The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Ellsworth Air Force Base
Ellsworth Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located about 10 miles northeast of Rapid City, South Dakota, just north of the town of Box Elder. The host unit at Ellsworth is the 28th Bomb Wing assigned to the Global Strike Command's Eighth Air Force; the 28 BW is one of the Air Force's two B-1B Lancer wings. As of 2017, the 28th Bomb Wing is commanded by Colonel John Edwards. An expansion of a bomber training area encompassing the Northern Plains known as the Powder River Training Complex began in 2008. Ellsworth AFB is 10 miles east of Rapid City, S. D; the relationship between Ellsworth and Rapid City was exemplified by Ellsworth's main entrance, a gift from the citizens of Rapid City, constructed to symbolize a B-52 Stratofortress, one of the aircraft flown by the 28th Bomb Wing. This entrance has been replaced; the mission of the 28th Bomb Wing is to deliver combat power for global military response. It is divided into the 28th Operations Group, the 28th Maintenance Group, the 28th Mission Support Group and the 28th Medical Group.
Ellsworth has a population of family members and civilian employees. Rapid City itself has a population of just more than 62,500. There are about 3,800 military retirees in western South Dakota. Units assigned to Ellsworth are: 28th Bomb Wing The Wing commander’s staff consists of a vice commander, an executive officer, a secretary, a director of staff, a wing inspector general, a command chief-master sergeant, a historian, information management, public affairs, chapel, military equal opportunity, wing plans, treaty compliance, honor guard, the 28th Comptroller Contracting Squadron and a Sexual Assault Response Coordinator.28th Operations GroupProvides combat-ready B-1 aircraft and crews to support Joint Chiefs of Staff taskings, including conventional theater operations and power projection. It plans and executes training missions essential to attain versatile power projection and global reach, provides the aviation infrastructure necessary to conduct safe flight operations for the 34th and 37th Bomb Squadrons.
The 28th Operations Group has three squadrons under its command to assist in accomplishing its mission—the 28th Operations Support Squadron, the 34th Bomb Squadron and the 37th Bomb Squadron.28th Maintenance GroupFormulates policies and implements procedures to ensure availability of the 29 B-1 aircraft and associated support equipment and munitions in support of Joint Chief of Staff-tasked and other contingency missions. The 28th Maintenance Group manages the production of a 1,500- member workforce comprising four squadrons, an annual organizational maintenance and reparable support division budget exceeding $42.5 million and weapons valued at more than $9 billion and real property worth $168 million. Additionally, the group directs the implementation of plans supporting pre-planned and contingency mobility taskings in support of national objectives.28th Mission Support GroupProvides mission essential "city" services at home and combat support services while deployed. Nearly 40 percent of military members and civilians stationed at Ellsworth are part of the 28 MSG team which maintains the base infrastructure by providing essential services to military members, Department of Defense civilians and their family members.
Support operations range from base administration, personnel management, mobility readiness, vehicle maintenance, educational services and computer support to civil engineering and food services. Additionally, the group supports the base community through fire protection, disaster preparedness, family support. Recreational opportunities are provided in the form of clubs, fitness facilities, the base library and other sport-related activities.28th Medical Group Tenant UnitsAir Force Financial Services Center Area Defense Counsel Detachment 226 AFOSI Detachment 8, 372 TRS Ellsworth AFB was established in 1941 as Rapid City Army Air Base. It is named in honor of Brigadier General Richard E. Ellsworth, the 28th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing commander, killed when his RB-36 Peacemaker aircraft crashed near Nut Cove, during a training flight. During World War II, Ellsworth flew 400 missions in the China Burma India Theater. On 2 January 1942, the U. S. War Department established Rapid City Army Air Base as a training location for B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bomber units.
