Lollapalooza is an annual 4-day music festival based in Chicago, Illinois at Grant Park. Performances include but are not limited to alternative rock, heavy metal, punk rock, hip hop, electronic music. Lollapalooza has provided a platform for non-profit and political groups and various visual artists; the music festival hosts more than 160,000 people each year. Conceived and created in 1991 by Jane's Addiction singer Perry Farrell as a farewell tour for his band, Lollapalooza ran annually until 1997, was revived in 2003. From its inception through 1997 and its revival in 2003, the festival toured North America. In 2004, the festival organizers decided to expand the dates to two days per city, but poor ticket sales forced the 2004 tour to be cancelled. In 2005, Farrell and the William Morris Agency partnered with Austin, Texas–based company Capital Sports Entertainment and retooled it into its current format as a weekend destination festival in Chicago at Grant Park. In 2014, Live Nation Entertainment bought a controlling interest in C3 Presents.
In 2010 it was announced that Lollapalooza would debut outside the United States, with a branch of the festival staged in Chile's capital Santiago on April 2–3, 2011 where they partnered up with Santiago-based company Lotus. In 2011, the company Geo Events confirmed the Brazilian version of the event, held at the Jockey Club in São Paulo on 7 and 8 April 2012. In September 2013, Buenos Aires was selected as the third Lollapalooza in South America, starting on April 2014, in November 2014, the first European Lollapalooza was announced, held at the former Tempelhof Airport in Berlin; the word—sometimes alternatively spelled and pronounced as lollapalootza or lalapaloosa—or "lallapaloosa" dates from a late 19th-/early 20th-century American idiomatic phrase meaning "an extraordinary or unusual thing, person, or event. Its earliest known use was in 1896. In time the term came to refer to a large lollipop. Farrell, searching for a name for his festival, liked the euphonious quality of the by-then-antiquated term upon hearing it in a Three Stooges short film.
Paying homage to the term's double meaning, a character in the festival's original logo holds one of the lollipops. The word has caused a slang suffix to appear in event-planning circles as well as in news and opinion shows, used synonymously with other suffixes like "a-go-go", "o-rama", etc; the suffix "palooza" is used to imply that an entire event or crowd was made over that term, e.g.: "Parks"-apalooza, popular Chicago sushi restaurant "Roll"-apalooza, etc. Inspired by events such as Britain's Reading Festival – which Lollapalooza cofounder Perry Farrell had been due to play in 1990 – Farrell, Ted Gardner, Don Muller, Marc Geiger conceived the festival in 1990 as a farewell for Farrell's band Jane's Addiction. Unlike previous festivals such as Woodstock, A Gathering of the Tribes and the US Festival, which were one-time events held at single venues, Lollapalooza toured across the United States and Canada from mid-July until late August 1991; the inaugural lineup was made up of artists from industrial music and rap.
Another key concept was the inclusion of nonmusical features. Performers such as the Jim Rose Circus Side Show, an alternative freak show, the Shaolin monks stretched the boundaries of rock culture. There was a tent for display of art pieces, virtual reality games, information tables for political and environmental non-profit groups, promoting counter-culture and political awareness. "Basically, I'm bored," Farrell said at the time. "I just want to see things that are unexpected and bizarre. The way Barnum & Bailey perceived putting on a show... well, they had a different angle." It was at Lollapalooza where Farrell coined the term "Alternative Nation". The explosion of alternative rock in the early 1990s propelled Lollapalooza forward. Punk rock standbys like mosh pits and crowd surfing became part of the canon of the concerts; these years saw great increases in the participatory nature of the event with the inclusion of booths for open-microphone readings and oratory, television-smashing pits and tattooing and piercing parlors.
