Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1931 film)
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is a 1931 American pre-Code horror film, directed by Rouben Mamoulian and starring Fredric March, who plays a possessed doctor who tests his new formula that can unleash people's inner demons; the film is an adaptation of The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, the 1886 Robert Louis Stevenson tale of a man who takes a potion which turns him from a mild-mannered man of science into a homicidal maniac. March's performance has been much lauded, earned him his first Academy Award. Dr. Henry Jekyll, a kind English doctor in Victorian London, is certain that within each man lurks impulses for both good and evil, he is in love with his fiancée Muriel Carew and wants to marry her immediately. But her father, Brigadier General Sir Danvers Carew, orders them to wait. One night, while walking home with his colleague, Dr. John Lanyon, Jekyll spots a bar singer, Ivy Pierson, being attacked by a man outside her boarding house. Jekyll carries Ivy up to her room to attend to her. Ivy tries to seduce Jekyll but, though he is tempted, he leaves with Lanyon.
When Sir Danvers takes Muriel to Bath, Jekyll begins to experiment with drugs that he believes will unleash his evil side. After imbibing a concoction of these drugs, he transforms into Edward Hyde—an impulsive, amoral man who indulges his every desire. Hyde finds Ivy in the music hall, he offers to financially support her in return for her company. They stay at her boarding house where psychologically manipulates her; when Hyde reads in the paper that Sir Danvers and Muriel are planning to return to London, Hyde leaves Ivy but threatens her that he'll return when she least expects it. Overcome with guilt, Jekyll sends £50 to Ivy. On the advice of her landlady, Ivy goes to see Dr. Jekyll and recognizes him as the man who saved her from abuse that night, she tearfully tells him about her situation with Hyde, Jekyll reassures her that she will never see Hyde again. But the next night, while walking to a party at Muriel's where the wedding date is to be announced, Jekyll spontaneously changes into Hyde.
Rather than attend the party, Hyde goes to Ivy's room and murders her. Hyde is refused admission by the butler. Desperate, Hyde writes a letter to Lanyon instructing him to take certain chemicals from Jekyll's laboratory and take them home; when Hyde arrives, Lanyon demands that Hyde take him to Jekyll. With no other choice, Hyde drinks the formula and changes back into Jekyll before a shocked Lanyon. Aware that he cannot control the transformations, Jekyll goes to the Carew home and breaks off the engagement. After he leaves, he watches Muriel cry; this triggers another transformation and, as Hyde, he enters the house and assaults Muriel. Sir Danvers tries to stop him, but Hyde beats him to death with Jekyll's walking stick flees back to Jekyll's laboratory where he takes the formula again and reverts to Jekyll. Lanyon takes the police to Jekyll's home. Jekyll tells them that Hyde has left, Lanyon insists that Jekyll and Hyde are one and the same; the stress causes another transformation into Hyde and, after a fierce struggle, Hyde is shot by the police.
Dying, he transforms back into Jekyll. Fredric March as Dr. Henry Jekyll / Mr. Edward Hyde Miriam Hopkins as Ivy Pierson Rose Hobart as Muriel Carew Holmes Herbert as Dr. Lanyon Halliwell Hobbes as Brigadier-General Carew Edgar Norton as Poole Tempe Pigott as Mrs. Hawkins Arnold Lucy as Utterson Colonel McDonnell as Hobson Source: The film was made prior to the full enforcement of the Production Code and is remembered today for its strong sexual content, embodied in the character of the bar singer, Ivy Pierson, played by Miriam Hopkins; when it was re-released in 1936, the Code required 8 minutes to be removed before the film could be distributed to theaters. This footage was restored for the DVD releases; the secret of the transformation scenes was not revealed for decades. Make-up was applied in contrasting colors. A series of colored filters that matched the make-up was used which enabled the make-up to be exposed or made invisible; the change in color was not visible on the black-and-white film.