Construction proceeded on the base, with the Control tower opening on 30 Sep 1942. The airfield had three concrete runways, 7050x300, 7000x300, 7872x300. Rapid City AAF was assigned to II Bomber Command; the 88th Bombardment Group was reassigned to the new base in October 1942 to be the base's Operational Training Unit. In March 1944, heavy bomber operational training ended and the 225th Army Air Force Base Unit began training of replacement personnel for deployed heavy bombardment units in the overseas combat theaters; the field's instructors taught thousands of pilots, radio operators and gunners from nine heavy bombardment groups and numerous smaller units. All training focused on the Allied drive to overthrow the Axis powers in Europe. On 15 July 1945, the 225th AAFBU was inactivated and Rapid City AAB was placed on standby status as the Army Air Forces began to demobilize. Rapid City AAB was assigned to Continental Air Force, it was designated a permanent facility by the Army Air F
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl refers to the unrestricted growth in many urban areas of housing, commercial development, roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning. In addition to describing a particular form of urbanization, the term relates to the social and environmental consequences associated with this development. In Continental Europe the term "peri-urbanisation" is used to denote similar dynamics and phenomena, although the term urban sprawl is being used by the European Environment Agency. There is widespread disagreement about how to quantify it. For example, some commentators measure sprawl only with the average number of residential units per acre in a given area, but others associate it with decentralization, segregation of uses, so forth. The term urban sprawl is politicized, always has negative connotations, it is criticized for causing environmental degradation, intensifying segregation and undermining the vitality of existing urban areas and attacked on aesthetic grounds.
Due to the pejorative meaning of the term, few support urban sprawl as such. The term has become a rallying cry for managing urban growth. Definitions of sprawl vary. Batty et al. defined sprawl as "uncoordinated growth: the expansion of community without concern for its consequences, in short, incremental urban growth, regarded unsustainable." Bhatta et al. wrote in 2010 that despite a dispute over the precise definition of sprawl there is a "general consensus that urban sprawl is characterized by unplanned and uneven pattern of growth, driven by multitude of processes and leading to inefficient resource utilization." Reid Ewing has shown that sprawl has been characterized as urban developments exhibiting at least one of the following characteristics: low-density or single-use development, strip development, scattered development, and/or leapfrog development. He argued that a better way to identify sprawl was to use indicators rather than characteristics because this was a more flexible and less arbitrary method.
He proposed using "accessibility" and "functional open space" as indicators. Ewing's approach has been criticized for assuming that sprawl is defined by negative characteristics. What constitutes sprawl may be considered a matter of degree and will always be somewhat subjective under many definitions of the term. Ewing has argued that suburban development does not, per se constitute sprawl depending on the form it takes, although Gordon & Richardson have argued that the term is sometimes used synonymously with suburbanization in a pejorative way. Metropolitan Los Angeles for example, despite popular notions of being an sprawling city, is the densest metropolitan region in the US, being denser than the New York metropolitan area and the San Francisco Bay Area. Most of metropolitan Los Angeles is built at more uniform low to moderate density, leading to a much higher overall density for the entire region; this is in contrast to cities such as New York, San Francisco or Chicago which have compact, high-density cores but are surrounded by large areas of low density.
The international cases of sprawl draw into question the definition of the term and what conditions are necessary for urban growth to be considered sprawl. Metropolitan regions such Greater Mexico City, Delhi National Capital Region and Beijing, are regarded as sprawling despite being dense and mixed use. Despite the lack of a clear agreed upon description of what defines sprawl most definitions associate the following characteristics with sprawl; this refers to a situation where commercial, residential and industrial areas are separated from one another. Large tracts of land are devoted to a single use and are segregated from one another by open space, infrastructure, or other barriers; as a result, the places where people live, work and recreate are far from one another to the extent that walking, transit use and bicycling are impractical, so all these activities require a car. The degree to which different land uses are mixed together is used as an indicator of sprawl in studies of the subject.
