Sulphur Springs Water Tower
Sulphur Springs Water Tower is a landmark of Tampa, Florida. It stands 214 feet tall, with a foundation 45 feet deep which makes it visible from nearby Interstate 275 and much of the rest of Sulphur Springs. It's located in the historic district of Sulphur Springs; the water tower was built in 1927 by Grover Poole for realtor and developer Josiah S. Richardson to supply adequate water pressure to the Sulphur Springs Hotel and Apartments and Mave's Arcade Richardson had developed next to Sulphur Spring with plans to expand the resort spa, alligator farm tourist attraction, other enterprises. Mave's Arcade occupied the first floor of the hotel building and was the first shopping mall in Florida. Richardson mortgaged the entire resort to finance the construction of the tower. However, in 1933, with the sabotage and collapse of the Tampa Electric Company dam that ripped through downtown Tampa during the Depression, the arcade was damaged, the businesses in the arcade failed, Richardson lost everything.
From construction until 1971, the water tower operated as a private water company piping artesian well water to commercial and residential customers in the immediate vicinity. The tower is built over the opening of an artesian well and the water well and pumps are located under the tower itself. Another building was on the property which housed fluoridation and filtering equipment when the water company was in business piping artesian well water directly to customers. In 1971 the owner of the water company and tower was "The Estate of J. F. Hendricks", they were forced by the City of Tampa in 1971 to cease water piping operations so that the City's water utility company could maintain a monopoly over the business of piping water to citizens. In 1951, the Tower Drive-In theater opened adjacent to the tower property to the east. An aircraft warning light atop the tower was said to have interfered with movie viewing. In the mid-1980s there was a move to develop the property as a condominium or high-end apartment complex, with the tower preserved as its centerpiece.
The project fell through. In 1989 the tower was restored: it was pressure washed and painted with 150 gallons of "graffiti proof paint" donated by Sherwin-Williams Co. with labor donated by Service Painting Corp. 2002 saw a bid by a large chain drugstore to build on the site, but public outcry killed the project. The site was subsequently purchased by the City of Tampa who in 2005 installed lights for nighttime illumination. In what is now called River Tower Park, there is a limited one-lane access road off Bird Street, no facilities and no parking lot; the River Walkway decking is planned to pass under the tower. The structure is constructed from poured concrete using railroad rails for "rebar". "Concrete was poured into forms that were raised by yokes and jacks -- 10 feet went up a day. The tower rests on rock, has cantilever foundation, with the buttresses will be rather a difficult job to destroy," wrote Poole; when it was operational it stored 200,000 gallons of water pumped up from the nearby artesian springs.
The water tank occupies the upper quarter of the cylindrical tower while seven floors, one room per floor, constitute the lower three quarters. Original construction included an electric passenger elevator. Klinkenberg, Jeff. "Tower of Terror". St. Petersburg Times. Archived from the original on 22 Aug 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2017
Uptown Tampa is a subdistrict located at the western end of Downtown Tampa. Notable attractions include the Tampa Theatre,the Curtis Hixon Waterfront Park, the Tampa Bay Performing Arts Center and the John F. Germany Library, it is known as the River Arts District and has been having a significant growth in population, activities and nightlife. The Uptown district is bordered by Hillsborough River to the west, Kennedy Boulevard to the south, Interstate 275 to the north and the downtown core to the east. Source: City of Tampa As of the census of 2000, there were 636 people and 252 households residing in the neighborhood; the population density was 781.84/mi². The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 43% White, 46% African American, less than 0.5% Native American, 0% Asian, 4% from other races, 6% were from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were about 7% of the population; the per capita income for the neighborhood was $21,121. Downtown Tampa Neighborhoods in Tampa, Florida Tampa Heights Official website
Downtown Tampa is the central business district of Tampa, United States, the chief financial district of the Tampa Bay Area. It is second only to Westshore regarding employment in the area. Companies with a major presence downtown include Bank of America, BB&T, Marshall & Ilsley, PNC Financial Services, SunTrust, Sykes Enterprises, TECO Energy, Frontier Communications; the Tampa Convention Center is located on the river. Downtown Tampa is bounded by the Hillsborough River to the west, Channelside to the east, Interstate 275 to the north, Davis Islands and Harbour Island to the south; the total area for the area is 521 acres. Historical Fort Brooke was located at the southern end of downtown Tampa, near the mouth of the Hillsborough River; the TECO Streetcar takes passengers from downtown to other core areas of Tampa. Tampa City Hall Tampa Police Department The Florida Aquarium is a large scale, 250,000-square-foot aquarium and is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums; the facility is home to more than 20,000 aquatic plants and animals from Florida and all over the world.