Wally Westmore's make-up for Hyde — simian and hairy with large canine teeth — influenced the popular image of Hyde in media and comic books. In part this reflected the novella's implication of Hyde as embodying repressed evil, hence being semi-evolved or simian in appearance; the characters of Muriel Carew and Ivy Pierson do not appear in Stevenson's original story but do appear in the 1887 stage version by playwright Thomas Russell Sullivan. John Barrymore was asked by Paramount to play the lead role, in an attempt to recreate his role from the 1920 version of Jekyll and Hyde, but he was under a new contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Paramount gave the part to March, under contract and who bore a physical resemblance to Barrymore. March had played a John Barrymore-like character in the Paramount film The Royal Family of Broadway, a story about an acting family similar to the Barrymores. March would go on to win the Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance of the role; when Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer remade the film 10 years with Spencer Tracy in the lead, the studio bought the negative and the rights to both the Mamoulian version and the earlier 1920 silent version, paying $1,250,000.
Every print of the 1931 film that could be loc
Queen Christina (film)
Queen Christina is a pre-Code Hollywood biographical film, produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1933 by Walter Wanger and directed by Rouben Mamoulian. It stars Swedish-born actress Greta John Gilbert in their fourth and last film together; the film portrays the life of Queen Christina of Sweden who became monarch at the age of six in 1632 and grew to be a powerful and influential leader. As well as the demands of being a war-leader during the Thirty Year's War Queen Christina is expected to marry a suitable royal figure and produce an heir. However, she falls in love with a visiting Spanish envoy whom she is forbidden to marry as he is a Roman Catholic and must choose between love and her royal duty; the film was a major critical success in the United States and worldwide. The film was directed by Rouben Mamoulian in 1933, written by H. M. Harwood and Salka Viertel, with dialogue by S. N. Behrman, based on a story by Salka Viertel and Margaret P. Levino. Leading roles are played by Greta Garbo and John Gilbert, whose career declined with the rise of talkies.
Garbo herself insisted on Gilbert as her co-star. It was the fourth and the last time they starred together in the same film. Queen Christina was billed as Garbo's return to cinema after an eighteen-month hiatus. Prior to the shooting, while on holiday in Sweden, the actress read a treatment by Salka Viertel about the life of Christina and became interested in the story. At the time of shooting the film, Garbo was the age of her character. Queen Christina is a historical costume drama, loosely based on the life of 17th century Queen Christina of Sweden and still more loosely of Strindberg's history play Kristina. Apart from her, a number of other authentic historical characters appear in the film, such as Charles X Gustav of Sweden and Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie; some events that took place in history, like the Thirty Years' War, are represented in the work, although Queen Christina is not a film depicting facts. In this historical fiction account, Queen Christina of Sweden falls in love during her reign but has to deal with the political realities of her society.
In real life, Christina's main reason for abdication was her determination not to marry and to be able to convert to Catholicism. Another fictionalized, if not fictitious, element is the romantic affair between Christina and Antonio. However, the queen's habit of dressing as a man in order to broaden the options available to her as a person is marked in the film: "I shall die a bachelor!" she declares, wears manly clothes and disguises herself as a man. The only concession to the real Christina's sexuality were some subtle hints that the film character was romantically attracted to one of her ladies in waiting; the film itself is remembered for no less than two cult scenes. The first one, over three minutes long, shows Christina walking around the room, having spent a night with Antonio at the inn, she touches various objects to imprint the space on her memory. The second one, arguably the most famous image in the film, is the closing shot, showing Christina standing as a silent figurehead at the bow of the ship bound for Spain.
With the wind blowing through her hair, the camera moves into a tight close-up on her face. Prior to shooting the final scene, Mamoulian suggested that Garbo should think about nothing and avoid blinking her eyes, so that her face could be a "blank sheet of paper" and every member of the audience could write the ending of the film themselves. Amusingly, this shot contains one of the greatest continuity errors in movie history: The wind blowing Garbo's hair is moving in the opposite direction from the wind blowing the ship's sails. Queen Christina of Sweden is devoted to her country and the welfare of her people; as queen, Christina favors peace for Sweden. At one point in the film, she argues for an end to the Thirty Years' War, saying: Spoils, glory and trumpets! What is behind these high-sounding words? Death and destruction, triumphals of crippled men, Sweden victorious in a ravaged Europe, an island in a dead sea. I tell you, I want no more of it. I want for happiness. I want to cultivate the arts of the arts of life.
