks had not bothered to clear the area, and had left the remains of the temple buried at the same location. The most famous sculpture representing the Hellenistic period is the Barberini Faun, among the famous Roman copies of Greek sculptures are the Boy with the Goose and the Drunken Woman. The Glyptothek keeps a collection of Roman busts, among the most famous ones are the busts of the Emperors Augustus, Septimius Severus. A heroised statue portrays Domitian as prince, to the major attractions belong a colossal statue of Apollo from a Roman villa in Tuscany, several Roman sarcophagus reliefs and mosaic floors. An imitation of the style is the Roman head of a youth in bronze
Munich is the capital and largest city of the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps. Munich is the third largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, the Munich Metropolitan Region is home to 5.8 million people. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning by the monks. It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who ran a monastery at the place that was to become the Old Town of Munich, Munich was first mentioned in 1158. From 1255 the city was seat of the Bavarian Dukes and gold—the colours of the Holy Roman Empire—have been the citys official colours since the time of Ludwig the Bavarian, when it was an imperial residence. Following a final reunification of the Wittelsbachian Duchy of Bavaria, previously divided and sub-divided for more than 200 years, like wide parts of the Holy Roman Empire, the area recovered slowly economically.
In 1918, during the German Revolution, the house of Wittelsbach, which governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich. In the 1920s, Munich became home to political factions, among them the NSDAP. During World War II, Munich was heavily bombed and more than 50% of the entire city, the postwar period was characterised by American occupation until 1949 and a strong increase of population and economic power during the years of the Wirtschaftswunder after 1949. The city is home to corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde and MunichRE as well as many small. Munich is home to national and international authorities, major universities, major museums. Its numerous architectural attractions, international events and conferences. Munich is one of the most prosperous and fastest growing cities in Germany and it is a top-ranked destination for migration and expatriate location, despite being the municipality with the highest density of population in Germany. Munich nowadays hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background, the year 1158 is assumed to be the foundation date, which is the earliest date the city is mentioned in a document.
The document was signed in Augsburg, by that time the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a bridge over the river Isar next to a settlement of Benedictine monks—this was on the Old Salt Route and a toll bridge. In 1175, Munich was officially granted city status and received fortification, in 1180, with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria and Munich was handed over to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328. He strengthened the position by granting it the salt monopoly
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius was a pro-Sullan politician and general who was Roman consul in 80 BC. He was the principal Senatorial commander during the Sertorian War, fighting alongside Pompeius Magnus and he was given the agnomen “Pius” because of his constant and unbending attempts to have his father officially recalled from exile. Metellus Pius, a member of the plebeian gens Caecilia was the son of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus. He produced a petition in 99 BC to this effect, and his constant pleading on the subject resulted in Quintus Calidius, the Plebeian Tribune of 98 BC passing a law which allowed his father to return. As a result of his fidelity, he was given the agnomen “Pius” for the constancy and inflexibility with which he fought for his fathers political rehabilitation, sometime during 90s BC, Metellus Pius was elected to the College of Pontiffs as a result of his familys eminence and influence. The outbreak of the Social War saw him employed as a legate in late 89 BC, probably of the consul Pompeius Strabo, as a result of these victories, he was elected Praetor in the following year.
During his praetorship, he was tasked with enrolling the Italian allies as new Roman citizens within sixty days, once this was completed, Metellus Pius was again posted to the Social War, replacing Gaius Cosconius on the southern front. He harassed the territory around Apulia, captured the town of Venusia, and defeated the leading Italian leader, Quintus Poppaedius Silo, in 87 BC, Metellus Pius’ command was extended, with his appointment as Propraetor, responsible for continuing the war against Samnium. Later that year, saw a dispute between the two consuls Lucius Cornelius Cinna and Gnaeus Octavius flare up into war, expelled from Rome, met up with the exiled Gaius Marius, and both laid siege to Rome. During the early phase of conflict, the Senate, fearing that they may need additional troops and commanders. Marching to Rome, he made camp at the Alban Hills, the Senate asked him to negotiate with Cinna on their behalf, during which time he recognized Cinna as the legitimate consul. However, with Cinna’s occupation of Rome and the executions initiated by Gaius Marius, Metellus Pius decided to abandon Rome and he was joined by Marcus Licinius Crassus, but both men fell out, and Crassus was forced to leave and eventually join up with Sulla in Greece.
