The Herzogenhorn is a mountain, 1,415.2 m above sea level, in the southwest German state of Baden-Württemberg. It lies within a nature reserve in the municipality of Bernau im Schwarzwald; the Herzogenhorn is the source region for three streams, the Krunkelbach, the Kriegsbach and the Prägbach, which discharge into the Wiese. The Herzogenhorn is the third highest mountain in the Black Forest, after the Feldberg and the Seebuck. If the Baldenweger Buck is counted, the Herzogenhorn is only the fourth highest point in the Black Forest, but if only mountains with a prominence of 100 metres are counted as independent peaks, it becomes the second highest after the Feldberg. The Herzogenhorn is the highest mountain in the Black Forest to have a summit cross. On the Herzogenhorn is an extensive network of trails; the mountain is ascended from Bernau, from Menzenschwand, or from the Feldberg Pass via the Grafenmatt. The two mountain ridges radiating from the Herzogenhorn, south towards St. Blasien and west via the Bernauer Kreuz to Hasenhorn near Todtnau are popular hiking areas.
From the Herzogenhorn, as well as the Feldberg to the north and Belchen to the west, there is a panoramic view in fine weather of the chain of the Alps from the Zugspitze to the southeast to Mont Blanc to the southwest. To the west are the Vosges may be seen beyond the Rhine Plain; the prominent high summit cross of the Herzogenhorn is about 75 minutes walk from the Feldberg Pass. There are two restaurants on the mountain: one attached to the Herzogenhorn National Training Centre, a training centre for high-performance sports and the Krunkelbach Hut south-east of the summit; the mountain is mentioned in a 1328 scroll as "des herzogen horne" as a point on the boundary of the abbey of St. Blaise The first primitive fortifications date to the time around the Thirty Years' War, whilst the construction of the fortification line of schanzen on the mountain is attributed to Margrave Louis William, "Turkish Louis". In 1904, the Mannheim branch of the Black Forest Club built the Mannheim-Ludwigshafen Hut, but this burned down on 28 January 1911.
The Herzogenhorn inn was bought in 1957 from the Black Forest Ski Club, was converted and opened on 22 October 1967 as the new National Training Centre. On 1 January 1979, the first 5 km, ladies cross-country skiing World Cup races in Europe took place on the Herzogenhorn after the Brend ski club had to move due to lack of snow. During the Second World War, military exercises were carried out on the Herzogenhorn and Baldenweger Buck, for example for snipers. In the vicinity of the National Training Centre is the Molerhüsli in which Freiburg artist, Karl Hauptmann and worked from 1920 until his death in 1947. Another artist who worked on the Herzogenhorn worked was Wilhelm Heimer Wickert. On the Herzogenhorn is an extensive network of cross country skiing training trails; the routes starting at the National Training Centre lead in tight loops across the hilly plateau between the Herzogenhorn and Silberberg and are the highest loipen in the Black Forest. They are therefore used for training; the trails, which are all challenging, are accessible from the Feldberg Pass over the Grafenmatt lift or by crossing the alpine slopes of Grafenmatt in about 20 minutes on a groomed forest path.
The Alpine skiing area is not on the Herzogenhorn itself, but on the slopes between the neighbouring Grafenmatt and the Feldberg Pass. Below the Herzogenhorn is, the start of the "Hinterwaldabfahrt", a 7-km-long downhill run into the Wiese valley, that ends in Todtnau. August Vetter: Feldberg im Schwarzwald. Selbstverlag der Gemeinde Feldberg, 1996, Literature by and about Herzogenhorn in the German National Library catalogue. 360° panorama from the Herzogenhorn
The Christianization of sites, pagan occurred as a result of conversions in early Christian times, as well as an important part of the strategy of Interpretatio Christiana during the Christianization of pagan peoples. The landscape itself was Christianized, as prominent features were rededicated to Christian saints, sometimes quite directly, as when the island of Oglasa in the Tyrrhenian Sea was christened Montecristo. In the first centuries of Christianity churches were either house churches in whatever houses were offered for use by their owners, or were shrines on the burial-sites of martyrs or saints, which following the usual classical practice were invariably on the edges of cities - the necropolis was always outside the polis. In Rome the early basilica churches of St. Peter's, Saint Paul Outside the Walls and San Lorenzo fuori le Mura, all follow this pattern; this distinction was broken down earliest in Roman Africa, as relics of the saints came to be kept in city-centre churches.
