Pecos Bill is a fictional cowboy in stories set during American westward expansion into the Southwest of Texas, New Mexico, Southern California, Arizona. These narratives were invented as short stories in a book by Edward S. O'Reilly in the early 20th Century and are considered to be an example of fakelore. Pecos Bill was a late addition to the "big man" idea of characters, such as Paul Bunyan or John Henry; the first known stories were published in 1917 by Edward O'Reilly for The Century Magazine and collected and reprinted in 1923 in the book Saga of Pecos Bill. O'Reilly claimed they were part of an oral tradition of tales told by cowboys during the westward expansion and settlement of the southwest including Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, but American folklorist Richard M. Dorson found that O'Reilly invented the stories as "folklore", that writers either borrowed tales from O'Reilly or added further adventures of their own invention to the cycle. Edward "Tex" O'Reilly co-authored a cartoon strip with cartoonist Jack A. Warren known as Alonzo Vincent Warren, between 1929 and 1938.
When O'Reilly died in 1946, Warren began. This was a story about "Pecos Bill", who had received a "lump on the naggan" that caused him amnesia; the cartoons were published in The Sun and were syndicated. He has a wife, named Slue-Foot Sue. Pecos Bill made the leap to film in the 1948 Walt Disney animated feature Melody Time, he was portrayed by Steve Guttenberg in a 1985 episode of Tall Tales & Legends and Patrick Swayze in Disney's 1995 film Tall Tale. "Pecos Bill" was the nickname of Civil War general William Shafter, although this was before O'Reilly created the legend. Shafter was considered a hero in Texas and had some legendary poetry written about how tough he was. According to the legend, Pecos Bill was born in Texas in the 1830s. Pecos Bill's family decided to move out because his town was becoming "too crowded". Pecos Bill was traveling in a covered wagon as an infant when he fell out unnoticed by the rest of his family near the Pecos River, he was raised by a pack of coyotes. Years he was found by his real brother, who managed to convince him he was not a coyote.
He grew up to become a cowboy. Pecos used a rattlesnake named Shake as another snake as a little whip, his horse, Widow-Maker, was so named because no other man could live. Dynamite was said to be his favorite food, it is said Pecos sometimes rode a cougar instead of a horse. On one of his adventures, Pecos Bill managed to lasso a twister, it was said that he once wrestled the Bear Lake Monster for several days until Bill defeated it. Pecos Bill had a lover named Slue-Foot Sue, he was fishing with the pack. Shake, Widow-Maker, Slue-Foot Sue are as idealized as Pecos Bill. After a courtship in which, among other things, Pecos Bill shoots all the stars from the sky except for one which becomes the Lone Star, Pecos proposes to Sue, she insists on riding Widow-Maker before, after the wedding. Widow-Maker, jealous of no longer having Bill's undivided attention, bounces Sue off. Pecos attempts, but fails, to lasso her, because Widow-Maker didn't want her on his back again, she hits her head on the moon. After she has been bouncing for days, Pecos Bill realizes that she would starve to death, so he lassos her with Shake the rattlesnake and brings her back down.
Widow-Maker, apologizes. In Bowman's version of the story, Sue recovers from the bouncing but is so traumatized by the experience she never talks to Pecos Bill again. In other versions, Sue couldn't stop bouncing, Bill couldn't stop her bouncing either, so Bill had to shoot her to put her out of her misery. Though it is said that Bill was married many times, he never loved the others as much as Sue, the other relationships didn't work out. In the Melody Time version, Sue gets stranded on the moon upon impact due to Widow-Maker's interference in preventing Bill from lassoing her, causing a disheartened Bill to leave civilization and rejoin the coyotes, who now howl at the moon in honor of Bill's sorrow. In the more popular versions, including many children's books and Sue are reunited and live ever after. In Laura Frankos' short story "Slue-Foot Sue and the Witch in the Woods", Sue's bustle-ride deposits her in Russia, where she must fight a duel with Baba Yaga. In the "Pecos Bill" episode of Tall Tales & Legends, Sue is played by Rebecca DeMornay.
