The Ohio River is a 981-mile long river in the midwestern United States that flows southwesterly from western Pennsylvania south of Lake Erie to its mouth on the Mississippi River at the southern tip of Illinois. It is the second largest river by discharge volume in the United States and the largest tributary by volume of the north-south flowing Mississippi River that divides the eastern from western United States; the river flows through or along the border of six states, its drainage basin includes parts of 15 states. Through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes several states of the southeastern U. S, it is the source of drinking water for three million people. The lower Ohio River just below Louisville is obstructed by rapids known as the Falls of the Ohio where the water level falls 26ft. in 2 miles and is impassible for navigation. The McAlpine Locks and Dam, a shipping canal bypassing the rapids, now allows commercial navigation from the Forks of the Ohio at Pittsburgh to the Port of New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi on the Gulf of Mexico.
The name "Ohio" comes from the Ohi: yo', lit. "Good River". Discovery of the Ohio River may be attributed to English explorers from Virginia in the latter half of the 17th century. In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated: "The Ohio is the most beautiful river on earth, its current gentle, waters clear, bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted." In the late 18th century, the river was the southern boundary of the Northwest Territory. It became a primary transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. S; the river is sometimes considered as the western extension of the Mason–Dixon Line that divided Pennsylvania from Maryland, thus part of the border between free and slave territory, between the Northern and Southern United States or Upper South. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement.
The Ohio River is a climatic transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical and humid continental climate areas. It is inhabited by flora of both climates. In winter, it freezes over at Pittsburgh but farther south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohio's confluence with the Mississippi, it is ice-free year-round; the name "Ohio" comes from the Seneca language, Ohi:yo', a proper name derived from ohiːyoːh, therefore translating to "Good River". "Great river" and "large creek" have been given as translations. Native Americans, including the Lenni Lenape and Iroquois, considered the Ohio and Allegheny rivers as the same, as is suggested by a New York State road sign on Interstate 86 that refers to the Allegheny River as Ohi:yo'. An earlier Miami-Illinois language name was applied to the Ohio River, Mosopeleacipi. Shortened in the Shawnee language to pelewa thiipi, spelewathiipi or peleewa thiipiiki, the name evolved through variant forms such as "Polesipi", "Peleson", "Pele Sipi" and "Pere Sipi", stabilized to the variant spellings "Pelisipi", "Pelisippi" and "Pellissippi".
Applied just to the Ohio River, the "Pelisipi" name was variously applied back and forth between the Ohio River and the Clinch River in Virginia and Tennessee. In his original draft of the Land Ordinance of 1784, Thomas Jefferson proposed a new state called "Pelisipia", to the south of the Ohio River, which would have included parts of present-day Eastern Kentucky and West Virginia; the river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major trading route, its waters connected communities. In the five centuries before European conquest, the Mississippian culture built numerous regional chiefdoms and major earthwork mounds in the Ohio Valley, such as Angel Mounds near Evansville, Indiana, as well as in the Mississippi Valley and the Southeast; the Osage, Omaha and Kaw lived in the Ohio Valley, but under pressure from the Iroquois to the northeast, migrated west of the Mississippi River in the 17th century to territory now defined as Missouri and Oklahoma.
The discovery and traversal of the Ohio River by Europeans admits of several possibilities, all in the latter half of the 17th century. Virginian Englishman Abraham Wood's trans-Appalachian expeditions between 1654 and 1664; the first person to traverse the length of the river, from the headwaters of the Allegheny to its mouth on the Mississippi, was a Dutch trader from New York, Arnout Viele, in 1692. In 1749, Great Britain established the Ohio Company to trade in the area. Exploration of the territory and trade with the Indians in the region near the Forks brought British colonials from both Pennsylvania and Virginia across the mountains, both colonies claimed the territory; the movement across the Allegheny Mountains of British settlers and the claims of the area near modern day Pittsburgh led to conflict with the French, who had forts in the Ohio River Valley. This conflict was called the Indian War. In 17
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Tennessee. The city is located on the Cumberland River; the city's population ranks 24th in the U. S. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the total consolidated city-county population stood at 691,243; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Davidson County, was 667,560 in 2017. Located in northern Middle Tennessee, Nashville is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in Tennessee; the 2017 population of the entire 14-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,903,045. The 2017 population of the Nashville—Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 2,027,489. Named for Francis Nash, a general of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, the city was founded in 1779; the city grew due to its strategic location as a port and railroad center. Nashville seceded with Tennessee during the American Civil War and in 1862 became the first state capital to fall to Union troops.
