1.
Addition
–
Addition is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic, with the others being subtraction, multiplication and division. The addition of two numbers is the total amount of those quantities combined. For example, in the picture on the right, there is a combination of three apples and two together, making a total of five apples. This observation is equivalent to the mathematical expression 3 +2 =5 i. e.3 add 2 is equal to 5, besides counting fruits, addition can also represent combining other physical objects. In arithmetic, rules for addition involving fractions and negative numbers have been devised amongst others, in algebra, addition is studied more abstractly. It is commutative, meaning that order does not matter, and it is associative, repeated addition of 1 is the same as counting, addition of 0 does not change a number. Addition also obeys predictable rules concerning related operations such as subtraction and multiplication, performing addition is one of the simplest numerical tasks. Addition of very small numbers is accessible to toddlers, the most basic task,1 +1, can be performed by infants as young as five months and even some members of other animal species. In primary education, students are taught to add numbers in the system, starting with single digits. Mechanical aids range from the ancient abacus to the modern computer, Addition is written using the plus sign + between the terms, that is, in infix notation. The result is expressed with an equals sign, for example, 3½ =3 + ½ =3.5. This notation can cause confusion since in most other contexts juxtaposition denotes multiplication instead, the sum of a series of related numbers can be expressed through capital sigma notation, which compactly denotes iteration. For example, ∑ k =15 k 2 =12 +22 +32 +42 +52 =55. The numbers or the objects to be added in addition are collectively referred to as the terms, the addends or the summands. This is to be distinguished from factors, which are multiplied, some authors call the first addend the augend. In fact, during the Renaissance, many authors did not consider the first addend an addend at all, today, due to the commutative property of addition, augend is rarely used, and both terms are generally called addends. All of the above terminology derives from Latin, using the gerundive suffix -nd results in addend, thing to be added. Likewise from augere to increase, one gets augend, thing to be increased, sum and summand derive from the Latin noun summa the highest, the top and associated verb summare
2.
Series (mathematics)
–
In mathematics, a series is, informally speaking, the sum of the terms of an infinite sequence. The sum of a sequence has defined first and last terms. To emphasize that there are a number of terms, a series is often called an infinite series. In order to make the notion of an infinite sum mathematically rigorous, given an infinite sequence, the associated series is the expression obtained by adding all those terms together, a 1 + a 2 + a 3 + ⋯. These can be written compactly as ∑ i =1 ∞ a i, by using the summation symbol ∑. The sequence can be composed of any kind of object for which addition is defined. A series is evaluated by examining the finite sums of the first n terms of a sequence, called the nth partial sum of the sequence, and taking the limit as n approaches infinity. If this limit does not exist, the infinite sum cannot be assigned a value, and, in this case, the series is said to be divergent. On the other hand, if the partial sums tend to a limit when the number of terms increases indefinitely, then the series is said to be convergent, and the limit is called the sum of the series. An example is the series from Zenos dichotomy and its mathematical representation, ∑ n =1 ∞12 n =12 +14 +18 + ⋯. The study of series is a part of mathematical analysis. Series are used in most areas of mathematics, even for studying finite structures, in addition to their ubiquity in mathematics, infinite series are also widely used in other quantitative disciplines such as physics, computer science, statistics and finance. For any sequence of numbers, real numbers, complex numbers, functions thereof. By definition the series ∑ n =0 ∞ a n converges to a limit L if and this definition is usually written as L = ∑ n =0 ∞ a n ⇔ L = lim k → ∞ s k. When the index set is the natural numbers I = N, a series indexed on the natural numbers is an ordered formal sum and so we rewrite ∑ n ∈ N as ∑ n =0 ∞ in order to emphasize the ordering induced by the natural numbers. Thus, we obtain the common notation for a series indexed by the natural numbers ∑ n =0 ∞ a n = a 0 + a 1 + a 2 + ⋯. When the semigroup G is also a space, then the series ∑ n =0 ∞ a n converges to an element L ∈ G if. This definition is usually written as L = ∑ n =0 ∞ a n ⇔ L = lim k → ∞ s k, a series ∑an is said to converge or to be convergent when the sequence SN of partial sums has a finite limit
3.
Subtraction
–
Subtraction is a mathematical operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection. It is signified by the minus sign, for example, in the picture on the right, there are 5 −2 apples—meaning 5 apples with 2 taken away, which is a total of 3 apples. It is anticommutative, meaning that changing the order changes the sign of the answer and it is not associative, meaning that when one subtracts more than two numbers, the order in which subtraction is performed matters. Subtraction of 0 does not change a number, subtraction also obeys predictable rules concerning related operations such as addition and multiplication. All of these rules can be proven, starting with the subtraction of integers and generalizing up through the real numbers, general binary operations that continue these patterns are studied in abstract algebra. Performing subtraction is one of the simplest numerical tasks, subtraction of very small numbers is accessible to young children. In primary education, students are taught to subtract numbers in the system, starting with single digits. Subtraction is written using the minus sign − between the terms, that is, in infix notation, the result is expressed with an equals sign. This is most common in accounting, formally, the number being subtracted is known as the subtrahend, while the number it is subtracted from is the minuend. All of this terminology derives from Latin, subtraction is an English word derived from the Latin verb subtrahere, which is in turn a compound of sub from under and trahere to pull, thus to subtract is to draw from below, take away. Using the gerundive suffix -nd results in subtrahend, thing to be subtracted, likewise from minuere to reduce or diminish, one gets minuend, thing to be diminished. Imagine a line segment of length b with the left end labeled a, starting from a, it takes b steps to the right to reach c. This movement to the right is modeled mathematically by addition, a + b = c, from c, it takes b steps to the left to get back to a. This movement to the left is modeled by subtraction, c − b = a, now, a line segment labeled with the numbers 1,2, and 3. From position 3, it takes no steps to the left to stay at 3 and it takes 2 steps to the left to get to position 1, so 3 −2 =1. This picture is inadequate to describe what would happen after going 3 steps to the left of position 3, to represent such an operation, the line must be extended. To subtract arbitrary natural numbers, one begins with a line containing every natural number, from 3, it takes 3 steps to the left to get to 0, so 3 −3 =0. But 3 −4 is still invalid since it leaves the line
4.
Multiplication
–
Multiplication is one of the four elementary, mathematical operations of arithmetic, with the others being addition, subtraction and division. Multiplication can also be visualized as counting objects arranged in a rectangle or as finding the area of a rectangle whose sides have given lengths, the area of a rectangle does not depend on which side is measured first, which illustrates the commutative property. The product of two measurements is a new type of measurement, for multiplying the lengths of the two sides of a rectangle gives its area, this is the subject of dimensional analysis. The inverse operation of multiplication is division, for example, since 4 multiplied by 3 equals 12, then 12 divided by 3 equals 4. Multiplication by 3, followed by division by 3, yields the original number, Multiplication is also defined for other types of numbers, such as complex numbers, and more abstract constructs, like matrices. For these more abstract constructs, the order that the operands are multiplied sometimes does matter, a listing of the many different kinds of products that are used in mathematics is given in the product page. In arithmetic, multiplication is often written using the sign × between the terms, that is, in infix notation, there are other mathematical notations for multiplication, Multiplication is also denoted by dot signs, usually a middle-position dot,5 ⋅2 or 5. 2 The middle dot notation, encoded in Unicode as U+22C5 ⋅ dot operator, is standard in the United States, the United Kingdom, when the dot operator character is not accessible, the interpunct is used. In other countries use a comma as a decimal mark. In algebra, multiplication involving variables is often written as a juxtaposition, the notation can also be used for quantities that are surrounded by parentheses. In matrix multiplication, there is a distinction between the cross and the dot symbols. The cross symbol generally denotes the taking a product of two vectors, yielding a vector as the result, while the dot denotes taking the dot product of two vectors, resulting in a scalar. In computer programming, the asterisk is still the most common notation and this is due to the fact that most computers historically were limited to small character sets that lacked a multiplication sign, while the asterisk appeared on every keyboard. This usage originated in the FORTRAN programming language, the numbers to be multiplied are generally called the factors. The number to be multiplied is called the multiplicand, while the number of times the multiplicand is to be multiplied comes from the multiplier. Usually the multiplier is placed first and the multiplicand is placed second, however sometimes the first factor is the multiplicand, additionally, there are some sources in which the term multiplicand is regarded as a synonym for factor. In algebra, a number that is the multiplier of a variable or expression is called a coefficient, the result of a multiplication is called a product. A product of integers is a multiple of each factor, for example,15 is the product of 3 and 5, and is both a multiple of 3 and a multiple of 5
5.