Pecos Bill appeared in a 1985 episode of Tall Tales & Legends portrayed by Steve Guttenberg, in the 1995 Disney film Tall Tale: The Unbelievable Adventures of Pecos Bill portrayed by Patrick Swayze. In the story The Death of Pecos Bill, Pecos Bill is in a bar when a so-called city boy walks in with gator-skin shoes and a gator-skin suit, otherwise trying to present himself in the manner of an outlaw cowboy. Pecos Bill laughed himself to death outside. Comedian Robin Williams recorded a children's audiobook version of the story, with music by Ry Cooder, for Rabbit Ears/Windham Hill, in 1988. Pecos Bill appeared in the children's book The Great Texas Hamster Drive by Eric A. Kimmel. Harold W. Felton authored three books of Pecos Bill tall tales Pecos Bill appears in the PBS television show "Between the Lions", where he lassoes a tornado Slue-Foot Sue is the heroine of Laura Frankos' sketch "Slue-Foot Sue and the Witch in the Woods," in the comedy-fantasy anthology Did You Say Chi
In Greek mythology, Medusa was a monster, a Gorgon described as a winged human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair. Those who gazed upon her face would turn to stone. Most sources describe her as the daughter of Phorcys and Ceto, though the author Hyginus makes her the daughter of Gorgon and Ceto. According to Hesiod and Aeschylus, she lived and died on an island named Sarpedon, somewhere near Cisthene; the 2nd-century BCE novelist Dionysios Skytobrachion puts her somewhere in Libya, where Herodotus had said the Berbers originated her myth, as part of their religion. Medusa was beheaded by the hero Perseus, who thereafter used her head, which retained its ability to turn onlookers to stone, as a weapon until he gave it to the goddess Athena to place on her shield. In classical antiquity the image of the head of Medusa appeared in the evil-averting device known as the Gorgoneion; the three Gorgon sisters—Medusa and Euryale—were all children of the ancient marine deities Phorcys and his sister Ceto, chthonic monsters from an archaic world.
Their genealogy is shared with other sisters, the Graeae, as in Aeschylus's Prometheus Bound, which places both trinities of sisters far off "on Kisthene's dreadful plain": Near them their sisters three, the Gorgons, winged With snakes for hair— hatred of mortal man— While ancient Greek vase-painters and relief carvers imagined Medusa and her sisters as having monstrous form and vase-painters of the fifth century began to envisage her as being beautiful as well as terrifying. In an ode written in 490 BC Pindar speaks of "fair-cheeked Medusa". In a late version of the Medusa myth, related by the Roman poet Ovid, Medusa was a ravishingly beautiful maiden, "the jealous aspiration of many suitors," but because Poseidon had raped her in Athena's temple, the enraged Athena transformed Medusa's beautiful hair to serpents and made her face so terrible to behold that the mere sight of it would turn onlookers to stone. In Ovid's telling, Perseus describes Medusa's punishment by Minerva as just and well earned.
In most versions of the story, she was beheaded by the hero Perseus, sent to fetch her head by King Polydectes of Seriphus because Polydectes wanted to marry his mother. The gods were well aware of this, Perseus received help, he received a mirrored shield from Athena, winged sandals from Hermes, a sword from Hephaestus and Hades's helm of invisibility. Since Medusa was the only one of the three Gorgons, mortal, Perseus was able to slay her while looking at the reflection from the mirrored shield he received from Athena. During that time, Medusa was pregnant by Poseidon; when Perseus beheaded her, Pegasus, a winged horse, Chrysaor, a giant wielding a golden sword, sprang from her body. Jane Ellen Harrison argues that "her potency only begins when her head is severed, that potency resides in the head. Harrison's translation states "the Gorgon was made out of the terror, not the terror out of the Gorgon."According to Ovid, in northwest Africa, Perseus flew past the Titan Atlas, who stood holding the sky aloft, transformed him into stone when he tried to attack him.