He acted as governor of the province, but this was unrecognized by Cinna. Nevertheless, it wasn’t until 84 BC that the Marians at Rome were able to out their own governor. Upon his arrival, he drove out Metellus Pius who fled to Numidia, pursued here, he, from here, Metellus Pius made his way to Liguria by late 84 BC or early 83 BC. By 83 BC, Sulla had returned from the east and was marching slowly to Rome for his confrontation with the Marian regime, moving quickly, Metellus Pius was the first to meet him along the Via Appia, bringing new troops with him. He, like many of the aristocracy, only joined Sulla when it was prudent to do so, recognizing Metellus as possessing proconsular imperium, Sulla made him his principal subordinate. By July 83 BC, the Senate, under the direction of the consul Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, declared Metellus Pius a public enemy
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix, known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, Sulla was a skillful general, achieving numerous successes in wars against different opponents, both foreign and Roman. He was awarded a crown, the most prestigious Roman military honor. Sullas dictatorship came during a point in the struggle between optimates and populares, the former seeking to maintain the Senates oligarchy, and the latter espousing populism. In a dispute over the army command Sulla unconstitutionally marched his armies into Rome. Sullas ascension was marked by purges in proscriptions. After seeking election to and holding a second consulship, he retired to private life, leaders like Julius Caesar would follow his precedent in attaining political power through force. In Plutarchs Parallel Lives Sulla is paired with the Spartan general, in older sources, his name may be found as Sylla. This is a Hellenism, like sylva for classical Latin silva, lacking ready money, Sulla spent his youth amongst Rome’s comics, lute-players, and dancers.
It seems certain that Sulla received a good education, sallust declares him well-read and intelligent, and he was fluent in Greek, which was a sign of education in Rome. Rome declared war on Jugurtha in 111 BC, but for five years Roman legions under Quintus Caecilius Metellus were unsuccessful, Gaius Marius, a lieutenant of Metellus, saw an opportunity to usurp his commander and fed rumors of incompetence and delay to the publicani in the region. These machinations caused calls for Metelluss removal, despite delaying tactics by Metellus, Marius was elected consul and took over the campaign while Sulla was nominated quaestor to him. He had persuaded Jugurthas father-in-law, King Bocchus I of Mauretania and it was a dangerous operation from the first, with King Bocchus weighing up the advantages of handing Jugurtha over to Sulla or Sulla over to Jugurtha. The publicity attracted by this feat boosted Sullas political career, a gilded equestrian statue of Sulla donated by King Bocchus was erected in the Forum to commemorate his accomplishment.
Although Sulla had engineered this move, as Sulla was serving under Marius at the time, in 104 BC, the migrating Germanic-Celtic alliance headed by the Cimbri and the Teutones seemed to be heading for Italy. As Marius was the best general Rome had, the Senate allowed him to lead the campaign against them, Sulla served on Marius staff as tribunus militum during the first half of this campaign. Finally, with those of his colleague, proconsul Quintus Lutatius Catulus, Marius forces faced the enemy tribes at the Battle of Vercellae in 101 BC. Sulla had by this time transferred to the army of Catulus to serve as his legatus, victorious at Vercellae and Catulus were both granted triumphs as the co-commanding generals
Sulla's second civil war
Sullas second civil war was one of a series of civil wars of ancient Rome. It was fought between Lucius Cornelius Sulla and Gaius Marius the younger in 82 BC, Sulla had achieved temporary control of Rome and Mariuss exile to Africa through his first march on Rome, but departed soon afterwards to lead the First Mithridatic War. Based on the orders of Marius, some of his soldiers went through Rome killing the leading supporters of Sulla and their heads were exhibited in the Forum. After five days, Cinna ordered his more disciplined troops to kill Mariuss rampaging soldiers, all told some 100 Roman nobles had been murdered. Marius declared Sullas reforms and laws invalid, officially exiled Sulla and had elected to Sullas eastern command and himself. Marius died a fortnight after and Cinna was left in control of Rome. Having managed this achievement, the Marians sent out Lucius Valerius Flaccus with an army to relieve Sulla of his command in the east, Flaccus had been given as second in command Gaius Flavius Fimbria, an individual that history records had few virtues.