After 1991, the festival included a second stage for local acts. Attendee complaints of the festival included high ticket prices as well as the high cost for food and water at the shows; the festival played at the Alpine Valley festival in East Troy, Wisconsin on August 29, 1992, at World Music Theater in Tinley Park, IL, where concertgoers ripped up chunks of sod and grass and threw them at each other and at the bands, resulting in tens of thousands of dollars in damages to the venue. Grunge band Nirvana was scheduled to headline at the festival in 1994, but the band dropped out of the festival on April 7, 1994. Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobain's body was discovered in Seattle the next day. Cobain's widow, Courtney Love, made guest appearances at several shows, including the Philadelphia show at FDR Park, speaking to the crowds about the loss singing a minimum of two songs. Farrell worked with rock poster artist Jim Evans to create a series of posters and the complete graphic decoration for the 1994 event, including two 70 foot tall Buddha statues that f
BASEketball is a 1998 American sports comedy film co-written and directed by David Zucker and starring South Park creators Trey Parker and Matt Stone, along with Yasmine Bleeth, Jenny McCarthy, Robert Vaughn, Ernest Borgnine, Dian Bachar. The film follows the history of the sport of the same name, from its invention by the lead characters as a game they could win against more athletic types, to its development as a nationwide league sport and a target of corporate sponsorship; this is the only work involving Parker and Stone, neither written, nor produced by them, although Zucker himself has stated that Parker and Stone contributed innumerable suggestions for the film, most of which were used. Joe "Coop" Cooper and Doug Remer, two unlikable slackers and best friends, gate crash a high-school reunion and are shunned by their more mature classmates, they find themselves outside drinking beer and shooting a basketball when two classmates challenge them to a game. After seeing that their opponents are good at basketball, they say they will only play a game they picked up in the streets.
After winning, they decide to refine the rules to the game and Coop makes the first BASEketball out of a La-Z-Boy chair. Their friend, Kenny "Squeak" Scolari, tags along and the sport becomes popular in the neighborhood over the next six months. Businessman Ted Denslow meets Coop and Remer and proposes the creation of the National BASEketball League along with numerous rules in place to prevent its decline: teams cannot switch cities, players cannot be traded, individuals cannot make money via corporate sponsorship deals, it is open to anyone who wants to play, with Denslow stating that "anyone can be a sports' hero". Coop hesitates, but accepts the opportunity at hand. Five years the NBL is in full swing with teams, stadiums, a major championship, the Denslow Cup. Denslow is owner of the Milwaukee Beers and Remer's team. During the championship game, Denslow dies from choking on a hot dog, causing Coop to miss his shot and costing the Beers the game. Denslow's will names Coop as owner of the Beers for one year on the condition that they win the next Denslow Cup.
Coop declares Remer part owner of the team, they come to meet Jenna Reed, head of the Dream Come True Foundation, Joey, one of the children in her care and an avid fan of BASEketball. Baxter Cain, owner of the Dallas Felons, wants to remove Denslow's rules preventing monetization of the sport, but could not while Denslow was alive. However, Coop refuses to accept any changes. Cain cuts the funding to Jenna's foundation to get Remer to adopt a clothing line. After the semifinals, Cain informs Coop and Remer that the clothing line has been produced through child labor in Calcutta. Cain blackmails Coop and Remer into losing or forfeiting the Denslow Cup game or he will inform the public. Jenna learns about the scandal and breaks up with Coop as Coop and Remer blame each other for the predicament. With their friendship in shambles, Coop goes to Calcutta, aiming to resolve the situation by replacing the child workers with adults. Making it back to the championship game just as it begins, Coop still blames Remer and the Beers perform abysmally.
Having had enough of Coop and Remer's fighting, Squeak gives the stadium a passionate speech, reminding Coop and Remer where they came from, how much they changed everyone else's lives, what they risk losing. Moved and Remer reconcile their differences as Yvette breaks off her alliance with Cain. After shifting their focus back in the game, they are poised to win. Coop is distraught. After a harrowing last throw, they win the Denslow Cup. Jenna forgives Coop as Yvette makes out with Remer. Trey Parker as Joe "Coop/Airman" Cooper Matt Stone as Doug "Sir Swish" Remer Dian Bachar as Kenny "Squeak/Little Bitch" Scolari Yasmine Bleeth as Jenna Reed Jenny McCarthy as Yvette Denslow Ernest Borgnine as Ted Denslow Robert Vaughn as Baxter Cain Trevor Einhorn as Joey Thomas Francis X. McCarthy as Dr. Kaiser Bob Costas as Himself Al Michaels as HimselfKareem Abdul-Jabbar, Dale Earnhardt, Reggie Jackson, Jim Lampley, Kenny Mayne, Tim McCarver, Pat O'Brien, Dan Patrick, Reel Big Fish, Victoria Silvstedt, Robert Stack make cameo appearances as themselves.