In a similar manner, the corals of the Red Sea were said to have been formed of Medusa's blood spilled onto seaweed when Perseus laid down the petrifying head beside the shore during his short stay in Ethiopia where he saved and wed his future wife, the lovely princess Andromeda. Furthermore, the poisonous vipers of the Sahara, in the Argonautica 4.1515, Ovid's Metamorphoses 4.770 and Lucan's Pharsalia 9.820, were said to have grown from spilt drops of her blood. The blood of Medusa spawned the Amphisbaena. Perseus flew to Seriphos, where his mother was being forced into marriage with the king, turned into stone by the head. Perseus gave the Gorgon's head to Athena, who placed it on her shield, the Aegis; some classical references refer to three Gorgons. It is obvious that the Gorgons are not three but one + two; the two unslain sisters are mere appendages due to custom. A number of early classics scholars interpreted the myth of Medusa as a quasi-historical – "based on or reconstructed from an event, style, etc. in the past", or "sublimated" memory of an actual invasion.
According to Joseph Campbell: The legend of Perseus beheading Medusa means that "the Hellenes overran the goddess's chief shrines" and "stripped her priestesses of their Gorgon masks", the latter being apotropaic faces worn to frighten away the profane. That is to say, there occurred in the early thirteenth century B. C. an actual historic rupture, a sort of sociological trauma, registered in this myth, much as what Freud terms the latent content of a neurosis is registered in the manifest content of a dream: registered yet hidden, registered in the unconscious yet unknown or misconstrued by the conscious mind. In 1940, Sigmund Freud's "Das Medusenhaupt". In Freud's interpretation: "To decapitate = to castra
A novelization is a derivative novel that adapts the story of a work created for another medium, such as a film, TV series, comic book or video game. Film novelizations were popular before the advent of home video, but continue to find commercial success as part of marketing campaigns for major films, they are written by accomplished writers based on an early draft of the film's script and on a tight deadline. Novelizations of films began to be produced in the 1910s and 1920s for silent films such as Les Vampires and London After Midnight. One of the first talking movies to be novelized was King Kong. Film novelizations were profitable during the 1970s before home video became available, as they were the only way to re-experience popular movies other than television airing or a rerelease in theaters; the novelizations of Star Wars and Star Trek:The Motion Picture sold millions of copies. After the advent of home video, film novelizations remain popular, with the adaptation of Godzilla being included on The New York Times Best Seller list for mass-market paperbacks.
This has been attributed to these novels' appeal to fans: About 50% of novelizations are sold to people who have watched the film and want to explore its characters further, or to reconnect to the enthusiasm they experienced when watching the film. A film is therefore a sort of commercial for its novelization. Conversely, film novelizations help generate publicity for upcoming films, serving as a link in the film's marketing chain. According to publishing industry estimates, about one or two percent of the audience of a film will buy its novelization; this makes these inexpensively produced works a commercially attractive proposition in the case of blockbuster film franchises. The increasing number of established novelists taking on tie-in works has been credited with these works gaining a "patina of respectability" after they had been disregarded in literary circles as derivative and mere merchandise; the writer of a novelization is supposed to multiply the 20,000–25,000 words of a screenplay into at least 60,000 words.
Writers achieve that by adding description or introspection. Ambitious writers are moreover driven to work on transitions and characters just to accomplish "a more prose-worthy format". Sometimes the "novelizer" moreover invents new scenes in order to give the plot "added dimension", provided they are allowed to do that, it might take an insider to tell whether a novelization diverges instead unintentionally from the released film because it is based on an earlier version which included meanwhile deleted scenes. Thus the novelization already presents material which will on appear in a director's cut. Writers select different approaches to enrich a screenplay. Dewey Gram's Gladiator, for example, included historical background information. Shaun Hutson refused to write a novelization of Snakes on a Plane because he found the source material too "poor". Still Christa Faust accepted and filled the pages by inventing detailed biographies for some of the early killed passengers, she was praised for having presented "full three-dimensional characters".