After the war the city developed a manufacturing base. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government, which includes six smaller municipalities in a two-tier system; the city is governed by a mayor, a vice-mayor, a 40-member metropolitan council. Reflecting the city's position in state government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for Middle Tennessee. Nashville is a center for the music, publishing, private prison and transportation industries, is home to numerous colleges and universities such as Tennessee State University, Vanderbilt University, Belmont University, Fisk University, Lipscomb University. Entities with headquarters in the city include Asurion, Bridgestone Americas, Captain D's, CoreCivic, Dollar General, Hospital Corporation of America, LifeWay Christian Resources, Logan's Roadhouse, Ryman Hospitality Properties; the town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, a party of Overmountain Men in 1779, near the original Cumberland settlement of Fort Nashborough.
It was named for the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville grew because of its strategic location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 enslaved African Americans and 14 free African-American residents. In 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named as the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee; the city government of Nashville owned 24 slaves by 1831, 60 prior to the war. They were "put to work to build the first successful water system and maintain the streets." The cholera outbreak that struck Nashville in 1849–1850 took the life of former U. S. President James K. Polk. There were 311 deaths from cholera in 1849 and an estimated 316 to about 500 in 1850. By 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city; the city's significance as a shipping port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river and railroad transportation routes.
In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops. The state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war; the Battle of Nashville was a significant Union victory and the most decisive tactical victory gained by either side in the war. Afterward, the Confederates conducted a war of attrition, making guerrilla raids and engaging in small skirmishes, with the Confederate forces in the Deep South constantly in retreat. In 1868, a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W. Morton. Chapters of this secret insurgent group formed throughout the South. In 1873 Nashville suffered another cholera epidemic, as did towns throughout Sumner County along railroad routes and the Cumberland River. Meanwhile, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base; the post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and Davidson County.
These healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, including the Parthenon in Centennial Park, near downtown. On April 30, 1892, Ephraim Grizzard, an African-American man, was lynched in a spectacle murder in front of a white mob of 10,000 in Nashville, his lynching was described by journalist Ida B. Wells as: "A naked, bloody example of the blood-thirstiness of the nineteenth century civilization of the Athens of the South." From 1877 to 1950, a total of six lynchings of blacks were conducted in Davidson County, most in the county seat of Nashville near the turn of the century. By the turn of the century, Nashville had become the cradle of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy, as the first chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy was founded here and the Confederate Veteran magazine was published here. Most "guardians of the Lost Cause" lived near Centennial Park. At the same time, Jefferson Street became the historic center of the African-American community.
It remained so until the federal government s
Castalian Springs, Tennessee
Castalian Springs is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Sumner County, United States. It is located along Tennessee State Route 25, about seven miles east of Gallatin; the area has its own United States post office, designated by the Zip code 37031. In the early 19th century, it was known locally as Bledsoe's Lick, was the location of Bledsoe's Station, a fortified trading post; as of the 2010 census, its population was 556. In the 2008 Super Tuesday tornado outbreak of February 5–6, the tiny village was hit by a strong tornado that claimed seven lives; the historic structure Wynnewood was damaged by the storm and the United States post office was destroyed. Castalian Springs captured national news headlines when an 11-month-old boy, Kyson Stowell, was found alive in the debris of his house. Thought to be a children's doll, the boy moved just and rescuer, David Harmon, noticed the movement, he had been blown 150 yards from the house. Kyson's mother had died in the storm. During the Mississippian culture period of prehistory, the Castalian Springs Mound Site was a major local earthwork mound center and occupied from about 950 into the 14th century.
The Native Americans who built and occupied the complex site preceded the historic tribes known to European-American settlers in the area. This was one of the sites constructed throughout the Mississippi Valley and its tributaries, connecting regions from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico; the site was first excavated in the 1890s. It was excavated professionally in the 2005 to 2010 archaeological field school led by Dr. Kevin E. Smith from Middle Tennessee State University. A number of important finds have been associated with the site, most several examples of Mississippian stone statuary and the "Castalian Springs shell gorget," now held by the National Museum of the American Indian. Wynnwood State Historic Site – historic inn located in Castalian Springs. Bledsoe's Fort Historical Park – public park that protects the site of the 18th-century Bledsoe's Station and several other historic structures Cragfont State Historic Site – A historic home and the former home of James Winchester William B.