Greg Grunberg, Kevin Michael Richardson, Peter Tuiasosopo make cameos as athletes. Zucker had wanted Chris Farley to play the lead role, before casting Stone; the soundtrack featured a bouncy ska cover of Norwegian band a-ha's signature single "Take on Me" by Reel Big Fish. The band appears as the live entertainment at the home stadium of the Milwaukee Beers, playing "Take on Me" and several of their other songs. In a positive review with Variety, Leonard Klady said BASEketball "has the heightened entertainment challenge of presenting an invented sport... The film's physical comedy should translate well internationally and chalk up high scores on video"; the film was awarded four stars out of five by Empire magazine's Ian Freer, who called it funny but described the humor as sometimes hit-and-miss. Conversely, Los Angeles Times' Jack Mathews labeled the film as sleep-inducing and "by far the most inane an
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o
TASCAM is the professional audio division of TEAC Corporation, headquartered in Montebello, California. Tascam is credited as the inventor of the Portastudio, the first cassette-based multi-track home studio recorders. Tascam introduced the first low-cost mass-produced multitrack recorders with Simul-Sync designed for recording musicians. Tascam manufactured reel-to-reel tape machines and audio mixers for home recordists from the early 1970s through the mid-1990s. Tascam started out as a research and development group to research how to use TEAC's recording technology in musician and recording studio products; the group was called TASC. The founders included Mr. K. Tani, one of the founders of TEAC-Japan and Dr. Abe, a senior TEAC-Japan engineer. In 1971 TASCAM was founded to distribute TASC products in the U. S, it conducted additional market research in the US for the Japanese parent company. The company's first headquarters was at 5440 McConnell Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90066. In 1974 it moved its headquarters to 7733 Telegraph Road, California.
Tascam's first products were TEAC brand multitrack recorders. In 1972 it introduced the first low-cost mass-produced multitrack recorders with Simul-Sync: The A3340 4-track recorder with 10.5" tape reels, 7½ and 15 ips speeds w/ manual direction toggle lever The A2340 4-track recorder with 7" tape reels, 3¾ and 7½ ips speeds w/ manual direction toggle lever The A3340S 4-track recorder with 10.5" tape reels, 7½ and 15 ips speeds, the's' designation indicating improved w/ solenoid control The A2340S 4-track recorder with 7" tape reels, 3¾ and 7½ ips speeds, the's' designation indicating improved w/ solenoid controlIn 1973 they introduced the first Tascam branded products: M-10 modular 12x4x2 mixer Series 70H-X MTR Series 70H-8 MTROn March 4, 1973 TEAC merged the Tascam Corporation into TEAC Corporation of America. TEAC-Japan retains the exclusive worldwide rights to the TASCAM brand name for their professional audio related products. In 2013 Gibson Brands Inc. bought a majority stake in TEAC Corporation, the parent company of TASCAM.
In October 2017, TASCAM partnered with Philly punk band the Dead Milkmen and philanthropic record label The Giving Groove to sponsor a remix contest. 144 - 1979, World's first 4 track recorder based on a standard cassette tape, 1982 Bruce Springsteen records Nebraska Album 2006 Mix magazine TECnology hall of fame Porta One Ministudio - 1984, First battery operated portable studio. 388 Studio - 1985 World's first 8 track 1/4" multitrack and mixer combination. 564 - 1997 First MiniDisc based digital Portastudio. 788 - 2000 World's first 24 bit 8 track hard disk Portastudio 2488 24 Track Hard Drive based digital portastudio - 2004 Music Trades Magazine Product of the Year, MIPA Desktop Recording Workstation of the Year DP-02 8 track digital recorder - 2008 Music & Sound Retailer Best New Multitrack recorder TASCAM 80-8 1/2" 8 channel analog reel deck, TASCAM offered an external optional 8 channel dedicated DBX interface module. 1975. 2017 TECnology Hall of Fame Inductee DA-50 Pro DAT - 1989, First US-legal DAT tape recorder with SCMS Copy protection.