By the 6th century bishops were buried inside their cathedral, other Christians followed. Given the plethora of worship locations for various cults, many had fallen into disuse well before the rise of Christianity; the establishment of a third century Roman military camp in the temple complex at Luxor demonstrates an ongoing process of adaptive re-use. Obsolete temples had their stone elements repurposed for use in new construction. Many ancient accounts of the manner of conversion of non-Christian places of worship into churches are not borne out by subsequent on-site archaeology. After the Peace of the Church, the old pagan temples continued to function but fell into disuse, were all closed by the decrees of Theodosius I at the end of the 4th century, they were shunned by Christians because of their pagan associations, but because their shape did not suit Christian requirements: "To the early Church, only one sort of building seemed suitable for christianization: the basilica", which had always been a secular type of building.
In Rome itself, numerous buildings including pagan temples and other sites were converted into churches, several major archeological sites owe their preservation to this. On the Roman Forum alone, the Curia Iulia or Roman Senate building, the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, the Temple of Romulus were transformed into churches, the churches of San Giuseppe dei Falegnami and San Pietro in Carcere were built above the Mamertine Prison nearby, where Sts. Peter and Paul were reputed to have been held; the Pantheon in Rome was once a temple dedicated to the Roman gods and it was converted to a Roman Catholic church dedicated to St. Mary and the Martyrs; the prime sites of the pagan temples were often occupied for churches, the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome, Christianized about 750, being the most obvious example. The Basilica of Junius Bassus was made a church in the late fifth century; however this process did not begin in Rome itself until the 6th and 7th centuries, was still under way during the Renaissance, when the Pantheon was made a church and Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri and San Bernardo alle Terme made from parts of the enormous Baths of Diocletian.
One of the most richly adorned churches, the Basilica di San Clemente, according to Christian tradition, built on top of Titus Flavius Clemens's private home, as he had allowed early Christians to worship in his home, due to having pro-Jewish sympathies. The conversion of pre-Christian places of worship, rather than their destruction, was true of temples of Mithras, a religion, the main rival to Christianity during the 2nd and 3rd centuries among the Roman legions. An early 2nd century Mithraeum stands across the Roman street from the house and can be visited by visitors. Other Mithraea have been excavated under churches, such as Santa Prisca, Santo Stefano Rotondo. Several churches in Rome, are said to have been built on the sites of the earlier burial places of martyrs in the catacombs of Rome or elsewhere; the sanctification of burial places, placing tombs inside churches, was a novelty of Christianity, a break with pagan tradition, where burials were regarded as unclean, only allowed beyond a set distance from a city's walls.
St. Peter's Basilica, the church of the Vatican, is traditionally located at the burial place of Simon Peter, most scholars parties agree that the basilica was built on top of a large necropolis on the Vatican Hill. In 1939, an excavation underneath the grottoes which lie directly under the current Basilica, uncovered several surviving Roman mausoleums from the necropolis, in the area directly under the high altar, below the grottoes, the excavators found a structure resembling a temple that they named the aedicula. In Greece, the occupation of pagan sites by Christian monasteries and churches was ubiquitous. Hellenic Aphrodisias in Caria was renamed Stauropolis, the "City of the Cross". Allison Franz argues that it was only after temples ceased to be regarded as serious cult sites that they were converted to churches. "So it was by virtue of necessity rather than in token of a victorious faith that the temples of the old dispensation became the province of the new."Exceptions to this are the conversion of the Askepieion in Athens around 529, both the Hephaisteion and Athena's temple at the Parthenon, during the seventh century, reflecting possible conflict between Christians and non-Christians.
In Byzantine times, the Parthenon became the Church of the Parthenos M
A barometer is a scientific instrument used to measure air pressure. Pressure tendency can forecast short term changes in the weather. Many measurements of air pressure are used within surface weather analysis to help find surface troughs, high pressure systems and frontal boundaries. Barometers and pressure altimeters are the same instrument, but used for different purposes. An altimeter is intended to be used at different levels matching the corresponding atmospheric pressure to the altitude, while a barometer is kept at the same level and measures subtle pressure changes caused by weather; the word barometer is derived from the Ancient Greek: βάρος, lit.'weight', -meter from Ancient Greek: μέτρον. Although Evangelista Torricelli is universally credited with inventing the barometer in 1643, historical documentation suggests Gasparo Berti, an Italian mathematician and astronomer, unintentionally built a water barometer sometime between 1640 and 1643. French scientist and philosopher René Descartes described the design of an experiment to determine atmospheric pressure as early as 1631, but there is no evidence that he built a working barometer at that time.
