Smoking bans, or smoke-free laws, are public policies, including criminal laws and occupational safety and health regulations, that prohibit tobacco smoking in workplaces and other public spaces. Legislation may define smoking as more being the carrying or possessing of any lit tobacco product. Smoking bans are enacted in an attempt to protect people from the effects of second-hand smoke, which include an increased risk of heart disease, cancer and other diseases. Laws implementing bans on indoor smoking have been introduced by many countries in various forms over the years, with some legislators citing scientific evidence that shows tobacco smoking is harmful to the smokers themselves and to those inhaling second-hand smoke. In addition such laws may reduce health care costs, improve work productivity, lower the overall cost of labour in the community thus protected, making that workforce more attractive for employers. In the US state of Indiana, the economic development agency included in its 2006 plan for acceleration of economic growth encouragement for cities and towns to adopt local smoking bans as a means of promoting job growth in communities.
Additional rationales for smoking restrictions include reduced risk of fire in areas with explosive hazards. The World Health Organization considers smoking bans to have an influence to reduce demand for tobacco by creating an environment where smoking becomes more difficult and to help shift social norms away from the acceptance of smoking in everyday life. Along with tax measures, cessation measures, education, smoking bans are viewed by public health experts as an important element in reducing smoking rates and promoting positive health outcomes; when implemented they are seen as an important element of policy to support behaviour change in favour of a healthy lifestyle. Banning smoking in public places has helped to cut premature births by 10 percent, according to new research from the United States and Europe. Research has generated evidence that second-hand smoke causes the same problems as direct smoking, including lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, lung ailments such as emphysema and asthma.
Meta-analyses show that lifelong non-smokers with partners who smoke in the home have a 20–30% greater risk of lung cancer than non-smokers who live with non-smokers. Non-smokers exposed to cigarette smoke in the workplace have an increased lung cancer risk of 16–19%. A study issued in 2002 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization concluded that non-smokers are exposed to the same carcinogens on account of tobacco smoke as active smokers. Sidestream smoke contains 69 known carcinogens benzopyrene and other polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, radioactive decay products, such as polonium-210. Several well-established carcinogens have been shown by the tobacco companies' own research to be present at higher concentrations in second-hand smoke than in mainstream smoke. Scientific organisations confirming the effects of second-hand smoke include the U. S. National Cancer Institute, the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U. S. National Institutes of Health, the Surgeon General of the United States, the World Health Organization.
Restrictions upon smoking in bars and restaurants can improve the air quality in such establishments. For example, one study listed on the website of the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that New York's statewide law to eliminate smoking in enclosed workplaces and public places reduced RSP levels in western New York hospitality venues. RSP levels were reduced in every venue that permitted smoking before the law was implemented, including venues in which only second-hand smoke from an adjacent room was observed at baseline; the CDC concluded that their results were similar to other studies which showed improved indoor air quality after smoking bans were instituted. A 2004 study showed New Jersey bars and restaurants had more than nine times the levels of indoor air pollution of neighbouring New York City, which had enacted its smoking ban. Research has shown that improved air quality translates to decreased toxin exposure among employees. For example, among employees of the Norwegian establishments that enacted smoking restrictions, tests showed decreased levels of nicotine in the urine of both smoking and non-smoking workers.
In 2009, the Public Health Law Research Program, a national program office of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, published an evidence brief summarising the research assessing the effect of a specific law or policy on public health. They stated that "There is strong evidence supporting smoking bans and restrictions as effective public health interventions aimed at decreasing exposure to secondhand smoke." One of the world's earliest smoking bans was a 1575 Roman Catholic Church regulation which forbade the use of tobacco in any church in Mexico. In 1604, King James I of England published an anti-smoking treatise, A Counterblaste to Tobacco, that had the effect of raising taxes on tobacco; the Ottoman Sultan Murad IV had smokers executed. Pope Urban VII prohibited smoking in the Church in 1590 followed by Urban VIII in 1624. Pope Urban VII threatened to excommunicate anyone who "took tobacco in the porchway of or insi
Atlantic slave trade
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people to the Americas. The slave trade used the triangular trade route and its Middle Passage, existed from the 16th to the 19th centuries; the vast majority of those who were enslaved and transported in the transatlantic slave trade were people from central and western Africa, sold by other West Africans to Western European slave traders, who brought them to the Americas. The South Atlantic and Caribbean economies were dependent on the supply of secure labour for the production of commodity crops, making goods and clothing to sell in Europe; this was crucial to those western European countries which, in the late 17th and 18th centuries, were vying with each other to create overseas empires. The Portuguese were the first to engage in the Atlantic slave trade in the 16th century. In 1526, they completed the first transatlantic slave voyage to Brazil, other European countries soon followed.
