Cape of Good Hope
The Cape of Good Hope is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula in South Africa. A common misconception is; this misconception was based on the misbelief that the Cape was the dividing point between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Contemporary geographic knowledge instead states the southernmost point of Africa is Cape Agulhas about 150 kilometres to the east-southeast; the currents of the two oceans meet at the point where the warm-water Agulhas current meets the cold-water Benguela current and turns back on itself. That oceanic meeting point fluctuates between Cape Point; when following the western side of the African coastline from the equator, the Cape of Good Hope marks the point where a ship begins to travel more eastward than southward. Thus, the first modern rounding of the cape in 1488 by Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias was a milestone in the attempts by the Portuguese to establish direct trade relations with the Far East. Dias called the cape Cabo das Tormentas, the original name of the "Cape of Good Hope".
As one of the great capes of the South Atlantic Ocean, the Cape of Good Hope has long been of special significance to sailors, many of whom refer to it as "the Cape". It is a waypoint on the Cape Route and the clipper route followed by clipper ships to the Far East and Australia, still followed by several offshore yacht races; the term Cape of Good Hope is used in three other ways: It is a section of the Table Mountain National Park, within which the cape of the same name, as well as Cape Point, falls. Prior to its incorporation into the national park, this section constituted the Cape Point Nature Reserve, it was the name of the early Cape Colony established by the Dutch on the Cape Peninsula. Just before the Union of South Africa was formed, the term referred to the entire region that in 1910 was to become the Cape of Good Hope Province. Eudoxus of Cyzicus was a Greek navigator for Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt, who found the wreck of a ship in the Indian Ocean that appeared to have come from Gades, rounding the Cape.
When Eudoxus was returning from his second voyage to India, the wind forced him south of the Gulf of Aden and down the coast of Africa for some distance. Somewhere along the coast of East Africa, he found the remains of the ship. Due to its appearance and the story told by the natives, Eudoxus concluded that the ship was from Gades and had sailed anti-clockwise around Africa, passing the Cape and entering the Indian Ocean; this inspired him to attempt a circumnavigation of the continent. Organising the expedition on his own account he set sail from Gades and began to work down the African coast; the difficulties were too great, he was obliged to return to Europe. After this failure he again set out to circumnavigate Africa, his eventual fate is unknown. Although some, such as Pliny, claimed that Eudoxus did achieve his goal, the most probable conclusion is that he perished on the journey. In the 1450 Fra Mauro map, the Indian Ocean is depicted as connected to the Atlantic. Fra Mauro puts the following inscription by the southern tip of Africa, which he names the "Cape of Diab", describing the exploration by a ship from the East around 1420: "Around 1420 a ship, or junk, from India crossed the Sea of India towards the Island of Men and the Island of Women, off Cape Diab, between the Green Islands and the shadows.
It sailed for 40 days in a south-westerly direction without finding anything other than wind and water. According to these people themselves, the ship went some 2,000 miles ahead until - once favourable conditions came to an end - it turned round and sailed back to Cape Diab in 70 days". "The ships called junks that navigate these seas carry four masts or more, some of which can be raised or lowered, have 40 to 60 cabins for the merchants and only one tiller. They can navigate without a compass, because they have an astrologer, who stands on the side and, with an astrolabe in hand, gives orders to the navigator". Fra Mauro explained that he obtained the information from "a trustworthy source", who traveled with the expedition the Venetian explorer Niccolò da Conti who happened to be in Calicut, India at the time the expedition left: "What is more, I have spoken with a person worthy of trust, who says that he sailed in an Indian ship caught in the fury of a tempest for 40 days out in the Sea of India, beyond the Cape of Soffala and the Green Islands towards west-southwest.