He was to agitate against his commanding officer and incite the troops to murder Flaccus. In the meantime, the two Roman armies camped next to other and Sulla, not for the first time. Many deserted to Sulla before Flaccus packed up and moved on north to threaten Mithridates’ northern dominions, in the meantime Sulla moved to intercept the new Pontic army and end the war at Orchomenus. With Mithridates defeated and Cinna now dead in a mutiny, Sulla was determined to control of Rome. In 83 BC he landed uncontested at Brundisium with three veteran legions, as soon as he had set foot in Italy, the outlawed nobles and old Sullan supporters who had survived the Marian regime flocked to his banner. The consular Lucius Marcius Philippus joined Sulla and led a force which secured Sardinia for the Sullan cause, with these reinforcements Sullas army swelled to around 50,000 men, and with his loyal legions he began his second march on Rome. To check his enemies unresisted advance, Gnaeus Papirius Carbo sent his newly elected puppet Consuls, Gaius Norbanus and Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus, eager not to appear a war-hungry invader, Sulla sent deputations to Norbanus offering to negotiate, but these were rejected.
Norbanus moved to block Sullas advance at Canusium and became the first to him in the Battle of Mount Tifata. Here Sulla inflicted a defeat on the Marians, with Norbanus losing six thousand of his men to Sullas seventy. The beaten Norbanus withdrew with the remnants of his army to Capua and Sulla was stopped in his pursuit by the second Consul, but Scipios men were unwilling to fight and when Sulla approached they deserted en masse to him, further swelling his ranks. The Consul and his son were found cowering in their tents and brought to Sulla, immediately after their release Scipio broke his promise and went straight to Carbo in Rome
Lucius Cornelius Cinna
Lucius Cornelius Cinna was a four-time consul of the Roman Republic, serving four consecutive terms from 87 to 84 BC, and a member of the ancient Roman Cinna family of the Cornelii gens. Cinnas influence in Rome exacerbated the tensions which existed between Gaius Marius and Lucius Cornelius Sulla, after the death of Marius, he became the leading power in Rome until his own death. His main impact upon Roman politics was his ability to veil his tyranny and his policies impinged on Julius Caesar, who married his daughter. Not much is known about Cinna before his bid for the consulship of 87 BC and he had praetorian rank in the Social War, and had most likely been praetor previous to this time. Cinna was elected as Roman consul in 87 BC, but historians disagree about who supported his election and what his own political goals. All seem to agree on a chain of events, however. The people had intentionally elected candidates who were not supported by Sulla, Sulla had a little more control over the election for consul, or at least, had enough power to be certain no one who supported his rival, could be elected.
Sulla seems to have supported Cinna as a candidate, but clearly did not trust him. Somehow then, Cinna had enough support to be elected, various theories on who supported him and why are postulated based on what he did while in office, but all agree that Sulla was correct in his distrust. Gnaeus Octavius was elected as Cinnas colleague under relatively similar circumstances, one of Cinnas first decisions as consul was not to let his oath to Sulla influence his decisions as consul. Cinna argued that the oath should not prevent him helping the people of Rome. Soon after this, Cinna sought to remove Sulla from the city and he brought some sort of charge against Sulla soon after coming to power. Sulla, rather than facing the charge, escaped with his army and this left only Octavius and the Senate to defend the causes of Sulla in Rome. Cinna eventually supported many causes, which leads to debate concerning his original goals. Two causes predominated, that of the exiles and that of the Italians and his supporters, as well as many prominent supporters of Publius Sulpicius Rufus, had been exiled from Rome under Sullas rule, but were still very popular amongst the people.