Shipowners regarded the slaves as cargo to be transported to the Americas as and cheaply as possible, there to be sold to work on coffee, cocoa and cotton plantations and silver mines, rice fields, construction industry, cutting timber for ships, in skilled labour, as domestic servants. The first Africans imported to the English colonies were classified as "indentured servants", like workers coming from England, as "apprentices for life". By the middle of the 17th century, slavery had hardened as a racial caste, with the slaves and their offspring being the property of their owners, children born to slave mothers were slaves; as property, the people were considered merchandise or units of labour, were sold at markets with other goods and services. The major Atlantic slave trading nations, ordered by trade volume, were: the Portuguese, the British, the French, the Spanish, the Dutch Empires. Several had established outposts on the African coast where they purchased slaves from local African leaders.
These slaves were managed by a factor, established on or near the coast to expedite the shipping of slaves to the New World. Slaves were kept in a factory while awaiting shipment. Current estimates are that about 12 to 12.8 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic over a span of 400 years, although the number purchased by the traders was higher, as the passage had a high death rate. Near the beginning of the 19th century, various governments acted to ban the trade, although illegal smuggling still occurred. In the early 21st century, several governments issued apologies for the transatlantic slave trade; the Atlantic slave trade developed after trade contacts were established between the "Old World" and the "New World". For centuries, tidal currents had made ocean travel difficult and risky for the ships that were available, as such there had been little, if any, maritime contact between the peoples living in these continents. In the 15th century, new European developments in seafaring technologies resulted in ships being better equipped to deal with the tidal currents, could begin traversing the Atlantic Ocean.
Between 1600 and 1800 300,000 sailors engaged in the slave trade visited West Africa. In doing so, they came into contact with societies living along the west African coast and in the Americas which they had never encountered. Historian Pierre Chaunu termed the consequences of European navigation "disenclavement", with it marking an end of isolation for some societies and an increase in inter-societal contact for most others. Historian John Thornton noted, "A number of technical and geographical factors combined to make Europeans the most people to explore the Atlantic and develop its commerce", he identified these as being the drive to find new and profitable commercial opportunities outside Europe as well as the desire to create an alternative trade network to that controlled by the Muslim Empire of the Middle East, viewed as a commercial and religious threat to European Christendom. In particular, European traders wanted to trade for gold, which could be found in western Africa, to find a maritime route to "the Indies", where they could trade for luxury goods such as spices without having to obtain these items from Middle Eastern Islamic traders.
Although many of the initial Atlantic naval explorations were led by Iberians, members of many European nationalities were involved, including sailors from Portugal, the Italian kingdoms, England and the Netherlands. This diversity led Thornton to describe the initial "exploration of the Atlantic" as "a international exercise if many of the dramatic discoveries were made under the sponsorship of the Iberian monarchs"; that leadership gave rise to the myth that "the Iberians were the sole leaders of the exploration". Slavery was prevalent in many parts of Africa for many centuries before the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade. There is evidence that enslaved people from some parts of Africa were exported to states in Africa and Asia prior to the European colonization of the Americas; the Atlantic slave trade was not the only slave trade from Africa, although it was the largest in volume and intensity. As Elikia M'bokolo wrote in Le Monde diplomatique: The African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes.