If a film is based on a novel, the original novel is reissued with a cover based on the film's poster. If a film company which holds the rights for a film wishes to have a novelization published, the company is supposed to approach in the first place an author, in possession of "Separated Rights". A writer has these rights if he contributed the source material and if he was moreover properly credited. Novelizations exist where the film itself is based on an original novel: novelist and screenwriter Christopher Wood wrote a novelization of the James Bond film The Spy Who Loved Me. Although the 1962 Ian Fleming novel was still available in bookstores, its story had nothing to do with the 1977 film. To avoid confusion, Wood's novelization was titled The Spy Who Loved Me; this novel is an example of a screenwriter novelizing his own screenplay. Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker was published under the name of George Lucas but his script had been novelized by the prolific tie-in writer Alan Dean Foster.
Acquiring editors looking for a novelizer have different issues. For starters rewrites of scripts are not uncommon; the script for the 1966 film Modesty Blaise for example was rewritten by five different authors. The writer or script doctor responsible for the so-called "final" version is not the artist who has contributed the original idea or most of the scenes; the patchwork character of a film script might exacerbate because the film director, a principal actor or a consulting script doctor does rewrites during the shooting. An acquiring editor who intends to hire one of the credited screenwriters has to reckon that the early writers are no longer familiar with the current draft or work on another film script. Not every screenwriter is available, willing to work for less money than what can be earned with film scripts and able to deliver the required amount of prose on time. If so, there is still the matter of novelizations having a questionable reputation; the International Association of Media Tie-In Writers concedes that by saying their craft went "largely unrecognized".
Some novels blur the line between a novelization and an original novel, the basis of a film adaptation. Arthur C. Clarke provided the ideas for Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey. Based on his own short stories and his cooperation with Kubrick during the preparation and making of this film adaptation he wrote the film novelization of the same name, appreciat
Coyote is a mythological character common to many cultures of the indigenous peoples of North America, based on the coyote animal. This character is male and is anthropomorphic although he may have some coyote-like physical features such as fur, pointed ears, yellow eyes, a tail and claws; the myths and legends which include Coyote vary from culture to culture. Coyote shares many traits with the mythological figure Raven. Coyote is seen as inspiration to certain tribes; the word "coyote" was a Spanish corruption of the Nahuatl word for the animal, coyotl. Coyote mythlore is one of the most popular among Native American people. Coyote is. Coyote is compared to both the Scandinavian Loki, Prometheus, who shared with Coyote the trick of having stolen fire from the gods as a gift for mankind, Anansi, a mythological culture hero from Western African mythology. In Eurasia, rather than a coyote, a fox is featured as a trickster hero, ranging from kitsune tales in Japan to the Reynard cycle in Western Europe.
Claude Lévi-Strauss, French anthropologist proposed a structuralist theory that suggests that Coyote and Crow obtained mythic status because they are mediator animals between life and death. Coyote is the tutelary spirit of "Coyoteway", one of the Navajo curing ceremonies which feature masked impersonators of divinities; the ceremony is necessary if someone in the tribe catches "coyote illness", which can result from killing a coyote or seeing its dead body. During the ritual, the patient takes the part of the hero of a ceremonial myth and sits on a sandpainting depicting an episode from the myth, he or she "meets" Coyote. The ceremony restores the patient's harmonious relationship with Coyote and the world and thus ensures a return to good health. There are many faces for the same archetypal figure. Kumokums is a trickster of the Modoc Indians of California. Manabozho is an Algonquian trickster. Among tribes of the Midwest the trickster is something the Great Hare. For many Plains Indians he is Ikotme the Spider. in the Pacific Northwest he is Raven.
Great hare, Nanabush or Glooskap in the woodlands, Rabbit in the Southeast, Coyote on the Plains in the West, Raven, Blue Jay or Mink on the Northwest coast. And in many parts of the country we find the trickster Coyote and Iktome are popular figures. One character the Rabbit trickster of the Southeast, passed into modern Coyote is a figure in the following cultural areas of the Americas, as defined by ethnographers: Coyote is featured in the mythology of numerous peoples from the area covered by the modern state of California, including the Achomawi and Atsugewi, the Dieguenos, the Gallinomero the Juaneno, the Karok, the Luiseno, the Maidu, the Miwok, the Pomo the Rumsen, the Shasta the Shastika, the Sinkyone, the Wappo, the Yana and the Yokut. In many of these stories he is a major sacred character with divine creative powers. In some stories he combines both roles. A good example is a Maidu myth that says that at the beginning of time, a primal being called Earth Maker is floating on the infinite waters, when Coyote calls out to him.