It is clear there were connections between Cinna and this group, but it is not clear at what point he took up this cause. The other cause, to which Cinna can be more connected, is that of the “novus homo” or “new citizen”. These were members of Italian tribes who had been promised citizenship as a condition of peace in the Social War, technically they had been given citizenship, but in such a way that they had no real power
Roman Italy was created officially by the Roman emperor Augustus with the Latin name Italia. It was the first time in history that the Italian Peninsula was united under the same name, in the year 292, the three islands of Corsica and Sicily were added to Roman Italy by Diocletian. Roman Italy remained united until the sixth century, when it was divided between the Byzantine Empire and territories of the Germanic peoples, since then, Italia remained divided for nearly thirteen centuries until 1861 when it was reunited in a similar way in the modern Kingdom of Italy. Italy was the name of the division of the Italian Peninsula during the Roman era. It was not a province, but became the territory of the city of Rome, following the end of the Social War, Rome had allowed its Italian allies full rights in Roman society and granted the Roman citizenship to all the Italic peoples. Although not founded as a city in 330, Constantinople gained in importance. It finally gained the rank of capital when given an urban prefect in 359.
In 402, the capital was moved to Ravenna from Milan, the name Italia covered an area whose borders evolved over time. Under Augustus, the peoples of todays Aosta Valley and of the western and northern Alps were subjugated, and the Italian eastern border was brought to the Arsia in Istria. Finally, in the late 3rd century, Italy came to include the islands of Corsica and Sardinia and Sicily, as well as Raetia, the city of Emona was the easternmost town of Italy. At the beginning of the era, Italy was a collection of territories with different political statuses. Some cities, called municipia, had independence from Rome, while others. The Italian economy flourished, agriculture and industry had a sensible growth, the Italian population may have grown as well, three census were ordered by Augustus, to record the number of Roman citizens throughout the empire. The surviving totals were 4,063,000 in 28 BC,4,233,000 in 8 BC, and 4,937,000 in AD14, but it is still debated whether these counted all citizens, all adult male citizens, or citizens sui iuris.
During the Crisis of the Third Century the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the pressures of invasions, military anarchy and civil wars. In 284, emperor Diocletian restored political stability and he carried out thorough administrative reforms to maintain order. He created the so-called Tetrarchy whereby the empire was ruled by four co-emperors and he decreased the size of the Roman provinces by doubling their number to reduce the power of the provincial governors. He grouped the provinces into several dioceses and put them under the supervision of the imperial vicarius, during the Crisis of the Third Century the importance of Rome declined because she was far from the troubled frontiers
Gaius Marius the Younger
Gaius Marius Minor, known in English as Marius the Younger or informally the younger Marius, was a Roman general and politician who became consul in 82 BC alongside Gnaeus Papirius Carbo. He committed suicide that year at Praeneste, after his defeat at the hands of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Marius the Younger was the son of the Gaius Marius who was seven times consul and his mother, was an aunt of Julius Caesar. In his youth, Marius was educated with Titus Pomponius Atticus and Marcus Tullius Cicero by Greek tutors, like his father, Marius advanced his political career through popularist tactics. Seeking to strengthen his alliances, the elder Marius married his son to Licinia. At Ostia, young Marius went on ahead of his father, there he went to the court of Hiempsal II of Numidia to seek his help against Sulla, but the king decided to hold him captive instead. He managed to escape with the help of one of Hiempsal’s concubines whom the young Marius had seduced and he joined up with his father who had come to Africa, and they escaped to the Kerkennah Islands.
He banished two praetors, ordering that neither should receive fire or water from any Roman citizen, the young Marius is said to have lacked his fathers charisma and sought to achieve popularity on the family name. Young Marius was elected to the consulship for 82 BC and this was a political move by Carbo, his consular colleague, to drum up popular support and enthusiasm for the war against Sulla, Marius was much too young to be a legally elected consul. Two talented and better-qualified men among the Marian faction, his cousin Marius Gratidianus and Quintus Sertorius, were passed over in favor of the younger Mariuss symbolic value. Sullas prefect Quintus Lucretius Ofella conducted the siege, throttling the town with a ring of rapidly constructed earth, although both Gnaeus Papirius Carbo and Lucius Junius Brutus Damasippus attempted to break the siege, they were unsuccessful. Towards the end of the siege Marius made one attempt to escape, this time by digging a tunnel under the walls. Marius committed suicide so as not to fall into enemy hands, in 45 BC, a man referred to as Amatius appeared in Rome, claiming to be the son of the Younger Marius.
