Sultanate of Tuggurt

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Sultanate of Tuggurt
سلطنة تقرت (ar)
Beni-Djellab Dynasty
1414–1871
Flag of Beni-Djellab Dynasty
Flag
{{{coat_alt}}}
Coat of arms
Algeria in 18th century.
Algeria in 18th century.
Status Beni-Djellab Dynasty
Capital Tuggurt
Common languages Tugurt language, Arabic
Religion Islam
Government Monarchy
Sultan  
• N/A
N/A
• 1852–1854
Sulayman IV
• Sultanate of Tuggurt founded
1414
• Became Vassal of Regency of Algiers
1552
• Independence from Regency of Algiers
1812-1827
• Abolished by French colonial authority
1854
• Rebellion against French colonial authority
1871
Succeeded by
French Algeria
Today part of  Algeria
Part of a series on the
History of Algeria
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Flag of Algeria.svg Algeria portal

The sultanate of Tuggurt is a state that existed in Tuggurt, the oases of its region and the valley of the wadi Ghir between 1414 and 1881.[1] It was governed by sultans of the Beni Djellab (fr) dynasty.[2]

History of a Saharan principality[edit]

The principality was founded by a certain Soliman towards the end of the fifteenth century. According to some he was a pilgrim of Maghrib al-Aksa, descendant of the Marinids or a sharif. Another version asserts that, tired of rivalry, the local clans decreed that the first one entered the town of Tuggurt would be recognized as chief; a simple shepherd (in Arabic: djellab) was the one who first set foot in the city.[3]

Sheikh Soliman el Djellabi had to deal with the Douaouda feudal family, who commanded the Riah: nomadic tribes who controlled the entire plain from the Zibans (fr) to Ouargla. The head of this family, Ben Sakheri, who bore the title of sheikh el Arab, married the daughter of Soliman el Djellabi, then master of Tuggurt.[4]

The region of Tuggurt was in a state of anarchy. Even the markets - traditionally places of trade and peaceful exchange - were places of confrontation between the members of the various oases and tribes. Soliman el Djellabi, knowing the local political dynamics and the resources of the region, called around him the most popular men of the country (marabouts, heads of oases, etc.) to establish order. He felt secure enough to retain local political structures, including the djemaa (council) to which he could appoint members. He equipped at his own expense a deira of five hundred horsemen who became the nucleus of his army. He then patrolled the neighborhood chastising the rebels, restoring peace and establishing a tax.[5]

As early as the sixteenth century, the Sultanate of Tuggurt had to face the hegemony of the regency of Algiers. Salah Raïs, beylerbey of Algiers, led an expedition against Tuggurt in 1552. The Ben Djellab surrendered in the face of enemy artillery; politically they became vassals of Algiers and paid it tribute.

List of rulers[edit]

In 1414 the Sultanate of Tuggurt was founded in southern Algeria. The known Sultans (and one Sultana) were:[6]

  • Ali II (N/A)
  • Mabruk (Mubarak) (N/A)
  • Ali III (N/A)
  • Mustafa (N/A)
  • Sulayman III (N/A)
  • Ahmad II (1729-N/A)
  • Muhammad I al-`Akhal (N/A)
  • Ahmad IV (N/A)
  • Farhat (N/A)
  • Ibrahim (N/A)
  • Abd al-Qadir I (1st time) + Ahmad V (N/A)
  • Khalid (N/A)
  • Abd al-Qadir I (2nd time) (N/A)
  • Umar bin Bu-Kumetin (175.-1759)
  • Muhammad II (1759–1765)
  • Umar II bin Muhammad (1765–1766)
  • Ahmad VI (1766–1778)
  • Abd al-Qadir II (1778–1782)
  • Farhat II (1782–1792)
  • Ibrahim II (1792–1804)
  • al-Khazan (1804)
  • Muhammad III (1804–1822)
  • `Amar (`Amir) II (1822–1830)
  • Ibrahim III (1830–1831)
  • `Ali IV bin al-Kabir (1831–1833)
  • `Aisha (Aichouch)(female) (1833–1840)
  • `Abd ar-Rahman (1840–1852)
  • `Abd al-Qadir III (1852)
  • Sulayman IV (1852–1854) (Last)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pierre Mannoni, Les Français d'Algérie : vie, mœurs, mentalité de la conquête des Territoires du Sud à l'indépendance, p. 85
  2. ^ Charles Féraud, Histoire des sultans de Touggourt et du Sud Algérien, 2006, p. 162
  3. ^ Féraud, op.cit p. 168
  4. ^ Féraud, op.cit p. 175
  5. ^ Féraud, op.cit p. 175-177
  6. ^ worldstatesmen, Tuggurt (Touggourt), Sultans

See also[edit]