On July 27, 1630, Giovanni Battista Baliani wrote a letter to Galileo Galilei explaining an experiment he had made in which a siphon, led over a hill about twenty-one meters high, failed to work. Galileo responded with an explanation of the phenomenon: he proposed that it was the power of a vacuum that held the water up, at a certain height the amount of water became too much and the force could not hold any more, like a cord that can support only so much weight; this was a restatement of the theory of horror vacui, which dates to Aristotle, which Galileo restated as resistenza del vacuo. Galileo's ideas reached Rome in December 1638 in his Discorsi. Raffaele Magiotti and Gasparo Berti were excited by these ideas, decided to seek a better way to attempt to produce a vacuum other than with a siphon. Magiotti devised such an experiment, sometime between 1639 and 1641, Berti carried it out. Four accounts of Berti's experiment exist, but a simple model of his experiment consisted of filling with water a long tube that had both ends plugged standing the tube in a basin full of water.
The bottom end of the tube was opened, water, inside of it poured out into the basin. However, only part of the water in the tube flowed out, the level of the water inside the tube stayed at an exact level, which happened to be 10.3 m, the same height Baliani and Galileo had observed, limited by the siphon. What was most important about this experiment was that the lowering water had left a space above it in the tube which had no intermediate contact with air to fill it up; this seemed to suggest the possibility of a vacuum existing in the space above the water. Torricelli, a friend and student of Galileo, interpreted the results of the experiments in a novel way, he proposed that the weight of the atmosphere, not an attracting force of the vacuum, held the water in the tube. In a letter to Michelangelo Ricci in 1644 concerning the experiments, he wrote: Many have said that a vacuum does not exist, others that it does exist in spite of the repugnance of nature and with difficulty. I argued thus: If there can be found a manifest cause from which the resistance can be derived, felt if we try to make a vacuum, it seems to me foolish to try to attribute to vacuum those operations which follow evidently from some other cause.
It was traditionally thought that the air did not have weight: that is, that the kilometers of air above the surface did not exert any weight on the bodies below it. Galileo had accepted the weightlessness of air as a simple truth. Torricelli questioned that assumption, instead proposed that air had weight and that it was the latter which held up the column of water, he thought that the level the water stayed at was reflective of the force of the air's weight pushing on it. In other words, he viewed the barometer as a balance, an instrument for measurement, because he was the first to view it this way, he is traditionally considered the inventor of the barometer; because of rumors circulating in Torricelli's gossipy Italian neighborhood, which included that he was engaged in some form of sorcery or witchcraft, Torricelli realized he had to keep his experiment secret to avoid the risk of being arrested. He needed to use a liquid, heavier than water, from his previous association and suggestions by Galileo, he deduced by using mercury, a shorter tube could be used.
With mercury, about 14 times denser than water, a tube only 80 cm was now needed, not 10.5 m. In 1646, Blaise Pascal along with Pierre Petit, had repeated and perfected Torricelli's experiment after hearing about it from Marin Mersenne, who himself had been shown the experiment by Torricelli toward the end of 1644. Pascal further devised an experiment to test the Aristotelian proposition that it was vapors from the liquid that filled the space in a barometer, his expe
Marie of Romania
Marie of Romania known as Marie of Edinburgh, was the last Queen of Romania as the wife of King Ferdinand I. Born into the British royal family, she was titled Princess Marie of Edinburgh at birth, her parents were Duke of Edinburgh and Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia. Marie's early years were spent in Kent and Coburg. After refusing a proposal from her cousin, the future King George V, she was chosen as the future wife of Crown Prince Ferdinand of Romania, the heir apparent of King Carol I, in 1892. Marie was Crown Princess between 1893 and 1914, became popular with the Romanian people. Marie had controlled her weak-willed husband before his accession in 1914, prompting a Canadian newspaper to state that "few royal consorts have wielded greater influence than did Queen Marie during the reign of her husband". After the outbreak of World War I, Marie urged Ferdinand to ally himself with the Triple Entente and declare war on Germany, which he did in 1916. During the early stages of fighting, Bucharest was occupied by the Central Powers and Marie and their five children took refuge in Moldavia.