I want peace and peace I will have! Christina, who first took the throne at age six upon the death of her father in battle, is depicted as so devoted to both governing well and educating herself that she has spurned any kind of serious romance or marriage despite pressures from her councilors and court to marry her hero-cousin Karl Gustav and produce an heir. One day, in an effort to escape the restrictions of her royal life, she sneaks out of town, disguised as a man, ends up snowbound at an inn, where she has to share a bed with stranded Spanish envoy Antonio on his way to the capital. After befriending, upon revealing that she is a woman sharing the same bed, the two fall in love. After a few idyllic nights together and Antonio are compelled to part, but Christina promises to find him in Stockholm – which she does, when the Spaniard presents his embassy to the Queen, whom he recognizes as his lover. Antonio is angry as he has come to present an offer of marriage from the King of Spain to Queen Christina and feels that his loyalty to the king has been compromised.
She makes clear that she will not accept the king's proposal, Christina and Antonio patch up their differences. When Count Magnus, who wants the Queen's affections for his own, riles up the people against the Spaniard, Christina abdicates the throne, nominating her cousin Karl Gustav as her successor while declining to marry him, she leaves Sweden to catch up with Don Antonio who has just left for a neighb
The Emperor Jones
The Emperor Jones is a 1920 play by American dramatist Eugene O'Neill that tells the tale of Brutus Jones, a resourceful, self-assured African American and a former Pullman porter, who kills another black man in a dice game, is jailed, escapes to a small, backward Caribbean island where he sets himself up as emperor. The play recounts his story in flashbacks as Brutus makes his way through the jungle in an attempt to escape former subjects who have rebelled against him. Called The Silver Bullet, the play is one of O'Neill's major experimental works, mixing expressionism and realism, the use of an unreliable narrator and multiple points of view, it was an oblique commentary on the U. S. occupation of Haiti after bloody rebellions there, an act of imperialism, much condemned in O'Neill's radical political circles in New York. The Emperor Jones draws on O'Neill's own hallucinatory experience hacking through the jungle while prospecting for gold in Honduras in 1909, as well as the brief, brutal presidency of Haiti's Vilbrun Guillaume Sam.
The Emperor Jones was O'Neill's first big box-office hit. It established him as a successful playwright, after he won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama for his first play, the much less well-known Beyond the Horizon; the Emperor Jones was included in Burns Mantle's The Best Plays of 1920–1921. The Emperor Jones is about an American Negro, a Pullman porter who escapes to an island in the West Indies. In two years, Jones makes himself "Emperor" of the place. A native tried to shoot Jones; when the play begins, he has been Emperor long enough to amass a fortune by imposing heavy taxes on the islanders and carrying on all sorts of large-scale graft. Rebellion is brewing; the islanders are whipping up their courage to the fighting point by calling on the local gods and demons of the forest. From the deep of the jungle, the steady beat of a big drum sounded by them is heard, increasing its tempo towards the end of the play and showing the rebels' presence dreaded by the Emperor, it is the equivalent of the heart-beat which assumes a higher pitch.
The play is a monologue for its leading character, Jones, in a Shakespearean range from regal power to the depths of terror and insanity, comparable to Lear or Macbeth. Scenes 2 to 7 are from the point of view of Jones, no other character speaks; the first and last scenes are a framing device with a character named Smithers, a white trader who appears to be part of illegal activities. In the first scene, Smithers is told about the rebellion by an old woman, has a lengthy conversation with Jones. In the last scene, Smithers converses with the leader of the rebellion. Smithers has mixed feelings about Jones, though he has more respect for Jones than for the rebels. During the final scene, Jones is killed by a silver bullet, the only way that the rebels believed Jones could be killed, the way in which Jones planned to kill himself if he was captured. Brutus Jones, Emperor Smithers, a Cockney Trader An Old Native Woman Lem, a Native Chief Soldiers, Adherents of LemThe Little Formless Fears. Charles Sidney Gilpin, a respected leading man from the all-black Lafayette Players of Harlem, was the first actor to play the role of Brutus Jones on stage.