Together they sing to create the world. After it is completed, Earth Maker has created the people, Coyote vows to spoil the word and introduce evil to it. Earth Maker orders the people to destroy Coyote, but despite their best efforts, Coyote uses supernatural trickery to outwit them. In the end, Earth Maker is forced to recognise. A common theme is of Coyote benefitting the human community by organising the theft of fire, or of the sun, from the supernatural beings who have been keeping it for themselves. In a Shasta myth, Coyote saves the world from ten evil moons which have inflicted it with everlasting winter. In a Miwok myth, Coyote creates all animals calls them to a council to discuss the creation of human beings; each animal wants people to be imbued with its own best qualities. Coyote mocks vowing that human beings should have his own wit and cunning; each animal makes a human model in its own likeness. A Maidu myth says that as the Creator was fashioning various creatures out of clay, Coyote tried to do the same.
However, as he kept laughing, his efforts did not turn out well. The Creator suggested. Coyote denied laughing - thus telling the world's first lie; some stories depict Coyote as the embodiment of evil lechery: a serial rapist who uses trickery to attack a variety of victims including, for example, his own mother-in-law and his sister. Such tales may have served to reinforce the community moral code, by using outrageous humour to portray examples of intolerable behaviour. Great Basin Coyote is featured in myths of the Chemehuevi, Paiute and Ute peoples. In this region most of the stories feature him as a lecherous trickster. However, there are some echoes of his divine role as expressed in the myths of California, in particular obtaining fire for the people. Myths and stories of Coyote are found in the cultures of the Plateau area: the Chinookan, the Flathead, the Nez Perce, the Nlaka'pamux, the Syilx, the St'at'imc, the Tsilhqot'in, the Yakama. Coyote appears in the traditions of the Tohono O'odham people of Arizona, as an associate of the culture-hero Montezuma.
Freyr, sometimes anglicized as Frey, is a attested god associated with sacral kingship and prosperity, with sunshine and fair weather, pictured as a phallic fertility god in Norse mythology. Freyr is said to "bestow peace and pleasure on mortals". Freyr, sometimes referred to as Yngvi-Freyr, was associated with Sweden and seen as an ancestor of the Swedish royal house. In the Icelandic books the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda, Freyr is presented as one of the Vanir, the son of the sea god Njörðr, as well as the twin brother of the goddess Freyja; the gods gave him the realm of the Elves, as a teething present. He rides the shining dwarf-made boar Gullinbursti and possesses the ship Skíðblaðnir which always has a favorable breeze and can be folded together and carried in a pouch when it is not being used. Freyr is known to have been associated with the horse cult, he kept sacred horses in his sanctuary at Thrandheim in Norway. He has the servants Skírnir and Beyla; the most extensive surviving Freyr myth relates Freyr's falling in love with the female jötunn Gerðr.
She becomes his wife but first Freyr has to give away his sword which fights on its own "if wise be he who wields it." Although deprived of this weapon, Freyr defeats the jötunn Beli with an antler. However, lacking his sword, Freyr will be killed by the fire jötunn Surtr during the events of Ragnarök. Like other Germanic deities, veneration of Freyr is revived in the modern period in Heathenry movement. Written around 1080, one of the oldest written sources on pre-Christian Scandinavian religious practices is Adam of Bremen's Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum. Adam claimed to have access to first-hand accounts on pagan practices in Sweden, he refers to Freyr with the Latinized name Fricco and mentions that an image of him at Skara was destroyed by the Christian missionary, Bishop Egino. His description of the Temple at Uppsala gives some details on the god. In the account Adam states that when a marriage is performed a libation is made to the image of Fricco. Historians are divided on the reliability of Adam's account.