Job sprawl is another land use symptom of urban car-dependent communities. It is defined as low-density, geographically spread-out patterns of employment, where the majority of jobs in a given metropolitan area are located outside of the main city's central business district, in the suburban periphery, it is the result of urban disinvestment, the geographic freedom of employment location allowed by predominantly car-dependent commuting patterns of many American suburbs, many companies' desire to locate in low-density areas that are more affordable and offer potential for expansion. Spatial mismatch is related to economic environmental justice. Spatial mismatch is defined as the situation where poor urban, predominantly minority citizens are left without easy access to entry-level jobs, as a result of increasing job sprawl and limited transportation options to facilitate a reverse commute to the suburbs. Job sprawl has been measured in various ways, it has been shown to be a growing trend in America's metropolitan areas.
The Brookings Institution has published multiple articles on the topic. In 2005, author Michael Stoll defined job sprawl as jobs located more than 5-mile radius from the CBD, measured the concept based on year 2000
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Pennington County, South Dakota
Pennington County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 100,948, making it the second-most populous county in South Dakota, its county seat is Rapid City. The county was created in 1875, was organized in 1877, it is named for John L. Pennington, fifth Governor of Dakota Territory, who held office in 1875 when the county was formed. Pennington County is included in SD Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is the location of Mount Rushmore. In 1874, US Army commander George A. Custer led a group into the Black Hills area, he and some of his officers climbed the crest now called Black Elk Peak, made a toast to US General William S. Harney, they named the peak for Harney, this name was used until 2016. This expedition reported that gold could be found in the Black Hills, which spurred a gold rush into the future county area; the mining settlements that sprang up were in violation of a treaty signed with the Sioux Nation in 1868. By 1875, settlement was sufficient to justify creation of a local governing organization, so Pennington County was created on January 11, 1875, it was organized by April 19, 1877.
The county's boundaries were adjusted in 1877 and in 1898. The county seat was at Sheridan, a mining camp. In 1878, the county seat was moved to Rapid City. In 1923, Doane Robinson, superintendent of the SD State Historical Society, began promoting the concept of a giant sculpture carved from a Black Hills mountain. By 1927 this concept took substance. Shortly after the US entered World War II, an Army training airbase was established in Pennington County, it has continued until the present, now known as Ellsworth Air Force Base. Supporting this activity has provided a substantial portion of the county's economic base since that time. Pennington County is located on the west line of South Dakota, its west boundary line abuts the east boundary line of the state of Wyoming. Its west end contains the nation's highest peak east of Black Elk Peak; the rugged arid western end contains forest and gullies, descendending to rough rolling hill country in the east. The Cheyenne River flows north-northeastward through the center of the county and along its northeastern border on its way to discharge in the Missouri River, while Rapid Creek flows east-southeastward through the western part, to discharge into the Cheyenne at the county's midpoint.
The county terrain varies in elevation from Black Elk Peak at 7,242' to its NE corner, at 1,896' ASL. Pennington County has a total area of 2,784 square miles, of which 2,777 square miles is land and 7.7 square miles is water. It is the third-largest county in South Dakota by area; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 88,565 people, 34,641 households, 23,278 families in the county. The population density was 32 people per square mile. There were 37,249 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 86.70% White, 0.85% Black or African American, 8.09% Native American, 0.88% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.68%% from other races, 2.74% from two or more races. 2.64% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 34,641 households out of which 33.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.30% were married couples living together, 11.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.80% were non-families.
26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.00. The county population contained 26.60% under the age of 18, 10.50% from 18 to 24, 29.20% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 11.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,485, the median income for a family was $44,796. Males had a median income of $30,608 versus $21,540 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,938. About 8.60% of families and 11.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.60% of those under age 18 and 6.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 100,948 people, 41,251 households, 26,323 families in the county; the population density was 36.4 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 44,949 housing units at an average density of 16.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 83.6% white, 9.7% American Indian, 1.0% black or African American, 1.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.8% from other races, 3.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 38.0% were German, 14.3% were Irish, 11.0% were Norwegian, 10.2% were English, 3.6% were American. Of the 41,251 households, 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.1% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.2% were non-families, 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age was 36.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $46,849 and the median income for a family was $57,278. Males had a median income of $38,626 versus $30,251 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,894.
About 9.4% of families and 14.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.7% of those under age 18 and
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c