Product (mathematics)
–
In mathematics, a product is the result of multiplying, or an expression that identifies factors to be multiplied. Thus, for instance,6 is the product of 2 and 3, the order in which real or complex numbers are multiplied has no bearing on the product, this is known as the commutative law of multiplication. When matrices or members of various other associative algebras are multiplied, matrix multiplication, for example, and multiplication in other algebras is in general non-commutative. There are many different kinds of products in mathematics, besides being able to multiply just numbers, polynomials or matricies, an overview of these different kinds of products is given here. Placing several stones into a pattern with r rows and s columns gives r ⋅ s = ∑ i =1 s r = ∑ j =1 r s stones. Integers allow positive and negative numbers, the product of two quaternions can be found in the article on quaternions. However, it is interesting to note that in this case, the product operator for the product of a sequence is denoted by the capital Greek letter Pi ∏. The product of a sequence consisting of one number is just that number itself. The product of no factors at all is known as the empty product, commutative rings have a product operation. Under the Fourier transform, convolution becomes point-wise function multiplication, others have very different names but convey essentially the same idea. A brief overview of these is given here, by the very definition of a vector space, one can form the product of any scalar with any vector, giving a map R × V → V. A scalar product is a map, ⋅, V × V → R with the following conditions. From the scalar product, one can define a norm by letting ∥ v ∥, = v ⋅ v, now we consider the composition of two linear mappings between finite dimensional vector spaces. Let the linear mapping f map V to W, and let the linear mapping g map W to U, then one can get g ∘ f = g = g j k f i j v i b U k. Or in matrix form, g ∘ f = G F v, in which the i-row, j-column element of F, denoted by Fij, is fji, the composition of more than two linear mappings can be similarly represented by a chain of matrix multiplication. To see this, let r = dim, s = dim, let U = be a basis of U, V = be a basis of V and W = be a basis of W. Then B ⋅ A = M W U ∈ R s × t is the matrix representing g ∘ f, U → W, in other words, the matrix product is the description in coordinates of the composition of linear functions. For inifinite-dimensional vector spaces, one also has the, Tensor product of Hilbert spaces Topological tensor product, the tensor product, outer product and Kronecker product all convey the same general idea
6.
Division (mathematics)
–
Division is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic, the others being addition, subtraction, and multiplication. The division of two numbers is the process of calculating the number of times one number is contained within one another. For example, in the picture on the right, the 20 apples are divided into groups of five apples, Division can also be thought of as the process of evaluating a fraction, and fractional notation is commonly used to represent division. Division is the inverse of multiplication, if a × b = c, then a = c ÷ b, as long as b is not zero. Division by zero is undefined for the numbers and most other contexts, because if b =0, then a cannot be deduced from b and c. In some contexts, division by zero can be defined although to a limited extent, in division, the dividend is divided by the divisor to get a quotient. In the above example,20 is the dividend, five is the divisor, in some cases, the divisor may not be contained fully by the dividend, for example,10 ÷3 leaves a remainder of one, as 10 is not a multiple of three. Sometimes this remainder is added to the quotient as a fractional part, but in the context of integer division, where numbers have no fractional part, the remainder is kept separately or discarded. Besides dividing apples, division can be applied to other physical, Division has been defined in several contexts, such as for the real and complex numbers and for more abstract contexts such as for vector spaces and fields. Division is the most mentally difficult of the four operations of arithmetic. Teaching the objective concept of dividing integers introduces students to the arithmetic of fractions, unlike addition, subtraction, and multiplication, the set of all integers is not closed under division. Dividing two integers may result in a remainder, to complete the division of the remainder, the number system is extended to include fractions or rational numbers as they are more generally called. When students advance to algebra, the theory of division intuited from arithmetic naturally extends to algebraic division of variables, polynomials. Division is often shown in algebra and science by placing the dividend over the divisor with a line, also called a fraction bar. For example, a divided by b is written a b This can be read out loud as a divided by b, a fraction is a division expression where both dividend and divisor are integers, and there is no implication that the division must be evaluated further. A second way to show division is to use the obelus, common in arithmetic, in this manner, ISO 80000-2-9.6 states it should not be used. The obelus is also used alone to represent the operation itself. In some non-English-speaking cultures, a divided by b is written a, b and this notation was introduced in 1631 by William Oughtred in his Clavis Mathematicae and later popularized by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
7.
Exponentiation
–
Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as bn, involving two numbers, the base b and the exponent n. The exponent is usually shown as a superscript to the right of the base, Some common exponents have their own names, the exponent 2 is called the square of b or b squared, the exponent 3 is called the cube of b or b cubed. The exponent −1 of b, or 1 / b, is called the reciprocal of b, when n is a positive integer and b is not zero, b−n is naturally defined as 1/bn, preserving the property bn × bm = bn + m. The definition of exponentiation can be extended to any real or complex exponent. Exponentiation by integer exponents can also be defined for a variety of algebraic structures. The term power was used by the Greek mathematician Euclid for the square of a line, archimedes discovered and proved the law of exponents, 10a 10b = 10a+b, necessary to manipulate powers of 10. In the late 16th century, Jost Bürgi used Roman numerals for exponents, early in the 17th century, the first form of our modern exponential notation was introduced by Rene Descartes in his text titled La Géométrie, there, the notation is introduced in Book I. Nicolas Chuquet used a form of notation in the 15th century. The word exponent was coined in 1544 by Michael Stifel, samuel Jeake introduced the term indices in 1696. In the 16th century Robert Recorde used the square, cube, zenzizenzic, sursolid, zenzicube, second sursolid. Biquadrate has been used to refer to the power as well. Some mathematicians used exponents only for greater than two, preferring to represent squares as repeated multiplication. Thus they would write polynomials, for example, as ax + bxx + cx3 + d, another historical synonym, involution, is now rare and should not be confused with its more common meaning. In 1748 Leonhard Euler wrote consider exponentials or powers in which the exponent itself is a variable and it is clear that quantities of this kind are not algebraic functions, since in those the exponents must be constant. With this introduction of transcendental functions, Euler laid the foundation for the introduction of natural logarithm as the inverse function for y = ex. The expression b2 = b ⋅ b is called the square of b because the area of a square with side-length b is b2, the expression b3 = b ⋅ b ⋅ b is called the cube of b because the volume of a cube with side-length b is b3. The exponent indicates how many copies of the base are multiplied together, for example,35 =3 ⋅3 ⋅3 ⋅3 ⋅3 =243. The base 3 appears 5 times in the multiplication, because the exponent is 5
8.
Nth root
–
A root of degree 2 is called a square root and a root of degree 3, a cube root. Roots of higher degree are referred by using numbers, as in fourth root, twentieth root. For example,2 is a root of 4, since 22 =4. −2 is also a root of 4, since 2 =4. A real number or complex number has n roots of degree n. While the roots of 0 are not distinct, the n nth roots of any real or complex number are all distinct. If n is odd and x is real, one nth root is real and has the sign as x. Finally, if x is not real, then none of its nth roots is real. Roots are usually using the radical symbol or radix or √, with x or √ x denoting the square root, x 3 denoting the cube root, x 4 denoting the fourth root. In the expression x n, n is called the index, is the sign or radix. For example, −8 has three roots, −2,1 + i √3 and 1 − i √3. Out of these,1 + i √3 has the least argument,4 has two square roots,2 and −2, having arguments 0 and π respectively. So 2 is considered the root on account of having the lesser argument. An unresolved root, especially one using the symbol, is often referred to as a surd or a radical. Nth roots can also be defined for complex numbers, and the roots of 1 play an important role in higher mathematics. The origin of the root symbol √ is largely speculative, some sources imply that the symbol was first used by Arab mathematicians. One of those mathematicians was Abū al-Hasan ibn Alī al-Qalasādī, legend has it that it was taken from the Arabic letter ج, which is the first letter in the Arabic word جذر. However, many scholars, including Leonhard Euler, believe it originates from the letter r, the symbol was first seen in print without the vinculum in the year 1525 in Die Coss by Christoff Rudolff, a German mathematician
9.