While he is close in time to the events he describes he has a clear agenda to emphasize the role of the Archbishopric of Hamburg-Bremen in the Christianization of Scandinavia. His timeframe for the Christianization of Sweden conflicts with other sources, such as runic inscriptions and archaeological evidence does not confirm the presence of a large temple at Uppsala. On the other hand, the existence of phallic idols was confirmed in 1904 with a find at Rällinge in Södermanland, Sweden; when Snorri Sturluson was writing in 13th century Iceland, the indigenous Germanic gods were still remembered although they had not been worshiped for more than two centuries. In the Gylfaginning section of his Prose Edda, Snorri introduces Freyr as one of the major gods; this description has similarities to the older account by Adam of Bremen but the differences are interesting. Adam assigns control of the weather and produce of the fields to Thor but Snorri says that Freyr rules over those areas. Snorri omits any explicitly sexual references in Freyr's description.
Those discrepancies can be explained in several ways. It is possible that the Norse gods did not have the same roles in Icelandic and Swedish paganism but it must be remembered that Adam and Snorri were writing with different goals in mind. Either Snorri or Adam may have had distorted information; the only extended myth related about Freyr in the Prose Edda is the story of his marriage. The woman is a beautiful giantess. Freyr falls in love with her and becomes depressed and taciturn. After a period of brooding, he consents to talk to his foot-page, he tells Skírnir that he has fallen in love with a beautiful woman and thinks he will die if he cannot have her. He asks Skírnir to woo her for him; the loss of Freyr's sword has consequences. According to the Prose Edda, Freyr had to slew him with an antler, but the result at Ragnarök, the end of the world, will be much more serious. Freyr is fated to fight the fire-giant Surtr and since he does not have his sword he will be defeated. After the loss of his weapon Freyr still has two magical artifacts, both of them dwarf-made.
One is the ship Skíðblaðnir, which will have favoring breeze wherever its owner wants to go and can be folded together like a napkin and carried in a pouch. The other is the boar Gullinbursti. No myths involving Skíðblaðnir have come down to us but Snorri relates that Freyr rode to Baldr's funeral in a wagon pulled by Gullinbursti. Freyr is referred to several times in skaldic poetry. In Húsdrápa preserved in the Prose Edda, he is said to ride a boar to Baldr's funeral. In a poem by Egill Skalla-Grímsson, Freyr is called upon along with Njörðr to drive Eric Bloodaxe from Norway; the same skald mentions in Arinbjarnarkviða. In Nafnaþulur Freyr is said to ride the horse Blóðughófi. Freyr is mentioned in several of the poems in the Poetic Edda; the information there is consistent with that of the Prose Edda while each collection has some details not found in the other. Völuspá, the best known of the Eddic poems, describes the final confrontation between Freyr and Surtr during Ragnarök; some scholars have preferred a different translation, in which the sun shines "from the sword of the gods".
The idea is that the sword which Surtr slays Freyr with is the "sword of the gods" which Freyr had earlier bargained away for Gerðr. This would add a further layer of tragedy to the myth. Sigurður Nordal argued for this view but the possibility represented by Ursu
In Germanic mythology, Odin is a revered Germanic god. In Norse mythology, from which stems most surviving information about the god, Odin is associated with wisdom, death, the gallows, war, victory, poetry and the runic alphabet, is the husband of the goddess Frigg. In wider Germanic mythology and paganism, the god was known in Old English as Wōden, in Old Saxon as Wōdan, in Old High German as Wuotan or Wōtan, all stemming from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic theonym *wōđanaz. Odin is a prominently mentioned god throughout the recorded history of the Germanic peoples, from the Roman occupation of regions of Germania through the tribal expansions of the Migration Period and the Viking Age. In the modern period, Odin continued to be acknowledged in the rural folklore of Germanic Europe. References to Odin appear in place names throughout regions inhabited by the ancient Germanic peoples, the day of the week Wednesday bears his name in many Germanic languages, including English. In Old English texts, Odin holds a particular place as a euhemerized ancestral figure among royalty, he is referred to as a founding figure among various other Germanic peoples, such as the Langobards.