Bate, a governor of Tennessee, U. S. Senator, Confederate major general in the American Civil War Humphrey Bate, an early Grand Ole Opry string band leader William Hall, who served as Governor of Tennessee in 1829. John W. Head, Tennessee Attorney General and state senator
Murfreesboro is a city in, the county seat of, Rutherford County, United States. The population was 108,755 according to the 2010 census, up from 68,816 residents certified in 2000. In 2017, census estimates showed a population of 136,372; the city is home to both the center of population of Tennessee, the geographic center of Tennessee. Murfreesboro is located 34 miles southeast of downtown Nashville in the Nashville metropolitan area of Middle Tennessee, it is one of the fastest growing cities in the country. Murfreesboro is home to Middle Tennessee State University, the second largest undergraduate university in the state of Tennessee, with 22,729 total students as of fall 2014. In 2006, Murfreesboro was ranked by Money as the 84th best place to live in the United States, out of 745 cities with a population over 50,000. In 2018, Murfreesboro was ranked by Money as the 19th best place to live in the United States. On October 27, 1811, the Tennessee General Assembly designated the location for a new county seat for Rutherford County, giving it the name Cannonsburgh in honor of Newton Cannon, then-representative to the Assembly for the local area.
At the suggestion of William Lytle, it was renamed Murfreesborough on November 29, 1811, after Revolutionary War hero Colonel Hardy Murfree. The name was shortened to Murfreesboro in January 1812. Author Mary Noailles Murfree was his great-granddaughter; as Tennessee settlement expanded to the west, the location of the state capital in Knoxville became inconvenient for most newcomers. In 1818, Murfreesboro was designated as the capital of Tennessee and its population boomed. Eight years however, it was itself replaced by Nashville. On December 31, 1862, the Battle of Stones River called the Battle of Murfreesboro, was fought near the city between the Union Army of the Cumberland and the Confederate Army of Tennessee; this was a major engagement of the American Civil War, between December 31 and January 2, 1863, the rival armies suffered a combined total of 23,515 casualties. It was the bloodiest battle of the war by percentage of casualties. Following the Confederate retreat after the drawn Battle of Perryville in central Kentucky, the Confederate army moved through East Tennessee and turned northwest to defend Murfreesboro.
General Braxton Bragg's veteran cavalry harassed Union General William Rosecrans' troop movements and destroying many of his supply trains. However, they could not prevent supplies and reinforcements from reaching Rosecrans. Despite the large number of casualties, the battle was inconclusive, it is considered a Union victory, since afterwards General Bragg retreated 36 miles south to Tullahoma. So, the Union army did not move against Bragg until a full six months in June 1863; the battle was significant since it did provide the Union army with a base to push the eventual drive further south, which allowed the advances against Chattanooga and Atlanta. These allowed the Union to divide the Eastern and Western theaters, followed by Sherman's March to the Sea; the Stones River National Battlefield is now a national historical site. General Rosecrans' move to the south depended on a secure source of provisions, Murfreesboro was chosen to become his supply depot. Soon after the battle, Brigadier General James St. Clair Morton, Chief Engineer of the Army of the Cumberland, was ordered to build Fortress Rosecrans, some 2 miles northwest of the town.
The fortifications were the largest built during the war. Fortress Rosecrans consisted of four redoubts and connecting fortifications; the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad and the West Fork of the Stones River both passed through the fortress, while two roads provided additional transportation. The fort's interior was a huge logistical resource center, including sawmills, quartermaster maintenance depots, ammunition magazines, living quarters for the 2,000 men who handled the operations and defended the post; the fortress was completed in June 1863, only did Rosecrans dare to move south. The fortress was never attacked, in part because the Union troops held the town of Murfreesboro hostage by training their artillery on the courthouse. Major portions of the earthworks still have been incorporated into the battlefield site. Murfreesboro had begun as a agricultural community, but by 1853 the area was home to several colleges and academies, gaining the nickname the "Athens of Tennessee". Despite the wartime trauma, the town's growth had begun to recover by the early 1900s, in contrast to other areas of the devastated South.
In 1911, the state legislature created Middle Tennessee State Normal School, a two-year institute to train teachers. It would soon merge with the Tennessee College for Women. In 1925 the Normal School was expanded to a four-year college. In 1965 it became Middle Tennessee State University. MTSU now has the largest undergraduate enrollment in the state, including many international students. World War II resulted in Murfreesboro diversifying into industry and education. Growth has been steady since that time. Murfreesboro has enjoyed substantial residential and commercial growth, with its population increasing 123.9% between 1990 and 2010, from 44,922 to 100,575. The city has been a destination for many immigrants leaving areas affected by warfare; the city has become more cosmopolitan by attracting more numerous international students to the university. The city council has six members, all elected at-large for four-year term
Gallatin is a city in and the county seat of Sumner County, Tennessee. The population was 30,678 at the 2010 census and 32,307 in 2013. Named for U. S. Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin, the city was established on the Cumberland River and made the county seat of Sumner County in 1802, it is located about 30.6 miles northeast of the state capital of Tennessee. Several national companies have facilities or headquarters including Gap, Inc.. RR Donnelley and Servpro Industries, Inc. Gallatin was the headquarters of Dot Records; the city is home to Volunteer State Community College, a two-year college with more than 70 degree programs. Gallatin was established in 1802 as the permanent county seat of Sumner County, Tennessee, in what is called the Middle Tennessee region; the town was named after Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury to presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Andrew Jackson became one of the first to purchase a lot when the town was surveyed and platted in 1803; the town was built around a traditional plan of an open square.