There and her three daughters acted as nurses in military hospitals, caring for soldiers who were wounded or afflicted by cholera. On 1 December 1918, the province of Transylvania, following Bessarabia and Bukovina, united with the Old Kingdom. Marie, now queen of Greater Romania, attended the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, where she campaigned for international recognition of the enlarged Romania. In 1922, she and Ferdinand were crowned in a specially-built cathedral in the ancient city of Alba Iulia, in an elaborate ceremony which mirrored their status as queen and king of a united state; as queen, she was popular, both in Romania and abroad. In 1926, Marie and two of her children undertook a diplomatic tour of the United States, they were received enthusiastically by the people and visited several cities before returning to Romania. There, Marie found that Ferdinand was gravely ill and he died a few months later. Now queen dowager, Marie refused to be part of the regency council which reigned over the country under the minority of her grandson, King Michael.
In 1930, Marie's eldest son Carol, who had waived his rights to succession, deposed his son and usurped the throne, becoming King Carol II. He strived to crush her popularity; as a result, Marie moved away from Bucharest and spent the rest of her life either in the countryside, or at her home by the Black Sea. In 1937, she died the following year. Following Romania's transition to a Socialist Republic, the monarchy was excoriated by communist officials. Several biographies of the royal family described Marie either as a drunkard or as a promiscuous woman, referring to her many alleged affairs and to orgies she had organised before and during the war. In the years preceding the Romanian Revolution of 1989, Marie's popularity recovered and she was offered as a model of patriotism to the population. Marie is remembered for her work as a nurse, but is known for her extensive writing, including her critically acclaimed autobiography. Marie was the eldest daughter and second child of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, the former Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia the son of Queen Victoria and the daughter of Emperor Alexander II.
She was born at her parents' residence, Eastwell Manor in Kent, on 29 October 1875, at 10:30 a.m. in the presence of her father. Her birth was celebrated by firing the Tower guns, she was named Marie Alexandra Victoria, after her mother and grandmothers, but she was informally known as "Missy". The Duke of Edinburgh wrote that his daughter "promises to be as fine a child as her brother and gives every evidence of finely developed lungs and did so before she was in the world." As a grandchild of the reigning British monarch in the male line, Marie was formally styled "Her Royal Highness Princess Marie of Edinburgh" from birth. Marie's christening took place in the private chapel of Windsor Castle on 15 December 1875 and was officiated by Arthur Stanley and Gerald Wellesley, Dean of Windsor; the baptism, "of a private nature", took place one day after the ceremony marking the anniversary of the death of her paternal grandfather, Prince Albert. Marie's godparents were Empress Maria Alexandrovna, the Princess of Wales, the Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Tsarevich of Russia and the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn.
Marie and her siblings, Prince Alfred, Princesses Victoria Melita and Beatrice, spent much of their early life at Eastwell Park, which their mother preferred instead of Clarence House, their official residence. In her memoirs, Marie would remember Eastwell fondly; the Duke of Edinburgh was absent from his children's lives, due to his position in the British Royal Navy, their life was governed by their mother. Marie would state that she did not know the colour of her father's hair until she looked at portraits of him, believing it to be much darker than it was; when he was at home, the Duke would play with his children, inventing many games for them. Of all her siblings, Marie was closest to her sister Vic
Prahova Valley is the valley where the Prahova river makes its way between the Bucegi and the Baiu Mountains, in the Carpathian Mountains, Romania. It is a tourist region, situated about 100 km north of the capital city of Bucharest. During World War I, the area was the site of heavy fighting between Austro-Hungarian and German forces on one side and Romanian forces on the other; the strategic objective of the Central Powers was to reach Bucharest via the shortest route, but they were prevented from doing so by determined Romanian resistance. Geographically, the Prahova river separates the Eastern Carpathians chain from the Southern Carpathians; the corridor was the most important passageway between the principalities of Wallachia and Transylvania. The present DN1 road, linking Bucharest with the city of Braşov and the future A3 will be built along the Prahova Valley. After failing to take part in the hosting of the 2013 European Youth festival, Prahova Valley is considering making a bid for the 2022 Winter Olympics.