The facility is located in the Channel District near the SS American Victory and the Port of Tampa's cruise terminals. The Florida Museum of Photographic Arts occupies the 2nd and 3rd floors of the architecturally significant Cube an adjacent to Rivergate Tower. FMoPA is part of the Waterfront Arts District, along with the Tampa Museum of Art and Glazer Children's Museum, all located alongside the Tampa Riverwalk; the Glazer Children’s Museum is located in central downtown, next door to the Tampa Museum of Art and Curtis Hixon Park, alongside the Tampa Riverwalk. It is part of the Waterfront Arts District. Based in a 53,000 square foot facility in downtown Tampa, the Museum has 170 hands-on exhibits in multiple themed areas. Exhibits are designed to engage children in the discovery process through play; the Henry B. Plant Museum is located in the south wing of Plant Hall on the University of Tampa’s campus, at 401 West Kennedy Boulevard; the museum's exhibits focus on the Gilded Age lifestyle of the old Tampa Bay Hotel’s guests during the 1890s, when Tampa was experiencing sudden population and economic growth, including the beginning of the local tourist industry.
The SS American Victory a Victory ship built during World War II and is located in the Channel District near the Florida Aquarium. American Victory was preserved in 1998 to serve as a museum ship, she is the main feature of the American Victory Ship & Museum known as the American Victory Mariners Memorial & Museum Ship. The Tampa Bay History Center is history museum located in the southern part of downtown near the Channel District and Amalie Arena. Exhibits include coverage of the Tampa Bay area's first native inhabitants, Spanish conquistadors, historical figures who shaped the area's history, as well as a reproduction of a 1920s cigar store; the Tampa Museum of Art is located in central downtown, next door to the Glazer Children’s Museum and Curtis Hixon Park, alongside the Tampa Riverwalk. The museum was founded in 1979 and debuted an innovative new building in 2010 on the banks of Hillsborough River just north of its original site; the current location is part of Tampa's Riverwalk and the Waterfront Arts District along with the Glazer Children's Museum and the Florida Museum of Photographic Arts and includes a gift shop and SONO Cafe, a restaurant operated by Mise En Place.
The David A. Straz Jr. Center for the Performing Arts opened its doors as the Tampa Bay Performing Arts Center, Florida in July 1987 and has welcomed more than 10 million guests; the Straz Center is located in northern downtown on a 9-acre site along the east bank of the Hillsborough River. As the second largest performing arts complex in the Southeastern United States, the 335,000-square-foot venue provides an environment for a variety of events, it has a leading Broadway series, produces grand opera, is the home of the resident professional theater company Jobsite Theater, presents a wide variety of concerts and other events. The Tampa Theatre a historic U. S. theater and city landmark in the Uptown District of downtown Tampa, Florida. On January 3, 1978, it was added to the U. S. National Register of Historic Places; the Theatre features a wide range of independent and documentary films on a daily basis. It is Tampa's only non-profit movie theater and operating costs are covered by its membership program, various corporate sponsors as well as ticket sales.
It has periodically been used as a backdrop for MTV videos and local programming. Known as the River Arts District, this northwestern chunk of downtown contains the majority of nightlife and dining in the neighborhood. Important cultural landmarks such as Tampa Theatre, Straz Center for the Performing Arts, the John F. Germany public library, Glazer Children's Museum, the Tampa Museum of Art are all centered around Curtis Hixon Waterfront Park, called "Tampa's town square". Collectively, this area represents the focal point of downtown proper due to having a large concentration of interest points and establishments. Although technically downtown, Channelside is thought to be adjacent to the main CBD; this district is the location for many prominent downtown venues. The Tampa Convention Center, Amalie Arena, Tampa Bay History Center, the Florida Aquarium and the SS American Victory are located in the Channel District. Twin 30 story condos were completed in 2007, called the Towers of Channelside.