Logarithm
–
In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse operation to exponentiation. That means the logarithm of a number is the exponent to which another fixed number, in simple cases the logarithm counts factors in multiplication. For example, the base 10 logarithm of 1000 is 3, the logarithm of x to base b, denoted logb, is the unique real number y such that by = x. For example, log2 =6, as 64 =26, the logarithm to base 10 is called the common logarithm and has many applications in science and engineering. The natural logarithm has the e as its base, its use is widespread in mathematics and physics. The binary logarithm uses base 2 and is used in computer science. Logarithms were introduced by John Napier in the early 17th century as a means to simplify calculations and they were rapidly adopted by navigators, scientists, engineers, and others to perform computations more easily, using slide rules and logarithm tables. The present-day notion of logarithms comes from Leonhard Euler, who connected them to the function in the 18th century. Logarithmic scales reduce wide-ranging quantities to tiny scopes, for example, the decibel is a unit quantifying signal power log-ratios and amplitude log-ratios. In chemistry, pH is a measure for the acidity of an aqueous solution. Logarithms are commonplace in scientific formulae, and in measurements of the complexity of algorithms and they describe musical intervals, appear in formulas counting prime numbers, inform some models in psychophysics, and can aid in forensic accounting. In the same way as the logarithm reverses exponentiation, the logarithm is the inverse function of the exponential function applied to complex numbers. The discrete logarithm is another variant, it has uses in public-key cryptography, the idea of logarithms is to reverse the operation of exponentiation, that is, raising a number to a power. For example, the power of 2 is 8, because 8 is the product of three factors of 2,23 =2 ×2 ×2 =8. It follows that the logarithm of 8 with respect to base 2 is 3, the third power of some number b is the product of three factors equal to b. More generally, raising b to the power, where n is a natural number, is done by multiplying n factors equal to b. The n-th power of b is written bn, so that b n = b × b × ⋯ × b ⏟ n factors, exponentiation may be extended to by, where b is a positive number and the exponent y is any real number. For example, b−1 is the reciprocal of b, that is, the logarithm of a positive real number x with respect to base b, a positive real number not equal to 1, is the exponent by which b must be raised to yield x
10.
Mathematics
–
Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope, Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof, when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry, rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclids Elements. Galileo Galilei said, The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and it is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth, carl Friedrich Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Sciences. Benjamin Peirce called mathematics the science that draws necessary conclusions, David Hilbert said of mathematics, We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules, rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise. Albert Einstein stated that as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics, Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns, in Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have many and diverse. Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a study of mathematics in its own right with Greek mathematics. Mathematics has since been extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today, the overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs. The word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω, while the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω, in Greece, the word for mathematics came to have the narrower and more technical meaning mathematical study even in Classical times
11.
Sigma
–
Sigma is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of 200. When used at the end of a word, the form is used, e. g. Ὀδυσσεύς. The shape and alphabetic position of sigma is derived from Phoenician shin
12.
Sequence
–
In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed. Like a set, it contains members, the number of elements is called the length of the sequence. Unlike a set, order matters, and exactly the elements can appear multiple times at different positions in the sequence. Formally, a sequence can be defined as a function whose domain is either the set of the numbers or the set of the first n natural numbers. The position of an element in a sequence is its rank or index and it depends on the context or of a specific convention, if the first element has index 0 or 1. For example, is a sequence of letters with the letter M first, also, the sequence, which contains the number 1 at two different positions, is a valid sequence. Sequences can be finite, as in these examples, or infinite, the empty sequence is included in most notions of sequence, but may be excluded depending on the context. A sequence can be thought of as a list of elements with a particular order, Sequences are useful in a number of mathematical disciplines for studying functions, spaces, and other mathematical structures using the convergence properties of sequences. In particular, sequences are the basis for series, which are important in differential equations, Sequences are also of interest in their own right and can be studied as patterns or puzzles, such as in the study of prime numbers. There are a number of ways to denote a sequence, some of which are useful for specific types of sequences. One way to specify a sequence is to list the elements, for example, the first four odd numbers form the sequence. This notation can be used for sequences as well. For instance, the sequence of positive odd integers can be written. Listing is most useful for sequences with a pattern that can be easily discerned from the first few elements. Other ways to denote a sequence are discussed after the examples, the prime numbers are the natural numbers bigger than 1, that have no divisors but 1 and themselves. Taking these in their natural order gives the sequence, the prime numbers are widely used in mathematics and specifically in number theory. The Fibonacci numbers are the integer sequence whose elements are the sum of the two elements. The first two elements are either 0 and 1 or 1 and 1 so that the sequence is, for a large list of examples of integer sequences, see On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences
13.
Prefix sum
–
In computer science, the prefix sum, cumulative sum, inclusive scan, or simply scan of a sequence of numbers x0, x1, x2. is a second sequence of numbers y0, y1, y2. The sums of prefixes of the sequence, y0 = x0 y1 = x0 + x1 y2 = x0 + x1+ x2. Prefix sums have also much studied in parallel algorithms, both as a test problem to be solved and as a useful primitive to be used as a subroutine in other parallel algorithms. Abstractly, a prefix sum requires only a binary associative operator ⊕, mathematically, the operation of taking prefix sums can be generalized from finite to infinite sequences, in that context, a prefix sum is known as a partial sum of a series. Prefix summation or partial summation form linear operators on the spaces of finite or infinite sequences. The corresponding suffix operations are available as scanr and scanr1. The procedural Message Passing Interface libraries provide an operation MPI_Scan for computing a scan operation between networked processing units. The C++ language has a library function partial_sum, despite its name, it takes a binary operation as one of its arguments. A prefix sum can be calculated in parallel by the following steps, compute the sums of consecutive pairs of items in which the first item of the pair has an even index, z0 = x0 + x1, z1 = x2 + x3, etc. Recursively compute the prefix sum w0, w1, w2. of the sequence z0, z1, z2. Express each term of the final sequence y0, y1, y2. as the sum of up to two terms of these sequences, y0 = x0, y1 = z0, y2 = z0 + x2, y3 = w0. After the first value, each successive number yi is either copied from a half as far through the w sequence. If the input sequence has n steps, then the recursion continues to a depth of O, asymptotically this method takes approximately two read operations and one write operation per item. When a data set may be updated dynamically, it may be stored in a Fenwick tree data structure and this structure allows both the lookup of any individual prefix sum value and the modification of any array value in logarithmic time per operation. For higher-dimensional arrays, the summed area table provides a structure based on prefix sums for computing sums of arbitrary rectangular subarrays. This can be a primitive in image convolution operations. Counting sort is a sorting algorithm that uses the prefix sum of a histogram of key frequencies to calculate the position of each key in the sorted output array. List ranking, the problem of transforming a linked list into an array that represents the sequence of items
14.
Rational number
–
In mathematics, a rational number is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction p/q of two integers, a numerator p and a non-zero denominator q. Since q may be equal to 1, every integer is a rational number, the decimal expansion of a rational number always either terminates after a finite number of digits or begins to repeat the same finite sequence of digits over and over. Moreover, any repeating or terminating decimal represents a rational number and these statements hold true not just for base 10, but also for any other integer base. A real number that is not rational is called irrational, irrational numbers include √2, π, e, and φ. The decimal expansion of an irrational number continues without repeating, since the set of rational numbers is countable, and the set of real numbers is uncountable, almost all real numbers are irrational. Rational numbers can be defined as equivalence classes of pairs of integers such that q ≠0, for the equivalence relation defined by ~ if. The rational numbers together with addition and multiplication form field which contains the integers and is contained in any field containing the integers, finite extensions of Q are called algebraic number fields, and the algebraic closure of Q is the field of algebraic numbers. In mathematical analysis, the numbers form a dense subset of the real numbers. The real numbers can be constructed from the numbers by completion, using Cauchy sequences, Dedekind cuts. The term rational in reference to the set Q refers to the fact that a number represents a ratio of two integers. In mathematics, rational is often used as a noun abbreviating rational number, the adjective rational sometimes means that the coefficients are rational numbers. However, a curve is not a curve defined over the rationals. Any integer n can be expressed as the rational number n/1, a b = c d if and only if a d = b c. Where both denominators are positive, a b < c d if and only if a d < b c. If either denominator is negative, the fractions must first be converted into equivalent forms with positive denominators, through the equations, − a − b = a b, two fractions are added as follows, a b + c d = a d + b c b d. A b − c d = a d − b c b d, the rule for multiplication is, a b ⋅ c d = a c b d. Where c ≠0, a b ÷ c d = a d b c, note that division is equivalent to multiplying by the reciprocal of the divisor fraction, a d b c = a b × d c. Additive and multiplicative inverses exist in the numbers, − = − a b = a − b and −1 = b a if a ≠0
15.