The region is a popular destination for mountaineers and for winter sports fans. The most important resorts are: Predeal Azuga Buşteni Sinaia Comarnic Breaza Tourism in Romania Landscapes from the mountains above Official Accommodation and Lodging Information On-Line Center Busteni Lodging and Accommodation
Tyrol is a federal state in western Austria. It comprises the Austrian part of the historical Princely County of Tyrol, it is a constituent part of the present-day Euroregion Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino. The capital of Tyrol is Innsbruck; the state of Tyrol is separated into two parts, divided by a 7-kilometre wide strip. The larger territory is called the smaller area is called East Tyrol; the neighbouring Austrian state of Salzburg stands to the east, while on the south Tyrol has a border with the Italian province of South Tyrol, part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire before the First World War. With a land area of 12,683.85 km2, Tyrol is the third-largest state in Austria. Tyrol shares its borders with the federal state of Vorarlberg in the west. In the north, it adjoins to the German state of Bavaria. East Tyrol shares its borders with the federal state of Carinthia to the east and Italy's Province of Belluno to the south; the state's territory is located within the Eastern Alps at the Brenner Pass.
The highest mountain in the state is the Großglockner, part of the Hohe Tauern range on the border with Carinthia. It has a height of 3,797 m, making it the highest mountain in Austria. In ancient times, the region was split between the Roman provinces of Noricum. From the mid-6th century, it was resettled by Germanic Bavarii tribes. In the Early Middle Ages it formed the southern part of the German stem duchy of Bavaria, until the Counts of Tyrol, former Vogt officials of the Trent and Brixen prince-bishops at Tyrol Castle, achieved imperial immediacy after the deposition of the Bavarian duke Henry the Proud in 1138, their possessions formed a state of the Holy Roman Empire in its own right; when the Counts of Tyrol died out in 1253, their estates were inherited by the Meinhardiner Counts of Görz. In 1271, the Tyrolean possessions were divided between Count Meinhard II of Görz and his younger brother Albert I, who took the lands of East Tyrol around Lienz and attached it to his committal possessions around Gorizia.
The last Tyrolean countess of the Meinhardiner Dynasty, bequeathed her assets to the Habsburg duke Rudolph IV of Austria in 1363. In 1420, the committal residence was relocated from Merano to Innsbruck; the Tyrolean lands were reunited when the Habsburgs inherited the estates of the extinct Counts of Görz in 1500. In the course of the German mediatization in 1803, the prince-bishoprics of Trent and Brixen were secularized and merged into the County of Tyrol, but Tyrol was ceded to the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1805. Andreas Hofer led the Tyrolean Rebellion against the Bavarian occupiers. South Tyrol was ceded to the Kingdom of Italy, a client state of the First French Empire, by Bavaria in 1810. After Napoleon's defeat, the whole of Tyrol was returned to Austria in 1814. Tyrol was a Cisleithanian Kronland of Austria-Hungary from 1867; the County of Tyrol extended beyond the boundaries of today's state, including North Tyrol and East Tyrol. After World War I, these lands became part of the Kingdom of Italy according to the 1915 London Pact and the provisions of the Treaty of Saint Germain.
Since November 1918 it was occupied by 20,000–22,000 soldiers of the Italian Army. After World War II, Tyrol was governed by France until Austria regained independence again in 1955; the capital, Innsbruck, is known for its university, for its medicine. Tyrol is popular for its famous ski resorts, which include Ischgl and St. Anton; the 15 largest towns in Tyrol are: Tyrol has long been a central hub for European long-distance routes and thus a transit land for trans-European trade over the Alps. As early as the 1st century B. C. Tyrol had one of the most important north-south links of the Via Claudia Augusta. Roman roads crossed the Tyrol from the Po Plain in present-day Italy, following the course of the Etsch and Eisack in present South Tyrol over the Brenner and following the northern Wipp valley to Hall. From there roads branched along the River Inn; the Via Raetia went westwards and up onto the Seefeld Plateau, where it crossed into Bavaria where Scharnitz is today. The Porta Claudia, built in the early 17th century is a fortification that underlines the importance of the road in the Early Modern Period.