Across the Sahara, through the Red Sea, from the Indian Ocean ports and across the Atlantic. At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the Muslim countries... Fou
Hurricane Hugo was a powerful Cape Verde hurricane that caused widespread damage and loss of life in Guadeloupe, Saint Croix, St. Thomas, Puerto Rico, the Southeast United States, it formed over the eastern Atlantic near the Cape Verde Islands on September 9, 1989. Hugo moved thousands of miles across the Atlantic strengthening to attain Category 5 hurricane strength on its journey, it crossed over Guadeloupe, St. Croix and St. Thomas on September 17 and 18 as a Category 4 hurricane. Weakening more, it passed over Puerto Rico as a strong Category 3 hurricane. Further weakening occurred several hours after re-emerging into the Atlantic, becoming downgraded to a Category 2 hurricane. However, it re-strengthened into a Category 4 hurricane before making landfall just north of Charleston, on Isle of Palms on September 22, with 140 mph sustained winds. Hugo had weakened into a remnant low near Lake Erie by the next day; as of 2016, Hurricane Hugo is the most intense tropical cyclone to strike the East Coast north of Florida since 1898.
Hurricane Hugo caused 34 fatalities in the Caribbean and 27 in South Carolina, left nearly 100,000 homeless, resulted in $9.47 billion in damage overall, making it the most damaging hurricane recorded at the time. Of this total, $7 billion was from the United States and Puerto Rico, ranking it as the costliest storm to impact the country at the time. Hurricane Hugo originated as a tropical wave, which moved off the west coast of Africa on September 9. Soon after moving off the African coast, it was classified as Tropical Depression Eleven southeast of the Cape Verde Islands. Winds were 30 mph but they reached 35 mph soon after. Moving on a steady westward track at 18 knots, Tropical Depression Eleven intensified, becoming Tropical Storm Hugo on September 11 at 1800 UTC. On September 13, Hugo intensified, reached hurricane strength 1265 miles east of the Leeward Islands. A low-pressure area to the south caused Hugo to turn to the west-northwest, while the storm was strengthening. Shortly after, Hurricane Hugo began to intensify.
After this bout of rapid strengthening, Hugo began to deepen, becoming a major hurricane early the next morning. After becoming a major hurricane, maintaining Category 3 strength for a day, Hugo reached Category 4 strength, began to intensify again, while moving west-northwest. On becoming a Category 5 hurricane, its maximum sustained winds had increased to 160 mph and the minimum central pressure had dropped to 918 millibars. In the early hours of September 17, Hugo crossed in between Guadeloupe and Montserrat, while its winds were near 140 mph, when hurricane-force winds extended only 45 mi from the center. Less than 24 hours it made another landfall on the island of St. Croix, with the same intensity; that day, Hurricane Hugo made landfalls in Puerto Rico, in Vieques and Fajardo, though it was weaker. Hugo began to accelerate to the northwest soon after exiting eastern Puerto Rico. On September 18, the hurricane was located a couple of hundred miles east of Florida when it began a more northward track, in response to a steering flow associated with an upper-level low pressure area, moving across the southeastern United States.
Hugo began to strengthen again, it reached a secondary peak at 1800 UTC on September 21, as a Category 4 hurricane. The maximum sustained. On September 22, at 0400 UTC, Hugo made landfall on Sullivan's Island, South Carolina, at its secondary peak as a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale, with 140-mph sustained winds and a central pressure of 934 millibars; the storm continued inland, weakened to a Category 1 hurricane as it approached Charlotte, North Carolina. Hugo continued on the weakening trend and weakened to a tropical storm on the same day over central North Carolina; the storm continued weakening as it moved inland, on September 23, the storm weakened to a remnant low. Its remnant low continued to accelerate north, reaching the far northern Atlantic before dissipating on September 25, to the south of Greenland. Late on September 15, the National Weather Service Office in San Juan, Puerto Rico issued a hurricane watch. On the following day, it was upgraded to a hurricane warning.
In addition, the Civil Defense Office of Puerto Rico activated its Disaster Interagency Committee and began to evacuate coastal residents. Savannah was evacuated in anticipation of Hugo, but saw no effects of the storm other than isolated and light showers. Had Hugo hit Savannah, it would have been the first major hurricane to make landfall in Georgia since Hurricane Seven of the 1898 season. Governor Carroll Campbell of South Carolina ordered an evacuation of the South Carolina coast in advance of the storm. Hugo caused nearly $7 billion in damage in the mainland United States and Puerto Rico. At the time it was the costliest hurricane in U. S. history, but was exceeded in 1992 by Hurricane Andrew, by several other storms since then. An additional $3 billion of damage was reported throughout the Caribbean. Therefore, total damage from the storm was near $9.47 billion. Sources differ on the number of people killed by Hugo, with some citing the American Meteorological Society's figure of 49, others claiming 56 deaths.