Real number
–
In mathematics, a real number is a value that represents a quantity along a line. The adjective real in this context was introduced in the 17th century by René Descartes, the real numbers include all the rational numbers, such as the integer −5 and the fraction 4/3, and all the irrational numbers, such as √2. Included within the irrationals are the numbers, such as π. Real numbers can be thought of as points on a long line called the number line or real line. Any real number can be determined by a possibly infinite decimal representation, such as that of 8.632, the real line can be thought of as a part of the complex plane, and complex numbers include real numbers. These descriptions of the numbers are not sufficiently rigorous by the modern standards of pure mathematics. All these definitions satisfy the definition and are thus equivalent. The statement that there is no subset of the reals with cardinality greater than ℵ0. Simple fractions were used by the Egyptians around 1000 BC, the Vedic Sulba Sutras in, c.600 BC, around 500 BC, the Greek mathematicians led by Pythagoras realized the need for irrational numbers, in particular the irrationality of the square root of 2. Arabic mathematicians merged the concepts of number and magnitude into a general idea of real numbers. In the 16th century, Simon Stevin created the basis for modern decimal notation, in the 17th century, Descartes introduced the term real to describe roots of a polynomial, distinguishing them from imaginary ones. In the 18th and 19th centuries, there was work on irrational and transcendental numbers. Johann Heinrich Lambert gave the first flawed proof that π cannot be rational, Adrien-Marie Legendre completed the proof, Évariste Galois developed techniques for determining whether a given equation could be solved by radicals, which gave rise to the field of Galois theory. Charles Hermite first proved that e is transcendental, and Ferdinand von Lindemann, lindemanns proof was much simplified by Weierstrass, still further by David Hilbert, and has finally been made elementary by Adolf Hurwitz and Paul Gordan. The development of calculus in the 18th century used the set of real numbers without having defined them cleanly. The first rigorous definition was given by Georg Cantor in 1871, in 1874, he showed that the set of all real numbers is uncountably infinite but the set of all algebraic numbers is countably infinite. Contrary to widely held beliefs, his first method was not his famous diagonal argument, the real number system can be defined axiomatically up to an isomorphism, which is described hereafter. Another possibility is to start from some rigorous axiomatization of Euclidean geometry, from the structuralist point of view all these constructions are on equal footing
16.
Complex number
–
A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers and i is the imaginary unit, satisfying the equation i2 = −1. In this expression, a is the part and b is the imaginary part of the complex number. If z = a + b i, then ℜ z = a, ℑ z = b, Complex numbers extend the concept of the one-dimensional number line to the two-dimensional complex plane by using the horizontal axis for the real part and the vertical axis for the imaginary part. The complex number a + bi can be identified with the point in the complex plane, a complex number whose real part is zero is said to be purely imaginary, whereas a complex number whose imaginary part is zero is a real number. In this way, the numbers are a field extension of the ordinary real numbers. As well as their use within mathematics, complex numbers have applications in many fields, including physics, chemistry, biology, economics, electrical engineering. The Italian mathematician Gerolamo Cardano is the first known to have introduced complex numbers and he called them fictitious during his attempts to find solutions to cubic equations in the 16th century. Complex numbers allow solutions to equations that have no solutions in real numbers. For example, the equation 2 = −9 has no real solution, Complex numbers provide a solution to this problem. The idea is to extend the real numbers with the unit i where i2 = −1. According to the theorem of algebra, all polynomial equations with real or complex coefficients in a single variable have a solution in complex numbers. A complex number is a number of the form a + bi, for example, −3.5 + 2i is a complex number. The real number a is called the part of the complex number a + bi. By this convention the imaginary part does not include the unit, hence b. The real part of a number z is denoted by Re or ℜ. For example, Re = −3.5 Im =2, hence, in terms of its real and imaginary parts, a complex number z is equal to Re + Im ⋅ i. This expression is known as the Cartesian form of z. A real number a can be regarded as a number a + 0i whose imaginary part is 0
17.
Vector space
–
A vector space is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied by numbers, called scalars in this context. Scalars are often taken to be numbers, but there are also vector spaces with scalar multiplication by complex numbers, rational numbers. The operations of addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements, called axioms. Euclidean vectors are an example of a vector space and they represent physical quantities such as forces, any two forces can be added to yield a third, and the multiplication of a force vector by a real multiplier is another force vector. In the same vein, but in a more geometric sense, Vector spaces are the subject of linear algebra and are well characterized by their dimension, which, roughly speaking, specifies the number of independent directions in the space. Infinite-dimensional vector spaces arise naturally in mathematical analysis, as function spaces and these vector spaces are generally endowed with additional structure, which may be a topology, allowing the consideration of issues of proximity and continuity. Among these topologies, those that are defined by a norm or inner product are commonly used. This is particularly the case of Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces, historically, the first ideas leading to vector spaces can be traced back as far as the 17th centurys analytic geometry, matrices, systems of linear equations, and Euclidean vectors. Today, vector spaces are applied throughout mathematics, science and engineering, furthermore, vector spaces furnish an abstract, coordinate-free way of dealing with geometrical and physical objects such as tensors. This in turn allows the examination of local properties of manifolds by linearization techniques, Vector spaces may be generalized in several ways, leading to more advanced notions in geometry and abstract algebra. The concept of space will first be explained by describing two particular examples, The first example of a vector space consists of arrows in a fixed plane. This is used in physics to describe forces or velocities, given any two such arrows, v and w, the parallelogram spanned by these two arrows contains one diagonal arrow that starts at the origin, too. This new arrow is called the sum of the two arrows and is denoted v + w, when a is negative, av is defined as the arrow pointing in the opposite direction, instead. Such a pair is written as, the sum of two such pairs and multiplication of a pair with a number is defined as follows, + = and a =. The first example above reduces to one if the arrows are represented by the pair of Cartesian coordinates of their end points. A vector space over a field F is a set V together with two operations that satisfy the eight axioms listed below, elements of V are commonly called vectors. Elements of F are commonly called scalars, the second operation, called scalar multiplication takes any scalar a and any vector v and gives another vector av. In this article, vectors are represented in boldface to distinguish them from scalars
18.
Matrix (mathematics)
–
In mathematics, a matrix is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns. For example, the dimensions of the matrix below are 2 ×3, the individual items in an m × n matrix A, often denoted by ai, j, where max i = m and max j = n, are called its elements or entries. Provided that they have the size, two matrices can be added or subtracted element by element. The rule for multiplication, however, is that two matrices can be multiplied only when the number of columns in the first equals the number of rows in the second. Any matrix can be multiplied element-wise by a scalar from its associated field, a major application of matrices is to represent linear transformations, that is, generalizations of linear functions such as f = 4x. The product of two matrices is a matrix that represents the composition of two linear transformations. Another application of matrices is in the solution of systems of linear equations, if the matrix is square, it is possible to deduce some of its properties by computing its determinant. For example, a matrix has an inverse if and only if its determinant is not zero. Insight into the geometry of a transformation is obtainable from the matrixs eigenvalues. Applications of matrices are found in most scientific fields, in computer graphics, they are used to manipulate 3D models and project them onto a 2-dimensional screen. Matrix calculus generalizes classical analytical notions such as derivatives and exponentials to higher dimensions, Matrices are used in economics to describe systems of economic relationships. A major branch of analysis is devoted to the development of efficient algorithms for matrix computations. Matrix decomposition methods simplify computations, both theoretically and practically, algorithms that are tailored to particular matrix structures, such as sparse matrices and near-diagonal matrices, expedite computations in finite element method and other computations. Infinite matrices occur in planetary theory and in atomic theory, a simple example of an infinite matrix is the matrix representing the derivative operator, which acts on the Taylor series of a function. A matrix is an array of numbers or other mathematical objects for which operations such as addition and multiplication are defined. Most commonly, a matrix over a field F is an array of scalars each of which is a member of F. Most of this focuses on real and complex matrices, that is, matrices whose elements are real numbers or complex numbers. More general types of entries are discussed below, for instance, this is a real matrix, A =
19.
Polynomial
–
In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of variables and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents. An example of a polynomial of a single indeterminate x is x2 − 4x +7, an example in three variables is x3 + 2xyz2 − yz +1. Polynomials appear in a variety of areas of mathematics and science. In advanced mathematics, polynomials are used to construct polynomial rings and algebraic varieties, central concepts in algebra, the word polynomial joins two diverse roots, the Greek poly, meaning many, and the Latin nomen, or name. It was derived from the binomial by replacing the Latin root bi- with the Greek poly-. The word polynomial was first used in the 17th century, the x occurring in a polynomial is commonly called either a variable or an indeterminate. When the polynomial is considered as an expression, x is a symbol which does not have any value. It is thus correct to call it an indeterminate. However, when one considers the function defined by the polynomial, then x represents the argument of the function, many authors use these two words interchangeably. It is a convention to use uppercase letters for the indeterminates. However one may use it over any domain where addition and multiplication are defined, in particular, when a is the indeterminate x, then the image of x by this function is the polynomial P itself. This equality allows writing let P be a polynomial as a shorthand for let P be a polynomial in the indeterminate x. A polynomial is an expression that can be built from constants, the word indeterminate means that x represents no particular value, although any value may be substituted for it. The mapping that associates the result of substitution to the substituted value is a function. This can be expressed concisely by using summation notation, ∑ k =0 n a k x k That is. Each term consists of the product of a number—called the coefficient of the term—and a finite number of indeterminates, because x = x1, the degree of an indeterminate without a written exponent is one. A term and a polynomial with no indeterminates are called, respectively, a constant term, the degree of a constant term and of a nonzero constant polynomial is 0. The degree of the polynomial,0, is generally treated as not defined
20.