Today Tyrol has international road and air connections. Innsbruck Airport is Tyrol's international airport. In addition there are several smaller airports in various places such as St. Johann in Tirol, Höfen in the Außerfern or Langkampfen. Many ÖPNV companies operate a common tariff scheme as part of the Tyrol Transport Association; the state is divided into nine districts. The districts and their administrative centres, from west to east and north to south, are: North Tyrol: Landeck District, Reutte District, Imst District, Innsbruck-Land, Innsbruck Stadt Schwaz District, Kufstein District, Kitzbühel District, East Tyrol: Lienz District, Tyrol History of Tyrol North Tyrol East Tyrol Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino
The Patriarchal cross is a variant of the Christian cross, the religious symbol of Christianity. Similar to the familiar Latin cross, the patriarchal cross possesses a smaller crossbar placed above the main one so that both crossbars are near the top. Sometimes the patriarchal cross has a slanted crosspiece near its foot; this slanted, lower crosspiece appears in Byzantine Greek and Eastern European iconography, as well as in other Eastern Orthodox churches. The Byzantine Christianization came to the Morava Empire in the year 863, provided at the request of Rastislav sent Byzantine Emperor Michael III; the symbol referred to as the patriarchal cross, appeared in the Byzantine Empire in large numbers in the 10th century. For a long time, it was thought to have been given to Saint Stephen by the pope as the symbol of the apostolic Kingdom of Hungary; the two-barred cross has been one of the main elements in the coat of arms of Hungary since 1190. It appeared during the reign of King Béla III, raised in the Byzantine court.
Béla was the son of Russian princess Eufrosina Mstislavovna. The cross appears floating on the coins from this era. In medieval Kingdom of Hungary was extended Byzantine Cyril-Methodian and western Latin church was expanded later; the two-barred cross in the Hungarian coat of arms comes from the same source of Byzantine Empire in the 12th century. Unlike the ordinary Christian cross, the symbolism and meaning of the double cross is not well understood. In most renditions of the Cross of Lorraine, the horizontal bars are "graded" with the upper bar being the shorter, though variations with the bars of equal length are seen; the top beam represents the plaque bearing the inscription "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews". A popular view is that the slanted bottom beam is a foot rest, however there is no evidence of foot rests being used during crucifixion, it has a deeper meaning; the bottom beam may represent a balance of justice. Some sources suggest that, as one of the thieves being crucified with Jesus repented of his sin and believed in Jesus as the Messiah and was thus with Christ in Paradise, the other thief rejected and mocked Jesus and therefore descended into Hades.
Many symbolic interpretations of the double cross have been put forth. One of them says that the first horizontal line symbolized the secular power and the other horizontal line the ecclesiastic power of Byzantine emperors; that the first cross bar represents the death and the second cross the resurrection of Jesus Christ. The Russian cross can be considered a modified version of the Patriarchal cross, having two smaller crossbeams, one at the top and one near the bottom, in addition to the longer crossbeam. One suggestion is the lower crossbeam represents the footrest to which the feet of Jesus were nailed. In some earlier representations the crossbar near the bottom slanted upwards. In Slavic and other traditions, it came to be depicted as slanted, with the side to the viewer's left being higher. During 1577–1625 the Russian use of the cross was between the heads of the double-headed eagle in the coat of arms of Russia. One tradition says that this comes from the idea that as Jesus Christ took his last breath, the bar to which his feet were nailed broke, thus slanting to the side.
Another tradition holds that the slanted bar represents the repentant thief and the unrepentant thief that were crucified with Christ, the one to Jesus' right hand repenting and rising to be with God in Paradise, one on his left falling to Hades and separation from God. In this manner it reminds the viewer of the Last Judgment. Still another explanation of the slanted crossbar would suggest the Cross Saltire, as tradition holds that the Apostle St. Andrew introduced Christianity to lands north and west of the Black Sea: today's Ukraine, Belarus and Romania. Another form of the cross was used by the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland; this cross now features on the coat of arms of Lithuania, where it appears on the shield of the knight. It is the badge of the Lithuanian Air Force and forms the country's highest award for bravery, the Order of the Cross of Vytis; the Patriarchal Cross appears on the Pahonia, used at various times as the coat of arms of Belarus. Unicode defines the character ☦ and ☨ in the Miscellaneous Symbols range at code point U+2626 and U+2628 respectively.
Papal Cross Two-barred cross pre-christian Slavic cross