Severe damage was reported throughout the islands of the Caribbean. The storm cause
Charleston County, South Carolina
Charleston County is located in the U. S. state of South Carolina along the Atlantic coast. As of the 2010 census, its population was 350,209, making it the third most populous county in South Carolina, its county seat is Charleston. The county was created in 1901 by an act of the South Carolina State Legislature. Charleston County is included in SC Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,358 square miles, of which 916 square miles is land and 442 square miles is water, it is the largest county in South Carolina by total water area. Berkeley County - north Georgetown County - northeast Colleton County - west Dorchester County - northwest Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge Charles Pinckney National Historic Site Ernest F. Hollings ACE Basin National Wildlife Refuge Fort Moultrie National Monument Fort Sumter National Monument Francis Marion National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 309,969 people, 143,326 households, 97,448 families residing in the county.
The population density was 338 people per square mile. There were 141,031 housing units at an average density of 154 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 61.9% White, 34.5% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 1.12% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.99% from other races, 1.16% from two or more races. 2.40% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 9.6 % were of 9.5 % English, 9.1 % German and 7.6 % Irish ancestry. There were 123,326 households out of which 28.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.20% were married couples living together, 15.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.20% were non-families. 28.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the age distribution of the population shows 23.70% under the age of 18, 12.00% from 18 to 24, 30.30% from 25 to 44, 22.00% from 45 to 64, 11.90% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.50 males. The median income for a household in the county is $37,810, the median income for a family was $47,139. Males had a median income of $32,681 versus $25,530 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,393. About 12.40% of families and 16.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.90% of those under age 18 and 12.70% of those age 65 or over. In the 2000 census, the county population was classified as about 86% urban; the Charleston-North Charleston Metropolitan Statistical Area includes the populations of Charleston and Dorchester counties. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 350,209 people, 144,309 households, 85,692 families residing in the county; the population density was 382.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 169,984 housing units at an average density of 185.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 64.2% white, 29.8% black or African American, 1.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 2.7% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 5.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 11.3% were German, 11.0% were English, 10.2% were Irish, 9.8% were American. Of the 144,309 households, 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.5% were married couples living together, 14.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.6% were non-families, 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age was 35.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $48,433 and the median income for a family was $61,525. Males had a median income of $42,569 versus $34,195 for females; the per capita income for the county was $29,401. About 11.5% of families and 16.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.5% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over. From 1895 to 1973, when the state constitution was amended to provide for home rule in the counties, the counties had limited powers, under what was called "county purpose doctrine."
They were governed by the General Assembly through their state legislative delegation and, with one state senator per county, the state senator was powerful. In the 1940s, Charleston County adopted a council-manager form of county government to better handle its needs. In 1975 the state's Home Rule Act established a larger role for the county governments. Charleston County has a large geographic area represented by a nine-member county council. Into the 1960s, most African Americans were excluded from voting by the state's disenfranchising constitution and practices; this changed after passage of the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965. Since 1969, members of the county commission were elected in a modified at-large system for nine seats, with elections every two years for staggered four-year terms, from four residency districts. Three Council seats are reserved for residents of the City of Charleston, three for residents of North Charleston, two for residents of West Ashley, one for a resident of East Cooper.
The council elects a chairman from its members for a limited term of two years, but chairs can be re-elected. Charleston County was "one of only three counties in South Carolina to elect its entire county council at-large, it was "the only county with a majority white population to do so." At-large po
Irish Americans are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics. About 33 million Americans — 10.5% of the total population — reported Irish ancestry in the 2013 American Community Survey conducted by the U. S. Census Bureau; this compares with a population of 6.7 million on the island of Ireland. Three million people separately identified as Scotch-Irish, whose ancestors were Ulster Scots and Anglo-Irish Protestant Dissenters who emigrated from Ireland to the United States. However, whether the Scotch-Irish should be considered Irish is disputed. Half of the Irish immigrants in the colonial era came from the Irish province of Ulster while the other half came from the other three provinces of Ireland. While scholarly estimates vary, the most common approximation is that 250,000 migrated to the United States from 1717 to 1775. By 1790 400,000 people of Irish birth or ancestry lived in the United States.