Many other residential mid and high-rises have been completed since. Many locals know the Channel District for its nightlife; the Channelside Bay Plaza, wh
Mean sea level is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevation may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic datum –, used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and aircraft flight levels. A common and straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location. Sea levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied over geological time scales; however 20th century and current millennium sea level rise is caused by global warming, careful measurement of variations in MSL can offer insights into ongoing climate change. The term above sea level refers to above mean sea level. Precise determination of a "mean sea level" is difficult to achieve because of the many factors that affect sea level. Instantaneous sea level varies quite a lot on several scales of space.
This is because the sea is in constant motion, affected by the tides, atmospheric pressure, local gravitational differences, salinity and so forth. The easiest way this may be calculated is by selecting a location and calculating the mean sea level at that point and use it as a datum. For example, a period of 19 years of hourly level observations may be averaged and used to determine the mean sea level at some measurement point. Still-water level or still-water sea level is the level of the sea with motions such as wind waves averaged out. MSL implies the SWL further averaged over a period of time such that changes due to, e.g. the tides have zero mean. Global MSL refers to a spatial average over the entire ocean. One measures the values of MSL in respect to the land. In the UK, the Ordnance Datum is the mean sea level measured at Newlyn in Cornwall between 1915 and 1921. Prior to 1921, the vertical datum was MSL at the Victoria Liverpool. Since the times of the Russian Empire, in Russia and other former its parts, now independent states, the sea level is measured from the zero level of Kronstadt Sea-Gauge.
In Hong Kong, "mPD" is a surveying term meaning "metres above Principal Datum" and refers to height of 1.230m below the average sea level. In France, the Marégraphe in Marseilles measures continuously the sea level since 1883 and offers the longest collapsed data about the sea level, it is used for main part of Africa as official sea level. As for Spain, the reference to measure heights below or above sea level is placed in Alicante. Elsewhere in Europe vertical elevation references are made to the Amsterdam Peil elevation, which dates back to the 1690s. Satellite altimeters have been making precise measurements of sea level since the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon in 1992. A joint mission of NASA and CNES, TOPEX/Poseidon was followed by Jason-1 in 2001 and the Ocean Surface Topography Mission on the Jason-2 satellite in 2008. Height above mean sea level is the elevation or altitude of an object, relative to the average sea level datum, it is used in aviation, where some heights are recorded and reported with respect to mean sea level, in the atmospheric sciences, land surveying.
An alternative is to base height measurements on an ellipsoid of the entire Earth, what systems such as GPS do. In aviation, the ellipsoid known as World Geodetic System 84 is used to define heights; the alternative is to use a geoid-based vertical datum such as NAVD88. When referring to geographic features such as mountains on a topographic map, variations in elevation are shown by contour lines; the elevation of a mountain denotes the highest point or summit and is illustrated as a small circle on a topographic map with the AMSL height shown in metres, feet or both. In the rare case that a location is below sea level, the elevation AMSL is negative. For one such case, see Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. To extend this definition far from the sea means comparing the local height of the mean sea surface with a "level" reference surface, or geodetic datum, called the geoid. In a state of rest or absence of external forces, the mean sea level would coincide with this geoid surface, being an equipotential surface of the Earth's gravitational field.