Forms of his name appear throughout the Germanic record, though narratives regarding Odin are found in Old Norse works recorded in Iceland around the 13th century. These texts make up the bulk of modern understanding of Norse mythology. In Old Norse texts, Odin is depicted as one-eyed and long-bearded wielding a spear named Gungnir, wearing a cloak and a broad hat, he is accompanied by his animal companions and familiars—the wolves Geri and Freki and the ravens Huginn and Muninn, who bring him information from all over Midgard—and rides the flying, eight-legged steed Sleipnir across the sky and into the underworld. Odin is the son of Bestla and Borr and has two brothers, Vili and Vé. Odin is attested as having many sons, most famously the gods Thor and Baldr, is known by hundreds of names. In these texts, he seeks greater knowledge, at times in disguise, makes wagers with his wife Frigg over the outcome of exploits, takes part in both the creation of the world by way of slaying the primordial being Ymir and giving the gift of life to the first two humans Ask and Embla.
Odin has a particular association with Yule, mankind's knowledge of both the runes and poetry is attributed to him, giving Odin aspects of the culture hero. In Old Norse texts, female beings associated with the battlefield—the valkyries—are associated with the god and Odin oversees Valhalla, where he receives half of those who die in battle, the einherjar; the other half are chosen by the goddess Freyja for Fólkvangr. Odin consults the disembodied, herb-embalmed head of the wise being Mímir for advice, during the foretold events of Ragnarök, Odin is told to lead the einherjar into battle before being consumed by the monstrous wolf Fenrir. In folklore, Odin appears as a leader of the Wild Hunt, a ghostly procession of the dead through the winter sky, he is associated with charms and other forms of magic in Old English and Old Norse texts. Odin is a frequent subject of study in Germanic studies, numerous theories have been put forward regarding his development; some of these focus on Odin's particular relation to other figures.
Other approaches focus on Odin's place in the historical record, a frequent question being whether the figure of Odin derives from Proto-Indo-European religion, or whether he developed in Germanic society. In the modern period, Odin has inspired numerous works of poetry and other forms of media, he is venerated in most forms of the new religious movement Heathenry, together with other gods venerated by the ancient Germanic peoples. The Old Norse theonym Óðinn and its cognates, including Old English Wōden, Old Saxon Wōden, Old High German Wuotan, derive from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic theonym *wōđanaz; the masculine noun *wōđanaz developed from the Proto-Germanic adjective *wōđaz, related to Latin vātēs and Old Irish fáith, both meaning'seer, prophet'. Adjectives stemming from *wōđaz include Gothic woþs'possessed', Old Norse óðr,'mad, furious', Old English wōd'mad'; the adjective *wōđaz was further substantivised, leading to Old Norse óðr'mind, soul, sense', Old English ellen-wōd'zeal', Middle Dutch woet'madness', Old High German wuot'thrill, violent agitation'.
Additionally the Old Norse noun æði'rage, fury' and Old High German wuotī'madness' derive from the feminine noun *wōđīn, from *wōđaz. The weak verb *wōđjanan derived from *wōđaz, gave rise to Old Norse æða'to rage', Old English wēdan'to be mad, furious', Old Saxon wōdian'to rage', Old High German wuoten'to be insane, to rage'. Over 170 names are recorded for Odin; these names are variously descriptive of attributes of the god, refer to myths involving him, or refer to religious practices associated with the god. This multitude of names makes Odin the god with the most names known among the Germanic peoples; the modern English weekday name Wednesday derives from Old English wōdnesdæg. Cognate terms are found in other Germanic languages, such as Middle Low German wōdensdach, Old Norse Óðinsdagr (Danish, Nor
In Mexican folklore, La Llorona is the ghost of a woman who drowned her children and now cries while looking for them in the river causing misfortune to those who are near or hear her. There is no credible evidence to the events that inspired the tale/legend of La Llorona; the legend is said. She was known around her village for her beauty. One day, an wealthy nobleman traveled through her village, he stopped in his tracks. Maria was charmed by him and he was charmed by her beauty, so when he proposed to her, she accepted. Maria's family was thrilled that she was marrying into a wealthy family, but the nobleman's father was disappointed that his son was marrying into poverty. Maria and her new husband built a house in the village to be away from his disapproving father, she gave birth to two sons. Her husband was always traveling, stopped spending time with his family; when he came home, he only paid attention to the sons and Maria knew her husband was falling out of love with her. One day, he returned to the village with a younger woman, told his sons farewell, ignoring Maria.