These early immigrants were overwhelmingly members of the Protestant minority in Ireland who descended from Scottish and English colonists and colonial administrators who had settled the Plantations of Ireland, the largest of, the Plantation of Ulster. In Ireland, they are referred to as the Ulster Scots and the Anglo-Irish and while they intermarried to some degree, they never intermarried with the native Irish Catholic population, in turn, the Irish Catholics never converted to Protestant churches during the Reformation. Of the 250,000 immigrants from Ireland to the United States between 1717 and 1775 10,000 were Catholics. By 1800, the number of Irish Catholics who had immigrated had increased in absolute terms to 20,000, but had declined in proportional terms, as one-sixth of the white population in the United States by that time was composed of those of Scotch-Irish descent. Like most Catholics in the United States at the time, these Irish Catholics settled in Maryland and Pennsylvania.
In 1700, the estimated population of Maryland was 29,600, about one-tenth of, Catholic. By 1756, the number of Catholics in Maryland had increased to 7,000, which increased further to 20,000 by 1765. In Pennsylvania, there were 3,000 Catholics in 1756 and 6,000 by 1765. By the end of the American Revolutionary War in 1783, there were 24,000 to 25,000 Catholics in the United States out of a total population of 3 million. However, most of the Catholic population in the United States during the colonial period came from England and France, not Ireland. Most descendants of the Protestant Irish today identify their ancestry as "American" or "Irish"; the terms "Scotch-Irish" and "Scots-Irish" were utilized in the 19th century to differentiate between Protestant Irish and the later-arriving Catholic Irish. The Scots Irish were tenant farmers, settled in Ireland by the British government during the 17th-century Plantation of Ulster; the Scots-Irish settled in the colonial "back country" of the Appalachian Mountain region, became the prominent ethnic strain in the culture that developed there.
The descendants of Scots-Irish settlers had a great influence on the culture of the Southern United States in particular and the culture of the United States in general through such contributions as American folk music and western music, stock car racing, which became popular throughout the country in the late 20th century. Irish immigrants of this period participated in significant numbers in the American Revolution, leading one British major general to testify at the House of Commons that "half the rebel Continental Army were from Ireland." Historiographer Michael J. O'Brien examined many of the muster rolls from the Revolutionary War and found quintessential native Irish surnames and possible Anglicized Irish surnames, he estimated that some 38% of those in the revolutionary army were Irish. Irish Americans signed the foundational documents of the United States—the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution—and, beginning with Andrew Jackson, served as President; the early Ulster immigrants and their descendants at first referred to themselves as "Irish," without the qualifier "Scotch."
It was not until more than a century following the surge in Irish immigration after the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s, that some descendants of the Protestant Irish began to refer to themselves as "Scots-Irish" to distinguish them from the predominantly Catholic, destitute, wave of immigrants from Ireland in that era. However, most descendants of the Scots-Irish continued to consider themselves "Irish" or "American" rather than Scots-Irish; the two groups had little initial interaction in America, as the 18th-century Ulster immigrants were predominantly Protestant and had become settled in upland regions of the American interior, while the huge wave of 19th-century Catholic immigrant families settled in the Northeast and Midwest port cities such as Boston, New York, Buffalo, or Chicago. Ho
Sullivan's Island Historic District
Sullivan's Island Historic District is a national historic district located at Sullivan's Island, Charleston County, South Carolina. The district encompasses 36 contributing buildings on Sullivan's Island, they predominantly include the core residential and administrative areas of Fort Moultrie built between about 1870 to 1950. Included are representative "Island Houses" and the Post Chapel. Notable buildings include the Base Commander's Quarters, nine Senior Officers' Quarters, ten Junior Officers' Quarters, the Bachelor Officers' Quarters, the Administration Building, the Post Exchange and Gymnasium, the Electrical Shop, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2007
Toni Morrison is an American novelist, editor and professor emeritus at Princeton University. Morrison won the American Book Award in 1988 for Beloved; the novel was adapted into a film of the same name in 1998. Morrison was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1993. In 1996, the National Endowment for the Humanities selected her for the Jefferson Lecture, the U. S. federal government's highest honor for achievement in the humanities. She was honored with the 1996 National Book Foundation's Medal of Distinguished Contribution to American Letters. Morrison wrote the libretto for a new opera, Margaret Garner, first performed in 2005. On May 29, 2012, President Barack Obama presented Morrison with the Presidential Medal of Freedom. In 2016, she received the PEN/Saul Bellow Award for Achievement in American Fiction. Toni Morrison was born in Ohio, to Ramah and George Wofford, she is the second of four children in a African-American family. Her mother was born in Greenville and moved north with her family as a child.