In reality, due to currents, air pressure variations and salinity variations, etc. this does not occur, not as a long-term average. The location-dependent, but persistent in time, separation between mean sea level and the geoid is referred to as ocean surface topography, it varies globally in a range of ± 2 m. Adjustments were made to sea-level measurements to take into account the effects of the 235 lunar month Metonic cycle and the 223-month eclipse cycle on the tides. Several terms are used to describe the changing relationships between sea level and dry land; when the term "relative" is used, it means change relative to a fixed point in the sediment pile. The term "eustatic" refers to global changes in sea level relative to a fixed point, such as the centre of the earth, for example as a result of melting ice-caps; the term "steric" refers to global changes in sea level due to thermal expansion and salinity variations. The term "isostatic" refers to changes in
Hillsborough River (Florida)
The Hillsborough River is a river located in the state of Florida in the United States. It arises in the Green Swamp near the juncture of Hillsborough and Polk counties, flows 60 miles through Pasco and Hillsborough Counties to an outlet in the city of Tampa on Tampa Bay, it includes 4 nature trails extending for over seven miles. The name Hillsborough River first appeared on a British map in 1769. At the time, the Earl of Hillsborough was the British Secretary of State for the Colonies, thus controlled the pensions of the surveyors working in the American colonies, which included East Florida. Geological data suggests. Humans first made their way to this area 12,000 - 15,000 years ago. In the late 18th century the watershed of the Hillsborough River was a land covered by a rich, old growth forest. Majestic bald cypress, longleaf pine, sand live oak were hundreds of years old. In the mid to late 19th century to about 1913 the watershed of this old growth forest began to be logged; as a result of this lumbering activity, most of the trees within the Hillsborough River basin are now less than one hundred years in age.
The harvesting of the old growth trees altered the ecosystems. Trees such as water ash and water locust were able to grow in the sun-lit spaces created when bigger trees were removed; the riverine swamp forest as it exists today has a much different ecology than the ecosystem that had existed along the Hillsborough for the previous ten to fifteen thousand years. Tocobaga Native American culture. Pánfilo de Narváez, a Spanish explorer, lands near Tampa Bay, he and the four hundred men with him find the Tocobaga culture established in the area. Hernando de Soto, another Spaniard, comes to Tampa Bay and lands at what was the Hillsborough River. By the early 18th century the Tocobaga people, through slavery, are nearly exterminated. A survey of the Hillsborough River is done by Don Francisco Maria Celi, pilot of the Spanish Royal Fleet, he ventures up to the Temple Terrace area in search of longleaf pine to use as masts for his ships. He names the pine forest of the area "El Pinal de la Cruz de Santa Teresa" or "The Pines of the Cross of Saint Teresa".
There is a plaque commemorating his exploration at Riverhills Park in Temple Terrace. A map drawn and sent to the Earl of Hillsborough, English Governor of West Florida, shows the river named as the Hillsborough. During the mid and late 18th century, Native Americans from the north Creek, begin to migrate to Florida; these immigrants become known as Seminoles. Florida becomes a United States territory. Construction of Fort Brooke begins at the mouth of the Hillsborough River; the Fort King Military Road is built to connect Fort King in Ocala with Fort Brooke in what was the settlement of Tampa. A bridge is built to cross the Hillsborough. Congress passes the Indian Removal Act; the American government begins efforts to remove the Seminole from Tampa Bay and relocate them to a reservation west of the Mississippi. Tensions between Seminole and Americans continue. Seminoles burn the bridge at the Fort King Road’s river crossing. Conflict continues. Fort Foster is established at the Hillsborough River crossing to protect this strategically advantageous position.
The Armed Occupation Act promises one hundred 60 acres of land to any man who can bear arms, build a house and cultivate 5 acres for five years. The Jean Street Shipyard is founded on the Hillsborough River in what will be the neighborhood of Seminole Heights; the first ferry crossing on the Hillsborough River is established. This widens the growth of Tampa to both sides of the river. During the American Civil War, Tampa Bay is blockaded by federal troops to prevent goods from leaving Tampa or from coming into Tampa. Federal troops march upriver to a location near the present day site of Lowry Park Zoo. There they discover a blockade-running sloop loaded with cotton; the ships are burned. The skirmish that follows is the only Civil War action on the Hillsborough River; the Tampa Bay Hotel, now the Henry B. Plant Museum, opens with a grand ball. At a cost of $150,000 an electrical dam is built on the river by Consumers Electric Light and Street Railway Company; the dam was located halfway between present-day 40th Street and 56th Street on the Hillsborough River On December 13, 1898 the dam is dynamited by cattle barons angry at the loss of grazing land.