Maria T. Robert S. Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Vol II
Quintus Sertorius was a Roman statesman and general, born in Nursia, in Sabine territory. His brilliance as a commander was shown most clearly in the civil war he waged in Hispania against the optimates of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. His family, the gens Sertoria, was probably of Sabine origin, after acquiring some reputation in Rome as a jurist and an orator, he began a military career. His first recorded campaign was under Quintus Servilius Caepio at the Battle of Arausio, serving under Gaius Marius in 102 BC, Sertorius succeeded in spying on the wandering tribes that had defeated Caepio. After this success, he fought at the great Battle of Aquae Sextiae in which the Teutones were decisively defeated, in 97 BC, he served in Hispania as a military tribune under Titus Didius, winning the Grass Crown. In 91 he was quaestor in Cisalpine Gaul, where he was in charge of recruiting and training legions for the Social War, during this time he sustained a wound that cost him the use of one of his eyes.
Upon his return to Rome he ran for tribune, but Lucius Cornelius Sulla thwarted his efforts, Sertorius now declared for Cinna and the Populares. Though he had a bad opinion of Marius, he consented to Marius return upon understanding that Marius came at Cinnas request. After Octavius surrendered Rome to the forces of Marius, Sertorius went so far as to rebuke Marius, and move Cinna to moderation, while annihilating Marius slave army that had partaken in his atrocities. On Sullas return from the East in 83, and following the subsequent collapse of the Populares power, Sertorius retreated to Hispania as proconsul, the Roman officials in Hispania did not recognize his authority, but Sertorius assumed control as he had an army. Having been obliged to withdraw to North Africa, Sertorius carried on a campaign in Mauretania, in which he defeated one of Sullas generals and captured Tingis. Brave and gifted with eloquence, Sertorius was just the man to impress them favourably, and the native warriors and his skill as a general was extraordinary, as he repeatedly defeated forces many times his own size.
Sertorius owed some of his success to his prodigious ability as a statesman and his goal was to build a stable government in Hispania with the consent and co-operation of the people, whom he wished to civilize along the lines of the Roman model. He established a senate of 300 members, drawn from Roman emigrants, for the children of the chief native families he provided a school at Osca, where they received a Roman education and even adopted the dress and education of Roman youths. Although he was strict and severe with his soldiers, he was particularly considerate to the people in general, for six years he held sway over Hispania. In 77, he was joined—at the insistence of the forces he brought with him—by Marcus Perpenna Vento from Rome, with a following of Roman nobles, that year, Pompey was sent to help Metellus conquer Hispania and finish Sertorius off. He nearly captured Pompey at the battle of Sucro, when Pompey decided to fight him without waiting for Metellus Pius, Pompey wrote to Rome for reinforcements, without which, he said, he and Metellus Pius would be driven out of Hispania.
But from 74 on, Pompey was gaining the upper hand, though he was still able to win some victories, Sertorius was losing the war, and his authority over his men had declined
Marcus Licinius Crassus
Marcus Licinius Crassus was a Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Amassing an enormous fortune during his life, Crassus is, exempting Augustus Caesar, Crassus began his public career as a military commander under Lucius Cornelius Sulla during his civil war. Following Sullas assumption of the dictatorship, Crassus amassed a fortune through real estate speculation. Crassus rose to prominence following his victory over the slave revolt led by Spartacus. A political and financial patron of Julius Caesar, Crassus joined Caesar, together the three men dominated the Roman political system. The alliance would not last indefinitely due to the ambitions, while Caesar and Crassus were lifelong allies and Pompey disliked each other and Pompey grew increasingly envious of Caesars spectacular successes in the Gallic Wars. The alliance was re-stabilized at the Lucca Conference in 56 BC, after which Crassus, following his second Consulship, Crassus was appointed as the Governor of Roman Syria.