Thus one can believe and confirm what is said by both these and those, that they had therefore sailed 4,000 miles". Fra Mauro comments that the account of the expedition, together with the relation by Strabo of the travels of Eudoxus of Cyzicus from Arabia to Gibraltar through the southern Ocean in Antiquity, led him to believe that the Indian Ocean was not a closed sea and that Africa could be circumnavigated by her southern end; this knowledge, together with the map depiction of the African continent encouraged the Portuguese to intensify their effort to round the tip of Africa. I
Tasmania is an island state of Australia. It is located 240 km to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait; the state encompasses the main island of Tasmania, the 26th-largest island in the world, the surrounding 334 islands. The state has a population of around 526,700 as of March 2018. Just over forty percent of the population resides in the Greater Hobart precinct, which forms the metropolitan area of the state capital and largest city, Hobart. Tasmania's area is 68,401 km2, of which the main island covers 64,519 km2, it is promoted as a natural state, protected areas of Tasmania cover about 42% of its land area, which includes national parks and World Heritage Sites. Tasmania was the founding place of the first environmental political party in the world; the island is believed to have been occupied by indigenous peoples for 30,000 years before British colonisation. It is thought Aboriginal Tasmanians were separated from the mainland Aboriginal groups about 10,000 years ago when the sea rose to form Bass Strait.
The Aboriginal population is estimated to have been between 3,000 and 7,000 at the time of colonisation, but was wiped out within 30 years by a combination of violent guerrilla conflict with settlers known as the "Black War", intertribal conflict, from the late 1820s, the spread of infectious diseases to which they had no immunity. The conflict, which peaked between 1825 and 1831, led to more than three years of martial law, cost the lives of 1,100 Aboriginals and settlers; the island was permanently settled by Europeans in 1803 as a penal settlement of the British Empire to prevent claims to the land by the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. The island was part of the Colony of New South Wales but became a separate, self-governing colony under the name Van Diemen's Land in 1825. 75,000 convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land before transportation ceased in 1853. In 1854 the present Constitution of Tasmania was passed, the following year the colony received permission to change its name to Tasmania.
In 1901 it became a state through the process of the Federation of Australia. The state is named after Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who made the first reported European sighting of the island on 24 November 1642. Tasman named the island Anthony van Diemen's Land after his sponsor Anthony van Diemen, the Governor of the Dutch East Indies; the name was shortened to Van Diemen's Land by the British. It was renamed Tasmania in honour of its first European discoverer on 1 January 1856. Tasmania was sometimes referred to as "Dervon," as mentioned in the Jerilderie Letter written by the notorious Australian bushranger Ned Kelly in 1879; the colloquial expression for the state is "Tassie". Tasmania is colloquially shortened to "Tas," when used in business names and website addresses. TAS is the Australia Post abbreviation for the state; the reconstructed Palawa kani language name for Tasmania is Lutriwita. The island was adjoined to the mainland of Australia until the end of the last glacial period about 10,000 years ago.
Much of the island is composed of Jurassic dolerite intrusions through other rock types, sometimes forming large columnar joints. Tasmania has the world's largest areas of dolerite, with many distinctive mountains and cliffs formed from this rock type; the central plateau and the southeast portions of the island are dolerites. Mount Wellington above Hobart is a good example. In the southern midlands as far south as Hobart, the dolerite is underlaid by sandstone and similar sedimentary stones. In the southwest, Precambrian quartzites were formed from ancient sea sediments and form strikingly sharp ridges and ranges, such as Federation Peak or Frenchmans Cap. In the northeast and east, continental granites can be seen, such as at Freycinet, similar to coastal granites on mainland Australia. In the northwest and west, mineral-rich volcanic rock can be seen at Mount Read near Rosebery, or at Mount Lyell near Queenstown. Present in the south and northwest is limestone with caves; the quartzite and dolerite areas in the higher mountains show evidence of glaciation, much of Australia's glaciated landscape is found on the Central Plateau and the Southwest.
Cradle Mountain, another dolerite peak, for example, was a nunatak. The combination of these different rock types contributes to scenery, distinct from any other region of the world. In the far southwest corner of the state, the geology is wholly quartzite, which gives the mountains the false impression of having snow-capped peaks year round. Evidence indicates the presence of Aborigines in Tasmania about 42,000 years ago. Rising sea levels cut Tasmania off from mainland Australia about 10,000 years ago and by the time of European contact, the Aboriginal people in Tasmania had nine major nations or ethnic groups. At the time of the British occupation and colonisation in 1803, the indigenous population was estimated at between 3,000 and 10,000. Historian Lyndall Ryan's analysis of population studies led her to conclude that there were about 7,000 spread throughout the island's nine nations. J. B. Plomley and Rhys Jones, settled on a figure of 3,000 to 4,000, they engaged in fire-stick farming, hunted game including kangaroo and wallabies, caught seals, mutton-birds and fish and lived as nine separate "nations" on the island, which they knew as "Trouwunna".