MSR-24 24 Track 1" Open Reel Tape Deck - 1990 TEC Award Nominee DA-800/24 DASH 1990, 24 channel digital tape Recorder. DA-88 DTRS 8 Channel Digital Audio Recorder - 1994 TEC Award Winner, 1995 Emmy Award Winner, 1995 NAB Professional's Choice Award winner. DA-30mkII DAT - 1995 TEC Award Winner DA-38 DTRS - 1997 TEC Award Winner DA-98 DTRS - 1997 PAR Excellence Award, 1998 NAB Professional's Choice Award, 1998 TEC Award Winner DA-302 DAT - 1997 World's first Dual DAT deck. 1997 PAR Excellence Award Winner. DA-98HR 24 bit DTRS - 1998 Post Magazine Best Multitrack Digital Recorder. DA-45HR 24 bit DAT - World's First 24 bit DAT Recorder. 1998 PAR Excellence Award Winner, 1998 Keyboard Magazine Key Buy. DA-78HR 24 bit DTRS - 1999 Pro Audio Review PAR Excellence Award, 2000 TEC award Winner MMR-8 / MMR-16 8 channel Hard Disk Recorder - 2000 Emmy Award Winner, 2001 Oscar Scientific Award Winner. MX-2424 24 channel 96 kHz Hard Disk Recorder - 1999 PAR Excellence Award Winner, 2001 TEC Award winner. DS-D98 2 Channel DSD Recorder Based on DA-98HR - 2002 TEC Award Nominee.
HD-P2 Portable Timecode enabled CF card 2 channel recorder - 2006 PAR Award Winner. DV-RA1000HD DVD and Hard Drive based 2 Channel Master DSD Recorder - 2007 TEC Award Winner. X-48 48 channel 96 kHz Hard Disk Recorder. - 2008 TEC Award Nominee DR-100 2 Channel Hand Held Recorder - 2009 TEC Award Nominee HS-P82 8 Channel Dual CF Media Field Recorder - 2009 PAR Excellence Award, 2010 Good Design Award DR-03 Portable Handheld Recorder - 2010 Music & Sound Retailers Best Multitrack Award DR-680 8 channel portable SD card recorder - 2011 TEC Award Nominee DR-40 Handheld 4-track recorder - 2012 EM Magazine Editors Choice Awards DR-60D 4 track recorder for DSLR Cameras - 2013 NAB Best of Show Award M-5 Analog Mixer - The Model 5 was released in 1975 in conjunction w/ the 80-8 eight channel 1/2 inch reel tape deck. It came as an 8x4x2 board, expandable to 12 channels w/ optional talkback module M-700 Analog Mixer - 1989 dubbed "the Baby SSL" M-3700 Analog Mixer - 1992 TEC Award Nominee M-2600 Analog Mixer - 1995 TEC Award Nominee M-1600 Analog Mixer - 1997 TEC Award Nominee TM-D8000 Digital Audio Mixer - 1996 Blue Ribbon Best of AES Convention, 1998 TEC Award Nominee TM-D4000 Digital Audio Mixer - 2000 TEC Award Nominee X-9 Digital Four Channels DJ Mixer - 2000 DM-24 Digital Audio Mixer - 2002 TEC Award winner DM-4800 64 channel Digital Audio Mixer - 2007 TEC Award Nominee 2007 Good Design Award US-428 - 2001 TEC Award Nominee FW-1884 - FireWire Audio and Control Surface - 2003 PAR Excellence Award US-122 - 2004 Soundcheck magazine Best Audio/MIDI Hardware US-2400 - 24 Fader USB Controller - 2004 Mix Magazine NAMM Show Cer
Tonic is an American rock band, formed in 1993 by Emerson Hart and Jeff Russo. Members have included Dan Lavery, Kevin Shepard, Dan Rothchild. Signed to a recording contract in 1995, the band released its debut album Lemon Parade in 1996; the single "If You Could Only See" reached No. 11 on the Billboard Airplay Hot 100, Lemon Parade itself reached platinum status. Tonic spent much of the next two years touring, adding to its reputation as a relentlessly gigging band. In addition to extensive touring Tonic produced other work, including songs for feature film soundtracks. After self-producing its 1999 album Sugar, Tonic released its third album Head on Straight in 2002. Tonic received two Grammy nominations from Head on Straight, including one for Best Rock Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal for "Take Me As I Am", one for Best Rock Album; the band went on hiatus beginning in 2004 while its members pursued other musical endeavors. It wasn't until late 2008 Tonic became active again, embarking on a tour and releasing a greatest-hits compilation, all of which served as a prelude to their fourth studio album, 2010's Tonic.