They tried three times. The first on January 8, 1897,shortly after construction was completed; when the water is low, remnants of the dynamited dam can be seen. TECO buys the Consumers Electric Light and Street Railway Company and builds a new electric generating dam downstream of the current site north of Sulphur Springs. Tampa's first water plant is built by the private Tampa Waterworks Company, it pumped well water to supply the City of Tampa until March 6, 1923, when the people voted to purchase the Waterworks plant. The Sulphur Springs property is open to the public. Hillsborough Bay is channelized to the mouth of the Hillsborough River with the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899. Up to 1913 the Hillsborough River watershed is logged for its valuable cypress, longleaf pine and oak. Bertha Potter Palmer completes purchases of 19,000 acres border
Hillsborough County, Florida
Hillsborough County is a county in the U. S. state of Florida. In the 2010 census, the population was 1,229,226, making it the fourth-most populous county in Florida and the most populous county outside the Miami Metropolitan Area. A 2017 estimate has the population of Hillsborough County at 1,408,566 people, which itself is greater than the populations of 10 states according to their 2017 population estimates, its county seat and largest city is Tampa. Hillsborough County is part of the Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater Metropolitan Statistical Area. Hillsborough County was created on January 25, 1834, from Alachua and Monroe Counties, during the U. S. territorial period. The new county was named for Wills Hill, the Earl of Hillsborough, who served as British Secretary of State for the Colonies from 1768 to 1772; the County was created through efforts by Augustus Steele. The county's 1834 area was much larger and included eight other present-day counties: Charlotte County, DeSoto, Manatee, Pinellas and Sarasota.
The last significant change in Hillsborough County's borders was the separation of its western section to create Pinellas County in 1911. On New Year's Day in 1914, the St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line initiated the first scheduled commercial airline service in the world, from St. Petersburg to Tampa. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,266 square miles, of which 1,020 square miles are land and 246 square miles are covered by water. About 158.27 miles of shoreline are on Tampa Bay. The county's unincorporated area is more than 84 % of the total land area. Municipalities account for 163 square miles; the modern boundaries of the county place it midway along the west coast of Florida. A narrow portion of Hillsborough County to the south, consisting exclusively of water, extends west to the Gulf of Mexico along the Tampa Port Shipping Channel; this has the effect of keeping Hillsborough County from being technically landlocked. The central portion of the Sunshine Skyway Bridge is in Hillsborough County.
So is Egmont Key, at the entrance to Tampa Bay. The northernmost tip of a spoil island just west of Port Manatee lies in Hillsborough County. Hillsborough is home to Alafia River State Park and Hillsborough River state parks, to the C. W. Bill Young Regional Reservoir and Lithia Springs, one of the largest natural springs in Florida. Pasco County, Florida: north Polk County, Florida: east Hardee County, Florida: southeast Manatee County, Florida: south Pinellas County, Florida: west U. S. Census Bureau 2010 Ethnic/Race Demographics: White: 53.7% Black: 15.6% Hispanic or Latino of any race: 24.9% Asian: 3.4% Two or more races: 3.1% American Indian and Alaska Native: 0.4% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.1% Other Races: 5.0% In 2010, 6.0% of the Hillsborough's population considered themselves to be of only "American" ancestry Of the 536,092 households, 29.74% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.25% were married couples living together, 14.76% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.69% were not families.
About 27.12% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.96% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.11. The age distribution was 23.9% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 25.4% from 45 to 64, 11.8% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males. The median income for a household in the county was $49,536, for a family was $59,886. Males had a median income of $43,125 versus $35,184 for females; the per capita income for the county was $27,062. About 10.7% of families and 14.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.9% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those aged 65 or over. In 2010, 15.1% of the county's population was foreign born, with 44.5% being naturalized American citizens. Of foreign-born residents, 67.5% were born in Latin America, 16.7% born in Asia, 9.2% were born in Europe, 3.2% born in Africa, 3.1% in North America, 0.3% were born in Oceania.
As of the census of 2000, 998,948 people, 391,357 households, 255,164 families resided in the county. The population density was 951 people per square mile; the 425,962 housing units averaged 405 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 75.17% White, 14.96% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 2.20% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 4.66% from other races, a 2.56% from two or more races. 17.99% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. The county was the thirty-second most populous county in the nation. Of the 391,357 households, 31.40% h