The first reported sighting of Tasmania by a European was on 24 November 1642 by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who landed at today's Blackman Bay. More than a century in 1772, a French expedition le
HMS Calcutta (1795)
HMS Calcutta was the East Indiaman Warley, converted to a Royal Navy 56-gun fourth rate. This ship of the line served for a time as an armed transport, she transported convicts to Australia in a voyage that became a circumnavigation of the world. The French 74-gun Magnanime captured Calcutta in 1805. In 1809, after she ran aground during the Battle of the Basque Roads and her crew had abandoned her, a British boarding party burned her; the East Indiaman Warley was built at John Perry's Blackwall Yard in 1788, the first vessel of the name that Perry built for the East India Company. She made two trading voyages to the Far East for the East India Company. Warley's captain for her two voyages was Henry Wilson, he received a letter of marque on 7 September 1793. Captain Henry Wilson sailed from Falmouth on 8 March 1789, bound for China. Warley reached Madras on 22 June, left on 9 August, arrived at Whampoa on 28 September. Homeward bound, she crossed the Second Bar on 11 February 1790, reached St Helena on 28 April, arrived at the Downs on 23 June.
Captain Henry Wilson sailed from the Downs on 19 January 1793, again bound for China. Warley reached the Cape of Good Hope on 3 April, arrived at Madras on 30 May. By 6 July 1793, Warley was off Pondicherry with Admiral Cornwallis's squadron. Warley and Royal Charlotte, together with HMS Minerva, participated in the capture of Pondicherry by maintaining a blockade of the port. By 28 August 1793, Warley was back at Madras; the Indiamen sailed for China in early September. By 4 October 1793, the East Indiamen were at Penang, two weeks at Malacca. On their way to China, the East Indiamen participated in an action in the Straits of Malacca, they came upon a French frigate, with some six or seven of her prizes, replenishing her water casks ashore. The three British vessels gave chase; the frigate fled towards the Sunda Strait. The Indiamen were able to catch up with a number of the prizes, after a few cannon shots, were able to retake them; the British took the French prize crews as prisoners of war. Had they not carried letters of marque, such behaviour might well have qualified as piracy.
Warley arrived at Whampoa on 13 December. When Warley was at Whampoa that December she joined other East Indiamen there, among which were several that on their return to Britain the Admiralty would purchase: Royal Charlotte, Earl of Abergavenny, Hindostan; the British Government had chartered Hindostan to take Lord Macartney to China in an unsuccessful attempt to open diplomatic and commercial relations with the Chinese empire. Homeward bound, Warley crossed the Second Bar on 13 March 1794, she reached St Helena on 18 June, arrived at the Downs on 7 September. In early 1795, the Royal Navy purchased Warley and had her original builders, Perry & Co. refit her as a 56-gun fourth rate, under the name Calcutta, at a cost of £10,300. She was one of nine large merchantmen that the Navy Board purchased that year for conversion to convoy escorts. Captain William Bligh was her first commander, assigned to her to supervise her conversion, he commissioned her in May. In October 1795, the crew of the 74-gun HMS Defiance mutinied.
Bligh, in Calcutta, was ordered to embark 200 troops and take them alongside Defiance so that they might board her and regain control. The threat of the soldiers ended the mutiny for the time being, though the crew of the Defiance mutinied again in 1797 and 1798. Bligh continued to command Calcutta until she was paid off in February 1796 and transferred to the Transport Board. In order for her to fulfill her new role, the Transport Board had the guns on her lower deck removed; as a result she no longer needed as her complement fell to 160 officers and men. Calcutta served in the transport role under Lieutenants Robert Arnold, Edward Jekyll Canes, Richard Pouldon. and John Anderson. Under Poulden Calcutta was at the capture of Menorca in December 1798. On 11 November she was part of a squadron that unsuccessfully chased four Spanish frigates, though two days Argo recaptured the sloop Peterel, which the Spaniards had captured on the 11th. Lieutenant John Anderson replaced Pouldon. On 6 June 1800 he sailed Calcutta to Gibraltar.