Abelian group
–
That is, these are the groups that obey the axiom of commutativity. Abelian groups generalize the arithmetic of addition of integers and they are named after Niels Henrik Abel. The concept of a group is one of the first concepts encountered in undergraduate abstract algebra, from which many other basic concepts, such as modules. The theory of groups is generally simpler than that of their non-abelian counterparts. On the other hand, the theory of abelian groups is an area of current research. An abelian group is a set, A, together with an operation • that combines any two elements a and b to form another element denoted a • b, the symbol • is a general placeholder for a concretely given operation. Identity element There exists an element e in A, such that for all elements a in A, the equation e • a = a • e = a holds. Inverse element For each a in A, there exists an element b in A such that a • b = b • a = e, commutativity For all a, b in A, a • b = b • a. A group in which the operation is not commutative is called a non-abelian group or non-commutative group. There are two main conventions for abelian groups – additive and multiplicative. Generally, the notation is the usual notation for groups, while the additive notation is the usual notation for modules. To verify that a group is abelian, a table – known as a Cayley table – can be constructed in a similar fashion to a multiplication table. If the group is G = under the operation ⋅, the th entry of this contains the product gi ⋅ gj. The group is abelian if and only if this table is symmetric about the main diagonal and this is true since if the group is abelian, then gi ⋅ gj = gj ⋅ gi. This implies that the th entry of the table equals the th entry, every cyclic group G is abelian, because if x, y are in G, then xy = aman = am + n = an + m = anam = yx. Thus the integers, Z, form a group under addition, as do the integers modulo n. Every ring is a group with respect to its addition operation. In a commutative ring the invertible elements, or units, form an abelian multiplicative group, in particular, the real numbers are an abelian group under addition, and the nonzero real numbers are an abelian group under multiplication
21.
Monoid
–
In abstract algebra, a branch of mathematics, a monoid is an algebraic structure with a single associative binary operation and an identity element. Monoids are studied in semigroup theory as they are semigroups with identity, monoids occur in several branches of mathematics, for instance, they can be regarded as categories with a single object. Thus, they capture the idea of composition within a set. In fact, all functions from a set into itself form naturally a monoid with respect to function composition, monoids are also commonly used in computer science, both in its foundational aspects and in practical programming. The set of strings built from a set of characters is a free monoid. The transition monoid and syntactic monoid are used in describing finite state machines, whereas trace monoids and history provide a foundation for process calculi. Some of the more important results in the study of monoids are the Krohn–Rhodes theorem, the history of monoids, as well as a discussion of additional general properties, are found in the article on semigroups. Identity element There exists an element e in S such that for every element a in S, in other words, a monoid is a semigroup with an identity element. It can also be thought of as a magma with associativity and identity, the identity element of a monoid is unique. A monoid in which each element has an inverse is a group. Depending on the context, the symbol for the operation may be omitted, so that the operation is denoted by juxtaposition, for example. This notation does not imply that it is numbers being multiplied, N is thus a monoid under the binary operation inherited from M. If there is a generator of M that has finite cardinality, not every set S will generate a monoid, as the generated structure may lack an identity element. A monoid whose operation is commutative is called a commutative monoid, commutative monoids are often written additively. Any commutative monoid is endowed with its algebraic preordering ≤, defined by x ≤ y if there exists z such that x + z = y. An order-unit of a commutative monoid M is an element u of M such that for any element x of M, there exists a positive integer n such that x ≤ nu. This is often used in case M is the cone of a partially ordered abelian group G. A monoid for which the operation is commutative for some, but not all elements is a trace monoid, trace monoids commonly occur in the theory of concurrent computation
22.
Limit (mathematics)
–
In mathematics, a limit is the value that a function or sequence approaches as the input or index approaches some value. Limits are essential to calculus and are used to define continuity, derivatives, the concept of a limit of a sequence is further generalized to the concept of a limit of a topological net, and is closely related to limit and direct limit in category theory. In formulas, a limit is usually written as lim n → c f = L and is read as the limit of f of n as n approaches c equals L. Here lim indicates limit, and the fact that function f approaches the limit L as n approaches c is represented by the right arrow, suppose f is a real-valued function and c is a real number. Intuitively speaking, the lim x → c f = L means that f can be made to be as close to L as desired by making x sufficiently close to c. The first inequality means that the distance x and c is greater than 0 and that x ≠ c, while the second indicates that x is within distance δ of c. Note that the definition of a limit is true even if f ≠ L. Indeed. Now since x +1 is continuous in x at 1, we can now plug in 1 for x, in addition to limits at finite values, functions can also have limits at infinity. In this case, the limit of f as x approaches infinity is 2, in mathematical notation, lim x → ∞2 x −1 x =2. Consider the following sequence,1.79,1.799,1.7999 and it can be observed that the numbers are approaching 1.8, the limit of the sequence. Formally, suppose a1, a2. is a sequence of real numbers, intuitively, this means that eventually all elements of the sequence get arbitrarily close to the limit, since the absolute value | an − L | is the distance between an and L. Not every sequence has a limit, if it does, it is called convergent, one can show that a convergent sequence has only one limit. The limit of a sequence and the limit of a function are closely related, on one hand, the limit as n goes to infinity of a sequence a is simply the limit at infinity of a function defined on the natural numbers n. On the other hand, a limit L of a function f as x goes to infinity, if it exists, is the same as the limit of any sequence a that approaches L. Note that one such sequence would be L + 1/n, in non-standard analysis, the limit of a sequence can be expressed as the standard part of the value a H of the natural extension of the sequence at an infinite hypernatural index n=H. Thus, lim n → ∞ a n = st , here the standard part function st rounds off each finite hyperreal number to the nearest real number. This formalizes the intuition that for very large values of the index. Conversely, the part of a hyperreal a = represented in the ultrapower construction by a Cauchy sequence, is simply the limit of that sequence
23.
Integral
–
In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data. Integration is one of the two operations of calculus, with its inverse, differentiation, being the other. The area above the x-axis adds to the total and that below the x-axis subtracts from the total, roughly speaking, the operation of integration is the reverse of differentiation. For this reason, the integral may also refer to the related notion of the antiderivative. In this case, it is called an integral and is written. The integrals discussed in this article are those termed definite integrals, a rigorous mathematical definition of the integral was given by Bernhard Riemann. It is based on a procedure which approximates the area of a curvilinear region by breaking the region into thin vertical slabs. A line integral is defined for functions of two or three variables, and the interval of integration is replaced by a curve connecting two points on the plane or in the space. In a surface integral, the curve is replaced by a piece of a surface in the three-dimensional space and this method was further developed and employed by Archimedes in the 3rd century BC and used to calculate areas for parabolas and an approximation to the area of a circle. A similar method was developed in China around the 3rd century AD by Liu Hui. This method was used in the 5th century by Chinese father-and-son mathematicians Zu Chongzhi. The next significant advances in integral calculus did not begin to appear until the 17th century, further steps were made in the early 17th century by Barrow and Torricelli, who provided the first hints of a connection between integration and differentiation. Barrow provided the first proof of the theorem of calculus. Wallis generalized Cavalieris method, computing integrals of x to a power, including negative powers. The major advance in integration came in the 17th century with the independent discovery of the theorem of calculus by Newton. The theorem demonstrates a connection between integration and differentiation and this connection, combined with the comparative ease of differentiation, can be exploited to calculate integrals. In particular, the theorem of calculus allows one to solve a much broader class of problems. Equal in importance is the mathematical framework that both Newton and Leibniz developed
24.