They did have some conflict over Gilpin's tendency to change O'Neill's use of the word "nigger" to Negro and colored in the course of the play. This production was O'Neill's first real smash hit; the Players' small theater was too small to cope with audience demand for tickets, the play was transferred to another theater. It ran for 204 performances and was hugely popular, touring in the States with this cast for the next two years. Although Gilpin continued to perform the role of Brutus Jones in the US tour that followed the Broadway closing of the play, he had a falling out with O'Neill. Gilpin wanted O'Neill to remove the word "nigger," which occurred in the play, but the playwright felt its use was consistent with his dramatic intentions and the use of language was, in fact, based on a friend, an African-American tavern-keeper on the New London waterfront, O'Neill's favorite drinking spot in his home town; when they could not come to a reconciliation, O'Neill replaced Gilpin with the young and unknown Paul Robeson, who had only performed on the concert stage.
Robeson starred in the title role in the 1925 New York revival and in the London production. Robeson starred in the summer production in 1941 at Ivoryton, Ct.. The show was again revived in 1926 at the Mayfair Theatre in Manhattan, with Gilpin again starring as Jones and directing the show; the production, which ran for 61 performances, is noted for the acting debut of a young Moss Hart as Smithers. The Federal Theatre Project of the Works Progress Administration launched several productions of the play in cities across the United States, including a production with marionettes in Los Angeles in 1938. In 1980 Richard Negri directed a production at the Royal Exchange, Manchester with Pete Postlethwaite and Albie Woodington; the Wooster Group mounted a production of the play in 2007 for the Philadelph
Jackie "Butch" Jenkins
Jackie "Butch" Jenkins was an American child actor who had a brief but notable film career during the 1940s. Born Jack Dudley Jenkins in Los Angeles, the son of actress Doris Dudley, Jenkins made his film debut at the age of six in The Human Comedy as Ulysses Macauley after an MGM talent scout saw him playing on a Santa Monica beach and admired his high spirits, his performance as Mickey Rooney's younger brother was well received and Jenkins was cast in a succession of films. He was given star billing for the 1946 film Boys' Ranch. Inspired by the real-life ranch in Texas, which provided a home and education to underprivileged boys, MGM promoted the film as a successor to Boys Town, it co-stars James Craig who appears in Jenkins' first film, The Human Comedy, as well as in his next film, Little Mr. Jim. Jenkins' other films include National Velvet, Our Vines Have Tender Grapes, My Brother Talks to Horses, The Bride Goes Wild Summer Holiday, his final film Big City. Jenkins was one of several popular child actors at MGM during the early 1940s, was educated at the studio's school along with other youngsters under contract to the studio such as Elizabeth Taylor, Margaret O'Brien, Claude Jarman Jr. and Darryl Hickman.
He was regarded as a "scene-stealer" and was notable among the studio's child stars for not being conventionally "cute". He was described by film writers Sol Chaneles and Albert Wolsky as "an audience favourite as an all-American boy space between his teeth, freckles and a tousled mop of hair – a marked contrast to the pretty children who appeared on screen." Pauline Kael wrote approvingly of his effectiveness as a performer, saying that his appearance as a five-year-old who enjoys waving at trains in The Human Comedy helped elevate the film, while his performance in National Velvet made him "the little brother of everyone's dreams". In 1946 exhibitors voted him the second-most promising "star of tomorrow". Jenkins retired from acting at the age of eleven, after he developed a stutter, as an adult recalled his film career fondly and without regret, he did state, that he had not enjoyed acting and had never expected to make a career of it. Described as a "businessman-outdoorsman", Jenkins established a successful career away from Hollywood and lived for many years in Dallas, before moving to western North Carolina in the late 1970s.