Between May 1802 and February 1803, the Navy had Calcutta fitted out as a transport for convicts being sent to Britain's penal colonies in Australia. She received new armament in the form of sixteen 24-pounder carronades on her upper deck and two six-pounder guns on the forecastle. Captain Daniel Woodriff recommissioned her in November 1802 and sailed her from Spithead on 28 April 1803, accompanied by Ocean, to establish a settlement at Port Phillip. Calcutta carried a crew of 150 and 307 male convicts, along with civil officers and some 30 wives and children of the convicts; the Reverend Robert Knopwood kept a journal on the voyage. Calcutta arrived at Teneriffe on 13 May, she reached Rio de Janeiro on 19 July, the Dutch colony at the Cape of Good Hope on 16 August. While Calcutta was at the Cape, a vessel arrived with news that Britain was now at war with the Batavian Republic; the colony's Dutch commodore sent a representative aboard Calcutta to demand her surrender and that of her contents.
While the representative waited, Woodriff spent two hours preparing her for battle. He showed the representative her sailors and marines at their guns, told the Dutchman to inform the commod
John Bowen (Royal Navy officer)
Rear-Admiral John Bowen was a Royal Navy officer and colonial administrator, who led the first settlement of Tasmania at Risdon Cove. John Bowen was the son of James Bowen, was born at Ilfracombe, England, he graduated from the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth. As a midshipman Bowen joined HMS Argo, commanded by his father. In April 1802 when as a lieutenant he joined HMS Lancaster at the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, his next appointment was in HMS Glatton. He arrived at Port Jackson on 11 March 1803. Governor King soon appointed him to form the new settlement at Van Diemen's Land. Peter Timms suggests that Bowen was chosen "because King could not spare anyone more experienced"; the expedition left with Bowen commanding the Albion. He arrived at Risdon Cove on 12 September 1803. Among the original 49 settlers at Risdon Cove, which became Hobart, were 21 male and 3 female convicts, members of the New South Wales Corps and free settlers and their families. In January 1804 Bowen, in Ferrett, left for Sydney so that he could return to the navy in the current war against France, however Governor King told him to return to Risdon via the failing Port Phillip settlement and to resettle either at Hobart or Port Dalrymple, requested Bowen to deliver administration of the Risdon settlement to David Collins.
In his two years in Tasmania Bowen explored the Richmond area, discovering coal and naming area the Coal River. In May 1804 he explored the Huon River. While at Risdon, Bowen lived with Martha Hayes. Bowen left Hobart in August 1804 on Ocean, in January 1805 sailed for England in Lady Barlow. King recommended him for promotion. In May 1804 Bowen was promoted commander and in January 1806 he became captain. From 1806 to December 1809 he was in HMS Camilla, which in 1807-08 took part in the blockade of Martinique and Guadeloupe. In February 1811 he wrote to Robert Peel, Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, suggesting that he should succeed Collins as Lieutenant-Governor of Van Diemen's Land; this was subsequently rejected as it was believed that as a naval officer he could not command troops. In 1812-16 he served in HMS Salsette on the India Station. Returning to England on 13 May 1825, he married Elizabeth Lindley Cloves. After a long illness he died at Ilfracombe in 1827, aged 47. Celebration of the 200th Anniversary of the State of Tasmania.
Australian Dictionary of Biography entry for John Bowen
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Ocean (1794 ship)
Ocean was an English merchant ship and whaler built in 1794 at South Shields, England. She performed two voyages as an "extra" ship for the British East India Company and in 1803, she accompanied HMS Calcutta to Port Phillip; the vessels supported the establishment of a settlement under the leadership of Lt Col David Collins. Calcutta transported convicts, with Ocean serving to transport supplies; when the settlers abandoned Port Phillip, Ocean, in two journeys, relocated the settlers and marines to the River Derwent in 1804. Ocean continued to sail as a London-based transport until 1823. Ocean was a three-masted, copper-sheathed brig, she was built in 1794 at South Shields. Ocean was to be a whaler owned by the newly-operating South Sea fishers and Edward Hurrys, who were bankrupt by 1806; however Ocean spent 1794-95 in the Baltic timber trade. Ocean made two trips to Bengal as an "extra" ship for the EIC; that is, the EIC chartered her on a per-voyage basis, rather than having her on long-term contract.