Associative property
–
In mathematics, the associative property is a property of some binary operations. In propositional logic, associativity is a rule of replacement for expressions in logical proofs. That is, rearranging the parentheses in such an expression will not change its value, consider the following equations, +4 =2 + =92 × = ×4 =24. Even though the parentheses were rearranged on each line, the values of the expressions were not altered, since this holds true when performing addition and multiplication on any real numbers, it can be said that addition and multiplication of real numbers are associative operations. Associativity is not to be confused with commutativity, which addresses whether or not the order of two operands changes the result. For example, the order doesnt matter in the multiplication of numbers, that is. Associative operations are abundant in mathematics, in fact, many algebraic structures explicitly require their binary operations to be associative, however, many important and interesting operations are non-associative, some examples include subtraction, exponentiation and the vector cross product. Z = x = xyz for all x, y, z in S, the associative law can also be expressed in functional notation thus, f = f. If a binary operation is associative, repeated application of the produces the same result regardless how valid pairs of parenthesis are inserted in the expression. This is called the generalized associative law, thus the product can be written unambiguously as abcd. As the number of elements increases, the number of ways to insert parentheses grows quickly. Some examples of associative operations include the following, the two methods produce the same result, string concatenation is associative. In arithmetic, addition and multiplication of numbers are associative, i. e. + z = x + = x + y + z z = x = x y z } for all x, y, z ∈ R. x, y, z\in \mathbb. }Because of associativity. Addition and multiplication of numbers and quaternions are associative. Addition of octonions is also associative, but multiplication of octonions is non-associative, the greatest common divisor and least common multiple functions act associatively. Gcd = gcd = gcd lcm = lcm = lcm } for all x, y, z ∈ Z. x, y, z\in \mathbb. }Taking the intersection or the union of sets, ∩ C = A ∩ = A ∩ B ∩ C ∪ C = A ∪ = A ∪ B ∪ C } for all sets A, B, C. Slightly more generally, given four sets M, N, P and Q, with h, M to N, g, N to P, in short, composition of maps is always associative. Consider a set with three elements, A, B, and C, thus, for example, A=C = A
25.
Commutative property
–
In mathematics, a binary operation is commutative if changing the order of the operands does not change the result. It is a property of many binary operations, and many mathematical proofs depend on it. Most familiar as the name of the property that says 3 +4 =4 +3 or 2 ×5 =5 ×2, the property can also be used in more advanced settings. The name is needed there are operations, such as division and subtraction. The commutative property is a property associated with binary operations and functions. If the commutative property holds for a pair of elements under a binary operation then the two elements are said to commute under that operation. The term commutative is used in several related senses, putting on socks resembles a commutative operation since which sock is put on first is unimportant. Either way, the result, is the same, in contrast, putting on underwear and trousers is not commutative. The commutativity of addition is observed when paying for an item with cash, regardless of the order the bills are handed over in, they always give the same total. The multiplication of numbers is commutative, since y z = z y for all y, z ∈ R For example,3 ×5 =5 ×3. Some binary truth functions are also commutative, since the tables for the functions are the same when one changes the order of the operands. For example, the logical biconditional function p ↔ q is equivalent to q ↔ p and this function is also written as p IFF q, or as p ≡ q, or as Epq. Further examples of binary operations include addition and multiplication of complex numbers, addition and scalar multiplication of vectors. Concatenation, the act of joining character strings together, is a noncommutative operation, rotating a book 90° around a vertical axis then 90° around a horizontal axis produces a different orientation than when the rotations are performed in the opposite order. The twists of the Rubiks Cube are noncommutative and this can be studied using group theory. Some non-commutative binary operations, Records of the use of the commutative property go back to ancient times. The Egyptians used the property of multiplication to simplify computing products. Euclid is known to have assumed the property of multiplication in his book Elements
26.
Permutation
–
These differ from combinations, which are selections of some members of a set where order is disregarded. For example, written as tuples, there are six permutations of the set, namely and these are all the possible orderings of this three element set. As another example, an anagram of a word, all of whose letters are different, is a permutation of its letters, in this example, the letters are already ordered in the original word and the anagram is a reordering of the letters. The study of permutations of finite sets is a topic in the field of combinatorics, Permutations occur, in more or less prominent ways, in almost every area of mathematics. For similar reasons permutations arise in the study of sorting algorithms in computer science, the number of permutations of n distinct objects is n factorial, usually written as n. which means the product of all positive integers less than or equal to n. In algebra and particularly in group theory, a permutation of a set S is defined as a bijection from S to itself and that is, it is a function from S to S for which every element occurs exactly once as an image value. This is related to the rearrangement of the elements of S in which each element s is replaced by the corresponding f, the collection of such permutations form a group called the symmetric group of S. The key to this structure is the fact that the composition of two permutations results in another rearrangement. Permutations may act on structured objects by rearranging their components, or by certain replacements of symbols, in elementary combinatorics, the k-permutations, or partial permutations, are the ordered arrangements of k distinct elements selected from a set. When k is equal to the size of the set, these are the permutations of the set, fabian Stedman in 1677 described factorials when explaining the number of permutations of bells in change ringing. Starting from two bells, first, two must be admitted to be varied in two ways which he illustrates by showing 12 and 21 and he then explains that with three bells there are three times two figures to be produced out of three which again is illustrated. His explanation involves cast away 3, and 1.2 will remain, cast away 2, and 1.3 will remain, cast away 1, and 2.3 will remain. He then moves on to four bells and repeats the casting away argument showing that there will be four different sets of three, effectively this is an recursive process. He continues with five bells using the casting method and tabulates the resulting 120 combinations. At this point he gives up and remarks, Now the nature of these methods is such, in modern mathematics there are many similar situations in which understanding a problem requires studying certain permutations related to it. There are two equivalent common ways of regarding permutations, sometimes called the active and passive forms, or in older terminology substitutions and permutations, which form is preferable depends on the type of questions being asked in a given discipline. The active way to regard permutations of a set S is to them as the bijections from S to itself. Thus, the permutations are thought of as functions which can be composed with each other, forming groups of permutations
27.
Mathematical induction
–
Mathematical induction is a mathematical proof technique used to prove a given statement about any well-ordered set. Most commonly, it is used to establish statements for the set of all natural numbers, mathematical induction is a form of direct proof, usually done in two steps. When trying to prove a statement for a set of natural numbers. The second step, known as the step, is to prove that, if the statement is assumed to be true for any one natural number. Having proved these two steps, the rule of inference establishes the statement to be true for all natural numbers, in common terminology, using the stated approach is referred to as using the Principle of mathematical induction. Mathematical induction in this sense is closely related to recursion. Mathematical induction, in form, is the foundation of all correctness proofs for computer programs. Although its name may suggest otherwise, mathematical induction should not be misconstrued as a form of inductive reasoning, mathematical induction is an inference rule used in proofs. In mathematics, proofs including those using mathematical induction are examples of deductive reasoning, in 370 BC, Platos Parmenides may have contained an early example of an implicit inductive proof. The earliest implicit traces of mathematical induction may be found in Euclids proof that the number of primes is infinite, none of these ancient mathematicians, however, explicitly stated the inductive hypothesis. Another similar case was that of Francesco Maurolico in his Arithmeticorum libri duo, the first explicit formulation of the principle of induction was given by Pascal in his Traité du triangle arithmétique. Another Frenchman, Fermat, made use of a related principle. The inductive hypothesis was also employed by the Swiss Jakob Bernoulli, the modern rigorous and systematic treatment of the principle came only in the 19th century, with George Boole, Augustus de Morgan, Charles Sanders Peirce, Giuseppe Peano, and Richard Dedekind. The simplest and most common form of mathematical induction infers that a statement involving a number n holds for all values of n. The proof consists of two steps, The basis, prove that the statement holds for the first natural number n, usually, n =0 or n =1, rarely, n = –1. The inductive step, prove that, if the statement holds for some number n. The hypothesis in the step that the statement holds for some n is called the induction hypothesis. To perform the step, one assumes the induction hypothesis
28.
Natural number
–
In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting and ordering. In common language, words used for counting are cardinal numbers, texts that exclude zero from the natural numbers sometimes refer to the natural numbers together with zero as the whole numbers, but in other writings, that term is used instead for the integers. These chains of extensions make the natural numbers canonically embedded in the number systems. Properties of the numbers, such as divisibility and the distribution of prime numbers, are studied in number theory. Problems concerning counting and ordering, such as partitioning and enumerations, are studied in combinatorics, the most primitive method of representing a natural number is to put down a mark for each object. Later, a set of objects could be tested for equality, excess or shortage, by striking out a mark, the first major advance in abstraction was the use of numerals to represent numbers. This allowed systems to be developed for recording large numbers, the ancient Egyptians developed a powerful system of numerals with distinct hieroglyphs for 1,10, and all the powers of 10 up to over 1 million. A stone carving from Karnak, dating from around 1500 BC and now at the Louvre in Paris, depicts 276 as 2 hundreds,7 tens, and 6 ones, and similarly for the number 4,622. A much later advance was the development of the idea that 0 can be considered as a number, with its own numeral. The use of a 0 digit in place-value notation dates back as early as 700 BC by the Babylonians, the Olmec and Maya civilizations used 0 as a separate number as early as the 1st century BC, but this usage did not spread beyond Mesoamerica. The use of a numeral 0 in modern times originated with the Indian mathematician Brahmagupta in 628, the first systematic study of numbers as abstractions is usually credited to the Greek philosophers Pythagoras and Archimedes. Some Greek mathematicians treated the number 1 differently than larger numbers, independent studies also occurred at around the same time in India, China, and Mesoamerica. In 19th century Europe, there was mathematical and philosophical discussion about the nature of the natural numbers. A school of Naturalism stated that the numbers were a direct consequence of the human psyche. Henri Poincaré was one of its advocates, as was Leopold Kronecker who summarized God made the integers, in opposition to the Naturalists, the constructivists saw a need to improve the logical rigor in the foundations of mathematics. In the 1860s, Hermann Grassmann suggested a recursive definition for natural numbers thus stating they were not really natural, later, two classes of such formal definitions were constructed, later, they were shown to be equivalent in most practical applications. The second class of definitions was introduced by Giuseppe Peano and is now called Peano arithmetic and it is based on an axiomatization of the properties of ordinal numbers, each natural number has a successor and every non-zero natural number has a unique predecessor. Peano arithmetic is equiconsistent with several systems of set theory
29.