There he built a home "on the side of a steep mountain", where he resided with his third wife, Gloria. On August 14, 2001, he died at age 63 in North Carolina. Holmstrom, John; the Moving Picture Boy: An International Encyclopaedia from 1895 to 1995, Michael Russell, 1996, pp. 205-206. Best, Marc; those Endearing Young Charms: Child Performers of the Screen, South Brunswick and New York: Barnes & Co. 1971, pp. 134–138. Jackie'Butch' Jenkins on IMDb Jackie "Butch" Jenkins at Find a Grave
In the Zone (play)
In the Zone is a 1917 stage play by Eugene O'Neill. The adventures of the crew of a small tramp steamer in World War One; the cast of characters in In the Zone is listed in the 1919 collection The Moon of the Caribbees and Six Other Plays of the Sea. Smitty Davis Swanson Scotty Ivan Paul Jack Driscoll Cocky The BBC produced a version in 1946; the cast included Finlay Currie, Alec Mango and Jack Newmark. Broadcast live, the transmissions were not recorded, as such it is lost. A 1957 version of In the Zone was a early attempt at Australian television drama, airing during the first few months of TV in that country, it was produced in Sydney and telerecorded/kinescoped for Melbourne broadcast, aired on ABC, was broadcast in a 30-minute time-slot. Archival status is unknown. Most of the early Australian television drama were adaptations of overseas stage plays, or new versions of works presented on the BBC in the UK. In the Zone was an example of both, as the play had been presented on the BBC during 1946.
It is not known. Bruce Beeby Richard Meikle Keith Buckley Owen Weingott John Bluthal Bruce Wishart A different version may have aired on British television in 1960; the play formed part of the basis for the 1940 film The Long Voyage Home. List of live television plays broadcast on Australian Broadcasting Corporation In the Zone at the Internet Broadway Database 1946 BBC TV version on IMDb 1957 ABC TV version on IMDb
Turner Classic Movies
Turner Classic Movies is an American movie-oriented pay-TV network operated by Warner Bros. Entertainment, a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Launched in 1994, TCM is headquartered at Turner's Techwood broadcasting campus in the Midtown business district of Atlanta, Georgia; the channel's programming consisted of classic theatrically released feature films from the Turner Entertainment film library – which comprises films from Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. However, TCM licenses films from other studios, shows more recent films; the channel is available in the United States, the United Kingdom, Malta, Latin America, Italy, Cyprus, the Nordic countries, the Middle East and Asia-Pacific. In 1986, eight years before the launch of Turner Classic Movies, Ted Turner acquired the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film studio for $1.5 billion. Concerns over Turner Entertainment's corporate debt load resulted in Turner selling the studio that October back to Kirk Kerkorian, from whom Turner had purchased the studio less than a year before.
As part of the deal, Turner Entertainment retained ownership of MGM's library of films released up to May 9, 1986. Turner Broadcasting System was split into two companies; the film library of Turner Entertainment would serve as the base form of programming for TCM upon the network's launch. Before the creation of Turner Classic Movies, films from Turner's library of movies aired on the Turner Broadcasting System's advertiser-supported cable network TNT – along with colorized versions of black-and-white classics such as The Maltese Falcon. Turner Classic Movies debuted on April 14, 1994, at 6 p.m. Eastern Time, with Ted Turner launching the channel at a ceremony in New York City's Times Square district; the date and time were chosen for their historical significance as "the exact centennial anniversary of the first public movie showing in New York City". The first movie broadcast on TCM was the 1939 film Gone with the Wind, the same film that served as the debut broadcast of its sister channel TNT six years earlier in October 1988.
At the time of its launch, TCM was available to one million cable television subscribers. The network served as a competitor to AMC—which at the time was known as "American Movie Classics" and maintained a identical format to TCM, as both networks focused on films released prior to 1970 and aired them in an uncut and commercial-free format. AMC had broadened its film content to feature colorized and more recent films by 2002. In 1996, Turner Broadcasting System merged with Time Warner which, besides placing Turner Classic Movies and Warner Bros. Entertainment under the same corporate umbrella gave TCM access to Warner Bros.' Library of films released after 1950. In the early 2000s, AMC abandoned its commercial-free format, which led to TCM being the only movie-oriented basic cable channel to devote its programming to classic films without commercial interruption or content editing. On March 4, 2019, Time Warner's new owner AT&T announced a planned reorganization that would dissolve Turner Broadcasting.