After the release of that album, Tonic has continued to tour and remain active into the year 2016, when they released an all-acoustic version of Lemon Parade titled Lemon Parade Revisited in celebration of that album's 20th anniversary and which utilized direct funding from fans. They have earned two Grammy nominations. Tonic was founded by Emerson Hart and guitarist Jeff Russo, long-separated childhood friends who randomly crossed paths at a Los Angeles, California area pool hall in 1993; the pair began collaborating on music writing, soon added bass player Dan Rothchild, whom they met at a venue named the Kibitz room. The final addition to the band was drummer Kevin Shepard, recruited at an L. A. venue named Masker's Cafe. Hart said the original choice for the band's name was Radio Flyer, but upon learning that name was unavailable, selected Tonic instead; the newly formed group performed gigs around the Los Angeles, California area prior to signing their first professional recording contract in 1995.
Earning a reputation as a "relentlessly gigging" band, Tonic played over 300 shows in less than two years during the mid-to-late 1990s. Teaming with producer Jack Joseph Puig, Tonic released their debut album Lemon Parade on July 15, 1996. Music critic Shawn M. Haney said of the album that, "The record as a whole is full of the heavy, distortion-laden Tonic sound, guitars that make them who they are." Singles for the songs "Open Up Your Eyes" and "If You Could Only See", were released in 1996 and 1997 respectively. The single "If You Could Only See" received the honor of being Rock Radio's most played song of 1997, Lemon Parade as an album reached platinum status. Music videos were created for the songs "Open Up Your Eyes," "If You Could Only See," and "Soldier's Daughter." The Lemon Parade album spent 57 weeks on the Billboard 200 chart, reaching a peak of No. 28 during the week of August 2, 1997. By February 2003 Lemon Parade's running total of albums sold had reached 1.3 million copies. Dan Lavery replaced Rothchild on bass in December 1996, around this same time period drummer Shepard ceased full-time activity with the band for family and personal reasons.
The year 1997 marked the band's first contribution to an original soundtrack, recording the song "Eyes of Sand" for the Scream 2 soundtrack. Continuing their work on film soundtracks into 1998, Tonic recorded the song "Flower Man" for The X-Files: The Album, performed a cover of the song Everybody's Talkin' for the Clay Pigeons soundtrack. Tonic performed a cover of the song "Second Hand News" for the album "Legacy: A Tribute to Fleetwood Mac's Rumours." The band finished 1998 by contributing a live version of the song "Open Up Your Eyes" to the charitable album Live in the X Lounge. On March 1, 1999 the band released the now out-of-print Live and Enhanced CD, which featured an acoustic version of "If You Could Only See" and the unreleased music video of "Soldier's Daughter". In 2000, Tonic allowed their song "Mean To Me" from their album Sugar to be released as a single from the soundtrack album for the Warner Bros. film Gossip, directed by Academy Award-winning director Davis Guggenheim. The band appeared in the music video for the song, which featured clips from the film as well as actors from it, who appear to be interacting with the band via webcam as they perform the song.