Image (mathematics)
–
In mathematics, an image is the subset of a functions codomain which is the output of the function from a subset of its domain. Evaluating a function at each element of a subset X of the domain, the inverse image or preimage of a particular subset S of the codomain of a function is the set of all elements of the domain that map to the members of S. Image and inverse image may also be defined for binary relations. The word image is used in three related ways, in these definitions, f, X → Y is a function from the set X to the set Y. If x is a member of X, then f = y is the image of x under f, Y is alternatively known as the output of f for argument x. The image of a subset A ⊆ X under f is the subset f ⊆ Y defined by, f = When there is no risk of confusion and this convention is a common one, the intended meaning must be inferred from the context. This makes the image of f a function whose domain is the set of X. The image f of the entire domain X of f is called simply the image of f, let f be a function from X to Y. The set of all the fibers over the elements of Y is a family of sets indexed by Y, for example, for the function f = x2, the inverse image of would be. Again, if there is no risk of confusion, we may denote f −1 by f −1, the notation f −1 should not be confused with that for inverse function. The notation coincides with the one, though, for bijections. The traditional notations used in the section can be confusing. {\displaystyle f=\left\ The image of the set under f is f =, the image of the function f is. The preimage of a is f −1 =, the preimage of is the empty set. F, R → R defined by f = x2, the image of under f is f =, and the image of f is R+. The preimage of f is f −1 =. The preimage of set N = under f is the empty set, F, R2 → R defined by f = x2 + y2. The fibres f −1 are concentric circles about the origin, the origin itself, and the empty set, depending on whether a >0, a =0, or a <0, respectively
30.
Kirchhoff's circuit laws
–
See also Kirchhoffs laws for other laws named after Gustav Kirchhoff. Kirchhoffs circuit laws are two equalities that deal with the current and potential difference in the lumped element model of electrical circuits and they were first described in 1845 by German physicist Gustav Kirchhoff. This generalized the work of Georg Ohm and preceded the work of Maxwell, widely used in electrical engineering, they are also called Kirchhoffs rules or simply Kirchhoffs laws. Both of Kirchhoffs laws can be understood as corollaries of the Maxwell equations in the low-frequency limit and they are accurate for DC circuits, and for AC circuits at frequencies where the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation are very large compared to the circuits. This law is also called Kirchhoffs first law, Kirchhoffs point rule, or Kirchhoffs junction rule. This formula is valid for complex currents, ∑ k =1 n I ~ k =0 The law is based on the conservation of charge whereby the charge is the product of the current and the time. A matrix version of Kirchhoffs current law is the basis of most circuit simulation software, Kirchhoffs current law combined with Ohms Law is used in nodal analysis. KCL is applicable to any lumped network irrespective of the nature of the network, whether unilateral or bilateral, active or passive and this law is also called Kirchhoffs second law, Kirchhoffs loop rule, and Kirchhoffs second rule. Similarly to KCL, it can be stated as, ∑ k =1 n V k =0 Here, n is the total number of voltages measured. The voltages may also be complex, ∑ k =1 n V ~ k =0 This law is based on the conservation of energy whereby voltage is defined as the energy per unit charge. The total amount of energy gained per unit charge must be equal to the amount of energy lost per unit charge, as energy, in the low-frequency limit, the voltage drop around any loop is zero. This includes imaginary loops arranged arbitrarily in space – not limited to the loops delineated by the circuit elements, in the low-frequency limit, this is a corollary of Faradays law of induction. This has practical application in situations involving static electricity, KCL and KVL both depend on the lumped element model being applicable to the circuit in question. When the model is not applicable, the laws do not apply, KCL, in its usual form, is dependent on the assumption that current flows only in conductors, and that whenever current flows into one end of a conductor it immediately flows out the other end. This is not an assumption for high-frequency AC circuits, where the lumped element model is no longer applicable. It is often possible to improve the applicability of KCL by considering parasitic capacitances distributed along the conductors, significant violations of KCL can occur even at 60 Hz, which is not a very high frequency. In other words, KCL is valid if the total electric charge, Q. In practical cases this is always so when KCL is applied at a geometric point, when investigating a finite region, however, it is possible that the charge density within the region may change
31.
Pi (letter)
–
Pi is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet, representing. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 80 and it was derived from the Phoenician letter Pe. Letters that arose from pi include Cyrillic Pe, Coptic pi, the upper-case letter Π is used as a symbol for, The product operator in mathematics, indicated with capital pi notation ∏. In textual criticism, Codex Petropolitanus, a 9th-century, uncial codex of the Gospels, now located in St. Petersburg, in legal shorthand, it represents a plaintiff. The letter π is the first letter of the Greek words περιφέρεια periphery and περίμετρος perimeter, dimensionless parameters constructed using the Buckingham π theorem of dimensional analysis. The hadron called the pi meson or pion, a type of chemical bond in which the P-orbitals overlap, called a pi bond. The natural projection on the tangent bundle on a manifold, the unary operation of projection in relational algebra. In reinforcement learning π denotes policy, an early form of pi was, appearing almost like a gamma with a hook. In the book Lalphabet grec, T. H. de Mortain speculates that letter П is a gate, allegedly, the Greeks wanted to represent the shape of the entrance to civilization, such as the gate of the lions in Mycenae. This hypothesis is not shared by any authority in the field and has no other attestation. It is used as a symbol for, Angular frequency of a wave, longitude of pericenter, in celestial mechanics. Mean Fitness of a population in Biology, Greek / Coptic Pi Mathematical Pi These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup, П, п - Pe Р, р - Er P, p - Pe Greek letters used in mathematics, science, and engineering#Ππ Pilcrow - an unrelated but similar looking glyph
32.
0 (number)
–
0 is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals. The number 0 fulfills a role in mathematics as the additive identity of the integers, real numbers. As a digit,0 is used as a placeholder in place value systems, names for the number 0 in English include zero, nought or naught, nil, or—in contexts where at least one adjacent digit distinguishes it from the letter O—oh or o. Informal or slang terms for zero include zilch and zip, ought and aught, as well as cipher, have also been used historically. The word zero came into the English language via French zéro from Italian zero, in pre-Islamic time the word ṣifr had the meaning empty. Sifr evolved to mean zero when it was used to translate śūnya from India, the first known English use of zero was in 1598. The Italian mathematician Fibonacci, who grew up in North Africa and is credited with introducing the system to Europe. This became zefiro in Italian, and was contracted to zero in Venetian. The Italian word zefiro was already in existence and may have influenced the spelling when transcribing Arabic ṣifr, modern usage There are different words used for the number or concept of zero depending on the context. For the simple notion of lacking, the words nothing and none are often used, sometimes the words nought, naught and aught are used. Several sports have specific words for zero, such as nil in football, love in tennis and it is often called oh in the context of telephone numbers. Slang words for zero include zip, zilch, nada, duck egg and goose egg are also slang for zero. Ancient Egyptian numerals were base 10 and they used hieroglyphs for the digits and were not positional. By 1740 BC, the Egyptians had a symbol for zero in accounting texts. The symbol nfr, meaning beautiful, was used to indicate the base level in drawings of tombs and pyramids. By the middle of the 2nd millennium BC, the Babylonian mathematics had a sophisticated sexagesimal positional numeral system, the lack of a positional value was indicated by a space between sexagesimal numerals. By 300 BC, a symbol was co-opted as a placeholder in the same Babylonian system. In a tablet unearthed at Kish, the scribe Bêl-bân-aplu wrote his zeros with three hooks, rather than two slanted wedges, the Babylonian placeholder was not a true zero because it was not used alone
33.