The French Revolutionary Wars having started, she sailed under letters of marque for both voyages. The first letter gave her captain's name as John Bowen. Under Bowen, she was at Portsmouth on 12 March, she was at Cowes on 30 March. She joined a convoy for the Cape of Good Hope on 11 April; the convoy included another Ocean, this one an East Indiaman, much larger. On 10 September the brig Ocean was at Simon's Bay. On 28 November she was at Diamond Harbour and by 30 December she was at Calcutta, she left Diamond Harbour on 10 January 1797. Ocean was at Kedgeree on 19 March, she left Bengal on 27 March 1797 with a cargo of sugar and in a convoy escorted by the frigate HMS Fox. She reached Trincomalee on 24 April, Simon's Bay on 7 July, the Cape on 11 July, a storm having dispersed the convoy and despite having sprung leaks that had kept the crew at the pumps from 26 May on, she sailed from the Cape on 26 August as part of a convoy of 16 East Indiamen and six British warships, reaching Saint Helena on 11 September.
Ocean reached the Downs on 14 December, Kent on 18 December, finished unloading at Deptford on 19 January 1798. In 1798 she was repaired by Fletcher, she received her second letter of marque on 30 July 1798. That letter gave her captain's name as Robert Abbon Mash. On 4 October 1798 she sailed for Bengal, she reached the Cape of Good Hope on 14 January 1799, Madras on 9 May, Coringa on 16 June and Calcutta on 17 July. On the return leg she was at Diamond Harbour on 25 September, Kedgeree by 23 October. By 26 January 1800 Ocean was at Saint Helena, reached the Downs on 30 May, she returned to her moorings in Britain on 1 June. The British Government chartered Ocean from Messrs Hurry & Co as a supply ship for the journey from Portsmouth to Port Phillip. On the voyage to Port Phillip, she carried 100 people along with supplies needed for the settlement at Port Phillip; the people on Ocean included Captain John Mertho, nine officers, 26 seamen, eight civil officers including George Harris, Adolarius Humphrey, a mineralogist, a group of free settlers.
Many of the free settlers had skills that would be of value to the new settlement - five were carpenters, two seamen, two millers, a whitesmith, a stonemason, painter, pocketbook maker and two servants. Ocean and Calcutta left Portsmouth on 27 April 1803 and reached Santa Cruz on the Island of Tenerife, part of the Canary Islands on 17 May 1803. Both ships arrived at Rio de Janeiro in Brazil on 29 June. While in Rio, Captain Woodriff of Calcutta sent five marines under Lieutenant Sladden to help maintain order on Ocean for the rest of the voyage. According to Reverend Robert Knopwood's journals, ‘Mr. Hartley, a settler had behaved badly’ – and it seemed there was little love lost between some of the free settlers and Captain Mertho, they regarded him as a tyrant, while he thought they were intractable. At Rio de Janeiro, seven sailors deserted Calcutta. Portuguese soldiers captured three of them and returned them to her, receiving a reward of £6 per sailor. While the ships were at berth, maintenance work was carried out on both ships and fresh provisions were taken on board for the next leg of the journey.
Cloths were washed. The fresh provisions included 36 turkeys, 13 dozen capons and fowls, 68 large ducks 4 geese, 13 pigs, a large quantity of fruit and vegetables. Both Ocean and Calcutta left Rio on 19 July 1803. Ocean, the slower of the two ships, was directed to sail direct to Port Phillip if she lost contact with Calcutta; the ships did lose contact so Ocean did not put in at Cape Town, arriving at Port Phillip on 7 October. At Cape Town two more sailors deserted Calcutta. One was returned. After leaving Rio, Ocean sailed into the Indian Ocean, she experienced frightening weather conditions for 77 days. Twenty days out of Rio, George Harris recorded that ‘for many days we could not sit at table but were obliges to hold fast by boxes and on the floor and all our crockery were broken to pieces, besides many seas into the cabin and living in the state of darkness from the cabin windows being stopped up by the deadlights … I was never so melancholy in my life before’. In such conditions work on deck was dangerous.
On 9 August John Bowers fell ove
Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land was the original name used by most Europeans for the island of Tasmania, part of Australia. The name was changed from Van Diemen's Land to Tasmania in 1856; the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman was the first European to land on the shores of Tasmania in 1642. Landing at Blackman Bay and having the Dutch flag flown at North Bay, Tasman named the island Anthoonij van Diemenslandt, in honour of Anthony van Diemen, the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, who had sent Tasman on his voyage of discovery. Between 1772 and 1798, only the southeastern portion of the island was visited. Tasmania was not known to be an island until Matthew Flinders and George Bass circumnavigated it in the Norfolk in 1798–99. Around 1784–85, Henri Peyroux de la Coudrenière, an army officer serving in Spanish Louisiana, wrote a "memoir on the advantages to be gained for the Spanish crown by the settlement of Van Dieman's Land". After receiving no response from the Spanish government, Peyroux proposed it to the French government, as "Mémoire sur les avantages qui résulteraient d'une colonie puissante à la terre de Diémen".