TCM, along with Cartoon Network, Adult Swim, over-the-top video company Otter Media, will be moved directly under Warner Bros.. Speaking about the move, then-Warner Bros. CEO Kevin Tsujihara explained that TCM was "a natural fit with Warner Bros." due the company's massive film library. In 2000, TCM started the annual Young Composers Film Competition, inviting aspiring composers to participate in a judged competition that offers the winner of each year's competition the opportunity to score a restored, feature-length silent film as a grand prize, mentored by a well-known composer, with the new work subsequently premiering on the network; as of 2006, films that have been rescored include the 1921 Rudolph Valentino film Camille, two Lon Chaney films: 1921's The Ace of Hearts and 1928's Laugh, Clown and Greta Garbo's 1926 film The Temptress. In April 2010, Turner Classic Movies held the first TCM Classic Film Festival, an event—now held annually—at the Grauman's Chinese Theater and the Grauman's Egyptian Theater in Hollywood.
Hosted by Robert Osborne, the four-day long annual festival celebrates Hollywood and its movies, featured celebrity appearances, special events, screenings of around 50 classic movies including several newly restored by The Film Foundation, an organization devoted to preserving Hollywood's classic film legacy. Turner Classic Movies operates as a commercial-free service, with the only advertisements on the network being shown between features – which advertise TCM products, network promotions for upcoming special programs and the original trailers for films that are scheduled to be broadcast on TCM, featurettes about classic film actors and actresses. In addition to this, extended breaks between features are filled with theatrically released movie trailers and classic short subjects – from series such as The Passing Parade, Crime Does Not Pay, Pete Smith Specialties, Robert Benchley – under the banner name TCM Extras (formerly On
Selena Royle was an American actress, an author. Royle was born in New York City to actress Selena Fetter, she had Josephine Fetter Royle. Her mother recounted in a newspaper article that she used to take Selena along with her to her rehearsals and performances. One night seven-year-old Selena went missing. While the mother frantically searched for her, holding up act two, the audience became restless; the youngster turned up - she had gone on stage dressed in her mother's second-act costume. She remarked, "And, the first time I was on stage, I liked it so well I stayed."Her father wrote the 1921 Broadway play Lancelot and Elaine to provide both her and sister Josephine with their first professional roles, as Guinevere and Elaine respectively. She landed a part on her own in the 1923 Theatre Guild production of Peer Gynt, with Joseph Schildkraut, became a respected Broadway actress, she otherwise worked on the stage and on radio. Royle began her radio career in 1926 or 1927 and performed "almost continuously since", according to a 1939 newspaper item.
Her body of work includes playing the title role in Hilda Hope, M. D, she played Martha Jackson in Woman of Courage, Mrs. Allen in Against the Storm, Joan in The O'Neills, Mrs. Gardner in Betty and Bob, appeared in Kate Hopkins, Angel of Mercy. In the 1940s, she returned to film and had a successful run playing maternal characters such as the bereaved mother of The Fighting Sullivans, mother to Jane Powell in the big screen adaptation of A Date with Judy and the title character's mother opposite Ingrid Bergman as Joan of Arc, she made several appearances on early television. However, in 1951, she refused to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee, she sued the American Legion, which had published Red Channels, in which her name was listed, won but her acting career ended. She made only the last being Murder Is My Beat, she wrote several books, including Guadalajara: as I Know It, Live It, Love It and a couple of cookbooks, some magazine articles. She was the "radio editor" of the short-lived New York periodical Swank.
During the early Depression, Selena Royle and Elizabeth Beatty started the Actors Free Dinner Club in Union Church on West 48th Street. It was organized so that those who came to volunteer and those who came out of necessity were indistinguishable from each other, her first husband was a cousin of actress Laura Hope Crews. They married in 1932 and divorced in 1942, she was married to actor Georges Renavent from 1948 until his death in 1969. Royle died in Guadalajara, Mexico, on April 23, 1983, aged 78. Hollywood blacklist Selena Royle at the Internet Broadway Database Selena Royle on IMDb Selena Fetter's portrait, University of Louisville archives.