Crassus used Syria as the launchpad for a campaign against the Parthian Empire. Crassus campaign was a failure, resulting in his defeat. Crassus death permanently unraveled the alliance between Caesar and Pompey, within four years of Crassus death, Caesar would cross the Rubicon and begin a civil war against Pompey and the optimates. Marcus Licinius Crassus was the second of three born to the eminent senator and vir triumphalis P. Licinius Crassus. This line was not descended from the Crassi Divites, although often assumed to be, the eldest brother Publius died shortly before the Italic War and Marcus took the brothers wife as his own. This grandfather was son of P. Licinius Crassus, the latters brother C. Marcus Crassus was a talented orator and one of the most energetic and active advocates of his time. Cinnas proscription forced Crassus to flee to Hispania, after Cinnas death in 84 BC, Crassus went to the Roman province of Africa and joined Metellus Pius, one of Sullas closest allies. Marcus Licinius Crassus next concern was to rebuild the fortunes of his family, according to Plutarchs Life of Crassus, Crassus made most of his fortune through rapine and fire.
Sullas proscriptions ensured that his survivors would recoup their lost fortunes from the fortunes of wealthy adherents to Gaius Marius or Lucius Cornelius Cinna, Crassuss wealth is estimated by Pliny at approximately 200 million sestertii. Some of Crassus wealth was acquired conventionally, through traffic in slaves, production from silver mines, Crassus bought property which was confiscated in proscriptions. He notoriously purchased burnt and collapsed buildings, Plutarch wrote that observing how frequent such occurrences were, he bought slaves who were architects and builders
Lucius Licinius Lucullus was an optimate politician of the late Roman Republic, closely connected with Lucius Cornelius Sulla. His command style received unusually favourable attention from ancient military experts and he patronized the arts and sciences lavishly, transforming his hereditary estate in the highlands of Tusculum into a hotel-and-library complex for scholars and philosophers. He built the horti Lucullani, the famous Gardens of Lucullus, on the Pincian Hill in Rome and he died during the winter of 57-56 BC. and was buried at the family estate near Tusculum. The conquest agnomen of Ponticus is sometimes appended to his name in modern texts. In ancient sources it is ever attributed to his consular colleague Marcus Aurelius Cotta after the latters capture. Lucullus was a member of the prominent gens Licinia, and of the family, or stirps of the Luculli and he was grandson of Lucius Licinius Lucullus, and son of Lucius Licinius Lucullus, who was convicted for embezzlement and exiled in 102/1 from his Sicilian command of 103-2.
His first known service was as tribune of soldiers serving in Sullas army in Campania during the bellum Italicum. Lucullus was probably the Quaestor mentioned as the officer in Sullas army who could stomach accompanying the Consul when he marched on Rome. In autumn of the same year Sulla sent Lucullus ahead of him to Greece to take over the command of the Mithridatic War in his name and he initially made Crete, and is said to have won over the cities to the Roman side. From there he crossed to Cyrene where the famous Hellenic colony in Africa was in dire condition following a vicious, after Lucullus had defeated the Mithridatic admiral Neoptolemus in the Battle of Tenedos, he helped Sulla cross the Aegean to Asia. After a peace had been agreed, Lucullus stayed in Asia, however, tried to lessen the burden that these impositions created. Lucullus returned in 80 BC and was elected curule aedile for 79, along with his brother Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus, Plutarchs biography entirely ignores this period,78 BC to 75 BC, jumping from Sullas death to Lucullus consulate.
Sulla dedicated his memoirs to Lucullus, and upon his death made him guardian of his son Faustus, shortly after this, in 74, he became consul, and defended Sullas constitution from the efforts of Lucius Quinctius. On arrival, Lucullus set out from his province to relieve the besieged Cotta in Bithynia and he harried the army of Mithridates and killed many of his soldiers. He turned to the sea and raised a fleet amongst the Greek cities of Asia, with this fleet he defeated the enemys fleet off Ilium and off Lemnos. Turning back to the land, he drove Mithridates back into Pontus and he was wary of drawing into a direct engagement with Mithridates, due to the latters superior cavalry. But after several battles, Lucullus finally defeated him at the Battle of Cabira. He did not pursue Mithridates immediately, but instead he finished conquering the kingdom of Pontus and his attempts to reform the rapacious Roman administration in Asia made him increasingly unpopular among the powerful publicani back in Rome