In January 1793, a French expedition under the command of Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni d'Entrecasteaux anchored in Recherche Bay and a period of five weeks was spent in that area, carrying out explorations into both natural history and geography. In 1802 and 1803, the French expedition commanded by Nicolas Baudin explored D'Entrecasteaux Channel and Maria Island and carried out charting of Bass Strait (Baudin had been associated, like Peyroux, with the resettlement of the Acadians from French Canada. Sealers and whalers based themselves on Tasmania's islands from 1798 and in August 1803, New South Wales Governor Philip King sent Lieutenant John Bowen to establish a small military outpost on the eastern shore of the Derwent River to forestall any claims to the island arising from the activities of the French explorers. Major-General Ralph Darling was appointed Governor of New South Wales in 1825, in the same year he visited Hobart Town, on 3 December proclaimed the establishment of the independent colony, of which he became governor for three days.
The demonym for Van Diemen's Land was "Van Diemonian", though contemporaries used the spelling Vandemonian. In 1856, the colony was granted responsible self-government with its representative parliament, the name of the island and colony was changed to Tasmania on 1 January 1856. Main articles: Port Arthur, Convicts on the West Coast of TasmaniaFrom the 1800s to the 1853 abolition of penal transportation, Van Diemen's Land was the primary penal colony in Australia. Following the suspension of transportation to New South Wales, all transported convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land. In total, some 73,000 convicts were transported to Van Diemen's Land, or about 40% of all convicts sent to Australia. Male convicts served their sentences as assigned labour to free settlers or in gangs assigned to public works. Only the most difficult convicts were sent to the Tasman Peninsula prison known as Port Arthur. Female convicts were sent to a female factory. There were five female factories in Van Diemen's Land.
Convicts completing their sentences or earning their ticket-of-leave promptly left Van Diemen's Land. Many settled in the new free colony of Victoria, to the dismay of the free settlers in towns such as Melbourne. On 6 August 1829, the brig Cyprus, a government-owned vessel used to transport goods and convicts, set sail from Hobart Town for Macquarie Harbour Penal Station on a routine voyage carrying supplies and convicts. While the ship was becalmed in Recherche Bay, convicts allowed on deck attacked their guards and took control of the brig; the mutineers marooned officers and convicts who did not join the mutiny without supplies. The convicts sailed the Cyprus to Canton, where they scuttled her and claimed to be castaways from another vessel. On the way, Cyprus visited Japan during the height of the period of severe Japanese restrictions on the entry of foreigners, the first Australian ship to do so. Tensions sometimes ran high between the settlers and the "Vandemonians" as they were termed during the Victorian gold rush when a flood of settlers from Van Diemen's Land rushed to the Victorian goldfields.
Complaints from Victorians about released convicts from Van Diemen's Land re-offending in Victoria was one of the contributing reasons for the eventual abolition of transportation to Van Diemen's Land in 1853. Anthony Trollope used the term Vandemonian: "They are united in their declaration that the cessation of the coming of convicts has been their ruin."In 1856, Van Diemen's Land was renamed Tasmania. This removed the unsavoury criminal connotations with the name Van Diemen's Land, while honouring Abel Tasman, the first European to find the island; the last penal settlement in Tasmania at Port Arthur closed in 1877. The critically acclaimed award-winning film The Last Confession of Alexander Pearce tells the true story of Alexander Pearce through his final confession to fellow Irishman and colonial priest Philip Conolly; the film was nominated for a Rose d'Or, an Irish Film and Television Award, an Australian Film Institute Award and won an IF Award in 2009. The ABC telemovie The Outlaw Michael Howe is set in Van Diemen's Land and tells the story of bushranger Michael Howe's convict-led rebellion.
U2's 1988 album Rattle and Hum has a song called "Van Diemen's Land" with lead vocals sung by The Edge. Tom Russell sets Van Diemen's Land as the ship's destination in his song "Isaac L