The band returned to the studio to self-produce their second album. Released on November 9, 1999, the album title Sugar shared the same name as the fifth track on the recording; the creative and collaborative process spanned several geographic locations including Austin, a 15,000-square-foot mansion in New Orleans, where actual recording for the album was performed. "Knock Down Walls" and "You Wanted More" were charting singles released off the record, with the latter having first appeared on the soundtrack to the movie American Pie. With Shepard no longer part of the band, Peter Maloney played drums on the album, although Joey Waronker filled in for the single "You Wanted More". Music videos for the songs "You Wanted More" and "Mean to Me" were created as part of the album's promotion. Tonic appeared on the television shows Late Night with Conan O'Brien and The Martin Short Show in late 1999 as part of additional promotion. Sugar spent eight total weeks on the Billboard 200 chart, reaching a peak of No. 81 in its first week of release.
A cover of the song "East Bound and Down" for the King of the Hill original television soundtrack rounded out the group's output for the year 1999. The band contributed a performance of "Mean
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The line-up of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr led the band to be regarded as the foremost and most influential in history. With a sound rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form, to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s, they incorporated elements of classical music, older pop forms, unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways, in years experimented with a number of musical styles ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. As they continued to draw influences from a variety of cultural sources, their musical and lyrical sophistication grew, they came to be seen as embodying the era's sociocultural movements. Led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960 with Stuart Sutcliffe playing bass.
The core trio of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, together since 1958, went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them in 1962. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act, producer George Martin guided and developed their recordings expanding their domestic success after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962; as their popularity grew into the intense fan frenzy dubbed "Beatlemania", the band acquired the nickname "the Fab Four", with Epstein and other members of the band's entourage sometimes given the informal title of "fifth Beatle". By early 1964, the Beatles were international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market, breaking numerous sales records, they soon made their motion-picture debut with A Hard Day's Night. From 1965 onwards, they produced innovative recordings, including the albums Rubber Soul, Sgt. Pepper's The Beatles and Abbey Road. In 1968, they founded Apple Corps, a multi-armed multimedia corporation that continues to oversee projects related to the band's legacy.
After the group's break-up in 1970, all four members enjoyed success as solo artists. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980. McCartney and Starr remain musically active; the Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over 800 million records worldwide. They are the best-selling music artists in the US, with certified sales of over 178 million units, have had more number-one albums on the British charts, have sold more singles in the UK, than any other act; the group were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, all four main members were inducted individually between 1994 and 2015. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful artists; the band have received an Academy Award and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. In March 1957, John Lennon aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool.
They called themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen after discovering that a respected local group was using the other name. Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined them as a rhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July. In February 1958, McCartney invited his friend George Harrison to watch the band; the fifteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, impressing him with his playing, but Lennon thought Harrison was too young for the band. After a month of Harrison's persistence, during a second meeting, he performed the lead guitar part of the instrumental song "Raunchy" on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, they enlisted him as their lead guitarist. By January 1959, Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, he began his studies at the Liverpool College of Art; the three guitarists, billing themselves at least three times as Johnny and the Moondogs, were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer. Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe, who had just sold one of his paintings and was persuaded to purchase a bass guitar, joined in January 1960, it was he who suggested changing the band's name to Beatals, as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets.
They used this name until May, when they became the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellow Liverpudlian Johnny Gentle. By early July, they had refashioned themselves as the Silver Beatles, by the middle of August shortened the name to The Beatles. Allan Williams, the Beatles' unofficial manager, arranged a residency for them in Hamburg, but lacking a full-time drummer they auditioned and hired Pete Best in mid-August 1960; the band, now a five-piece, left four days contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a 31⁄2-month residency. Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn writes: "They pulled into Hamburg at dusk on 17 August, the time when the red-light area comes to life... flashing neon lights screamed out the various entertainment on offer, while scantily clad women sat unabashed in shop windows waiting for business opportunities." Koschmider had converted a couple of strip clubs in the district into music venues, he placed the Beatles at the Indra Club.