Maria and hurt, took her children to a river and drowned them in a blind rage. She realized what she had done and searched for them, but the river had carried them away. Days she was found dead on the river bank. Challenged at the gates of heaven for the whereabouts of her children, she was not permitted to enter the afterlife until she finds them. Stuck between the land of the living and the dead, she spends eternity looking for her lost children, she is always heard weeping for her children, earning her the name "La Llorona." It is said. If you hear her cries, they could bring misfortune or death. Many parents in Latin America use this story to scare their children from staying out too late. La Llorona kidnaps mistaking them for her own, she begs the heavens for forgiveness, drowns the children she kidnaps. People who claim to have seen her say she appears at night or in the late evening by rivers or lakes, wearing a white or black gown with a veil; some believe those who hear the wails of La Llorona are marked for death or misfortune, similar to the Gaelic banshee legend.
Among her wails, she is noted as crying "¡Ay, mi hijos!" which translates to "Oh, my children!" or "Oh, my sons!" She scrapes the bottom of the lakes, searching for her sons. It is said that when her wails sound near she is far and when she sounds distant, she is very near. La Llorona is sometimes identified with La Malinche, the Nahua woman who served as Cortés' interpreter and mistress who bore his children and who some say was betrayed by the Spanish conquistadors. In one folk story of La Malinche, she became Hernán Cortés' mistress and bore him a child, only to be abandoned so that he could marry a Spanish lady. Aztec pride drove La Malinche to acts of vengeance. In this context, the tale compares the Spanish discovery of the New World and the demise of indigenous culture after the conquest with La Llorona's loss; the Chumash of Southern California have their own connection to La Llorona. Chumash mythology mentions La Llorona when explaining nunašɨš called the "maxulaw" or "mamismis." Mythology says the Chumash believe in both the nunašɨš and La Llorona and hear the maxulaw cry up in the trees.
The maxulaw cry is considered an omen of death. The Maxulaw is described as looking like a cat with skin of rawhide leather. Outside the Americas, La Llorona bears a resemblance to the ancient Greek tale of the demonic demigodess Lamia. Hera, Zeus' wife, learned of his affair with Lamia and, out of anger, killed all the children Lamia had with Zeus. Out of jealousy over the loss of her own children, Lamia steals other women's children. In Greek mythology, Medea killed the two children fathered by Jason after he left her for another woman. Author Ben Radford's investigation into the legend of La Llorona, published in Mysterious New Mexico, traced elements of the story back to a German folktale dating from 1486; the plot of the 1961 Mexican film The Curse of the Crying Woman involves the resurrection of the spirit of La Llorona. La Llorona appeared as the main antagonist in the 2007 movie "J-ok'el". La Llorona appeared as the "monster of the week" in the NBC TV series Grimm, in the ninth episode of the second season which first aired on October 2012.
In this storyline, she is a ghost-like creature who appears in different cities at yearly intervals around Halloween, always luring three children to a point where three rivers meet, attempting to'sacrifice' these children to regain her own. In the episode, series protagonist Nick Burkhardt and his partner Hank Griffin work with wesen detective Valentina Espinosa, who lost her nephew to La Llorona some years ago, manage to save her latest victims, although La Llorona vanishes into the water. La Llorona appeared as the first antagonist in the 2005 pilot episode of the TV series Supernatural. Sarah Shahi portrayed Constance Welch, The Woman in White who, after discovering her husband's infidelity took the lives of her two children by drowning them in a bathtub at home and soon after, took her own by jumping off a bridge into a river, her ghost was known to haunt the Centennial Highway, hitchhiking unknowing mot