Measure (mathematics)
–
In mathematical analysis, a measure on a set is a systematic way to assign a number to each suitable subset of that set, intuitively interpreted as its size. In this sense, a measure is a generalization of the concepts of length, area, for instance, the Lebesgue measure of the interval in the real numbers is its length in the everyday sense of the word – specifically,1. Technically, a measure is a function that assigns a real number or +∞ to subsets of a set X. It must further be countably additive, the measure of a subset that can be decomposed into a finite number of smaller disjoint subsets, is the sum of the measures of the smaller subsets. In general, if one wants to associate a consistent size to each subset of a set while satisfying the other axioms of a measure. This problem was resolved by defining measure only on a sub-collection of all subsets, the so-called measurable subsets and this means that countable unions, countable intersections and complements of measurable subsets are measurable. Non-measurable sets in a Euclidean space, on which the Lebesgue measure cannot be defined consistently, are complicated in the sense of being badly mixed up with their complement. Indeed, their existence is a consequence of the axiom of choice. Measure theory was developed in stages during the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Émile Borel, Henri Lebesgue, Johann Radon. The main applications of measures are in the foundations of the Lebesgue integral, in Andrey Kolmogorovs axiomatisation of probability theory, probability theory considers measures that assign to the whole set the size 1, and considers measurable subsets to be events whose probability is given by the measure. Ergodic theory considers measures that are invariant under, or arise naturally from, let X be a set and Σ a σ-algebra over X. A function μ from Σ to the real number line is called a measure if it satisfies the following properties, Non-negativity. Countable additivity, For all countable collections i =1 ∞ of pairwise disjoint sets in Σ, μ = ∑ k =1 ∞ μ One may require that at least one set E has finite measure. Then the empty set automatically has measure zero because of countable additivity, because μ = μ = μ + μ + μ + …, which implies that μ =0. If only the second and third conditions of the definition of measure above are met, the pair is called a measurable space, the members of Σ are called measurable sets. If and are two spaces, then a function f, X → Y is called measurable if for every Y-measurable set B ∈ Σ Y. See also Measurable function#Caveat about another setup, a triple is called a measure space. A probability measure is a measure with total measure one – i. e, a probability space is a measure space with a probability measure
34.
Integer
–
An integer is a number that can be written without a fractional component. For example,21,4,0, and −2048 are integers, while 9.75, 5 1⁄2, the set of integers consists of zero, the positive natural numbers, also called whole numbers or counting numbers, and their additive inverses. This is often denoted by a boldface Z or blackboard bold Z standing for the German word Zahlen, ℤ is a subset of the sets of rational and real numbers and, like the natural numbers, is countably infinite. The integers form the smallest group and the smallest ring containing the natural numbers, in algebraic number theory, the integers are sometimes called rational integers to distinguish them from the more general algebraic integers. In fact, the integers are the integers that are also rational numbers. Like the natural numbers, Z is closed under the operations of addition and multiplication, that is, however, with the inclusion of the negative natural numbers, and, importantly,0, Z is also closed under subtraction. The integers form a ring which is the most basic one, in the following sense, for any unital ring. This universal property, namely to be an object in the category of rings. Z is not closed under division, since the quotient of two integers, need not be an integer, although the natural numbers are closed under exponentiation, the integers are not. The following lists some of the properties of addition and multiplication for any integers a, b and c. In the language of algebra, the first five properties listed above for addition say that Z under addition is an abelian group. As a group under addition, Z is a cyclic group, in fact, Z under addition is the only infinite cyclic group, in the sense that any infinite cyclic group is isomorphic to Z. The first four properties listed above for multiplication say that Z under multiplication is a commutative monoid. However, not every integer has an inverse, e. g. there is no integer x such that 2x =1, because the left hand side is even. This means that Z under multiplication is not a group, all the rules from the above property table, except for the last, taken together say that Z together with addition and multiplication is a commutative ring with unity. It is the prototype of all objects of algebraic structure. Only those equalities of expressions are true in Z for all values of variables, note that certain non-zero integers map to zero in certain rings. The lack of zero-divisors in the means that the commutative ring Z is an integral domain
35.
Monotonic function
–
In mathematics, a monotonic function is a function between ordered sets that preserves or reverses the given order. This concept first arose in calculus, and was generalized to the more abstract setting of order theory. In calculus, a function f defined on a subset of the numbers with real values is called monotonic if. That is, as per Fig.1, a function that increases monotonically does not exclusively have to increase, a function is called monotonically increasing, if for all x and y such that x ≤ y one has f ≤ f, so f preserves the order. Likewise, a function is called monotonically decreasing if, whenever x ≤ y, then f ≥ f, if the order ≤ in the definition of monotonicity is replaced by the strict order <, then one obtains a stronger requirement. A function with this property is called strictly increasing, again, by inverting the order symbol, one finds a corresponding concept called strictly decreasing. The terms non-decreasing and non-increasing should not be confused with the negative qualifications not decreasing, for example, the function of figure 3 first falls, then rises, then falls again. It is therefore not decreasing and not increasing, but it is neither non-decreasing nor non-increasing, the term monotonic transformation can also possibly cause some confusion because it refers to a transformation by a strictly increasing function. Notably, this is the case in economics with respect to the properties of a utility function being preserved across a monotonic transform. A function f is said to be absolutely monotonic over an interval if the derivatives of all orders of f are nonnegative or all nonpositive at all points on the interval, F can only have jump discontinuities, f can only have countably many discontinuities in its domain. The discontinuities, however, do not necessarily consist of isolated points and these properties are the reason why monotonic functions are useful in technical work in analysis. In addition, this result cannot be improved to countable, see Cantor function, if f is a monotonic function defined on an interval, then f is Riemann integrable. An important application of functions is in probability theory. If X is a variable, its cumulative distribution function F X = Prob is a monotonically increasing function. A function is unimodal if it is monotonically increasing up to some point, when f is a strictly monotonic function, then f is injective on its domain, and if T is the range of f, then there is an inverse function on T for f. A map f, X → Y is said to be if each of its fibers is connected i. e. for each element y in Y the set f−1 is connected. A subset G of X × X∗ is said to be a set if for every pair. G is said to be monotone if it is maximal among all monotone sets in the sense of set inclusion
36.
Riemann integral
–
In the branch of mathematics known as real analysis, the Riemann integral, created by Bernhard Riemann, was the first rigorous definition of the integral of a function on an interval. For many functions and practical applications, the Riemann integral can be evaluated by the theorem of calculus or approximated by numerical integration. The Riemann integral is unsuitable for many theoretical purposes, some of the technical deficiencies in Riemann integration can be remedied with the Riemann–Stieltjes integral, and most disappear with the Lebesgue integral. Let f be a nonnegative real-valued function on the interval, and let S = be the region of the plane under the graph of the function f and we are interested in measuring the area of S. Once we have measured it, we denote the area by. The basic idea of the Riemann integral is to use very simple approximations for the area of S, by taking better and better approximations, we can say that in the limit we get exactly the area of S under the curve. A partition of an interval is a sequence of numbers of the form a = x 0 < x 1 < x 2 < ⋯ < x n = b Each is called a subinterval of the partition. The mesh or norm of a partition is defined to be the length of the longest subinterval, a tagged partition P of an interval is a partition together with a finite sequence of numbers t0. Tn −1 subject to the conditions that for each i, in other words, it is a partition together with a distinguished point of every subinterval. The mesh of a partition is the same as that of an ordinary partition. Suppose that two partitions P and Q are both partitions of the interval. We say that Q is a refinement of P if for each i, with i ∈, there exists an integer r such that xi = yr and such that ti = sj for some j with j ∈ [r. Said more simply, a refinement of a tagged partition breaks up some of the subintervals and adds tags to the partition where necessary, thus it refines the accuracy of the partition. We can define a partial order on the set of all tagged partitions by saying that one tagged partition is greater or equal to if the former is a refinement of the latter. Let f be a function defined on the interval. The Riemann sum of f with respect to the tagged partition x0, tn −1 is ∑ i =0 n −1 f. Each term in the sum is the product of the value of the function at a given point, consequently, each term represents the area of a rectangle with height f and width xi +1 − xi. The Riemann sum is the area of all the rectangles, a closely related concept are the lower and upper Darboux sums
37.
Riemann sum
–
Specifically, the interval over which the function is to be integrated is divided into N equal subintervals of length h = / N. The rectangles are then drawn so that either their left or right corners, or the middle of their top line lies on the graph of the function, the formula for x n above gives x n for the Top-left corner approximation. As N gets larger, this gets more accurate. Note that this is regardless of which i ′ is used. For a function f which is differentiable, the approximation error in each section of the midpoint rule decays as the cube of the width of the rectangle. E i ≤ Δ324 f ″ for some ξ in, midpoint method for solving ordinary differential equations Trapezoidal rule Simpsons rule