Her father grew up in Georgia. When he was about 15, white people lynched two black businessmen. Morrison said: "He never told us, but he had seen them. And, too traumatic, I think, for him." Soon after the lynching, George Wofford moved to the racially integrated town of Lorain, Ohio, in hopes of escaping racism and securing gainful employment in Ohio's burgeoning industrial economy. He worked odd jobs and as a welder for U. S. Steel. Ramah Wofford was a devout member of the African Methodist Episcopal Church; when Morrison was about two, her family's landlord set fire to the house they lived in, while they were home, because her parents couldn't pay the rent. Her family responded to what she called this "bizarre form of evil" by laughing at the landlord rather than falling into despair. Morrison said her family's response demonstrated how to keep your integrity and claim your own life in the face of acts of such "monumental crudeness."Morrison's parents instilled in her a sense of heritage and language through telling traditional African-American folktales and ghost stories and singing songs.
Morrison read as a child. She became a Catholic at the age of 12 and took the baptismal name Anthony, which led to her nickname, Toni. Attending Lorain High School, she was on the debating team, the yearbook staff, in the drama club. In 1949, she enrolled at the black Howard University, seeking the company of fellow black intellectuals; the school is in Washington, D. C. where she encountered racially segregated buses for the first time. She graduated in 1953 with a B. A. in English and went on to earn a Master of Arts from Cornell University in 1955. Her Master's thesis was William Faulkner's Treatment of the Alienated, she taught English, first at Texas Southern University in Houston for two years at Howard for seven years. While teaching at Howard, she met Harold Morrison, a Jamaican architect, whom she married in 1958, she was pregnant with their second son when she and Harold divorced in 1964. After the breakup of her marriage, she began working as an editor in 1965 for L. W. Singer, a textbook division of Random House, in Syracuse, New York.
Two years she transferred to Random House in New York City, where she became their first black woman senior editor in the fiction department. In that capacity, Morrison played a vital role in bringing black literature into the mainstream. One of the first books she worked on was the groundbreaking Contemporary African Literature, a collection that included work by Nigerian writers Wole Soyinka and Chinua Achebe and South African playwright Athol Fugard, she fostered a new generation of African-American authors, including Toni Cade Bambara, Angela Davis, Gayl Jones, whose writing Morrison discovered, she brought out the autobiography of boxer Muhammad Ali, The Greatest. She published and publicized the work of Henry Dumas, a little-known novelist and poet, shot to death by a transit officer in the New York City subway in 1968. Among other books Morrison developed and edited is The Black Book, an anthology of photographs, illustrations and other documents of black life in the United States from the time of slavery to the 1970s.
Random House had been uncertain about the project. Alvin Beam reviewed it for the Cleveland Plain Dealer, writing: "Editors, like novelists, have brain children—books they think up and bring to life without putting their own names on the title page. Mrs. Morrison has one of these in the stores now, magazines and newsletters in the publishing trade are ecstatic, saying it will go like hotcakes." Morrison had begun writing fiction as part of an informal group of poets and writers at Howard University who met to discuss their work. She attended one meeting with a short story about a black girl. Morrison developed the story as her first novel, The Bluest Eye, getting up every morning at 4 am to write, while raising two children alone; the Bluest Eye was published in 1970. It did not sell well at first, but the City University of New York put the novel on its reading list for its new black-studies department, as did other colleges, which boosted sales; the book brought her to the attention of the acclaimed editor Robert Gottlieb at Knopf, an imprint of Random House.
Gottlieb would go on to edit most of Morrison's novels. In 1975, Morrison's second novel Sula (19