Jackson founded the first general store in Gallatin. In 1803 the first county courthouse and jail were built on the central town square. In 1815, the town was incorporated. In the mid-20th century, it operated under a charter established by a 1953 Private Act of the State Legislature. During the secession crisis just prior to the Civil War, the citizens of Gallatin hoped to remain neutral. Once the fighting began, they gave unanimous support to the Confederacy and volunteered to serve in defense of their state; the Union Army captured Gallatin in February 1862, following Ulysses S. Grant's capture of Fort Donelson. Gallatin was strategic because of the railroad and its location on the Cumberland River, both of which the Union Army sought to control. In July 1862, General John Hunt Morgan recaptured Gallatin and held it until the Confederate forces fell back to Chattanooga in October. In November 1862, Union general Eleazar A. Paine retook the town, Union troops occupied it throughout the remainder of the war.
Paine was notoriously cruel and was replaced in command before the end of the war because of his behavior. Alice Williamson, a 16-year-old girl, kept a diary during this time and described Paine's execution of alleged spies in the town square. Following the Emancipation Proclamation in January 1863, enslaved African Americans left plantations with their families to join the Union troops, they established a "contraband camp" at Gallatin. The slaves were provided food and housing, put to work. Schools were set up in the camp so that both children could learn to read and write; the long enemy occupation drained the area of resources. Union troops lived off the land. By the end of the war, there was widespread social and economic breakdown and dislocation in the area, accompanied by a rise in crime. Occupation forces of the Union Army remained in Gallatin for some time after the war, still living off the land. In the aftermath of the war, many freedmen moved from the farms into town, in order to gather in black communities away from white oversight.
At the same time, many white residents moved from town out to farms in order to avoid the occupying troops. The area took many years to recover from the disruption of the war years, its continued reliance on agriculture slowed the economy, planters and other employers struggled with the shift to a free labor system. In the summer of 1873, Gallatin was devastated by an epidemic of cholera. In the single month of June, 68 people died, including many children; the epidemic swept through the South, with the disease brought by immigrants arriving in New Orleans, spread by passengers traveling in the region by steamboat and rail. The poor sanitation of the period resulted in contamination of water sources. Sumner County had an estimated 120 deaths that year from cholera, with four-fifths of them suffered by African Americans. Nashville had 603 fatal cases with 72 people dying on the day of highest fatalities. Through the late 19th century and its surroundings regained some steady growth; the area was agricultural until the middle of the 20th century.
By 1970, industrialization and urbanization had resulted in half the county population being considered urban. In 1992, Gallatin was surpassed by Hendersonville as the largest city in the county, though the former remains the county seat. Today it serves in part as a bedroom commuter suburb to the larger city and state capital of Nashville, some 30.6 miles to the southwest. In April 7, 2006, a tornado struck the city, killing nine people and injuring 150. Volunteer State Community College sustained major damage; this tornado was part of the April 6 -- 2006 Tornado Outbreak. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.5 square miles, of which 22.0 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles is water. Gallatin has variety of natural landscapes: open fields, forests and lakes; the city is located on Station Camp Creek, three miles north of the Cumberland River, the chief route of transportation in the county's early years of settlement. Old Hickory Lake, a man-made lake, built by the U.
S. Army Corps of Engineers, is located south of the city. Gallatin was on the path of the total solar eclipse of August 21, 2017. Totality of the eclipse, lasting 2 minutes, 38.7 seconds, occurred just before 1:30 PM local DST time that afternoon High temperatures average 49 °F during the winter months, 69 °F in spring, 88 °F in summer, 72 °F in fall. The coolest month
Trousdale County, Tennessee
Trousdale County known as Hartsville/Trousdale County, As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,870. Its county seat is Hartsville, with which it shares a uniquely formed consolidated city-county government. With an area of just 117 square miles, it is Tennessee's smallest county. Trousdale County is part of the Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Franklin, TN Metropolitan Statistical Area, although it is located just beyond the ring of "bedroom communities" in the Nashville metropolitan area. Farming and livestock-raising characterize this rural area. Hartsville is the county seat of Trousdale County and now coextensive with it as a metropolitan government by virtue of a referendum which passed in Trousdale County by a single vote. Trousdale County High School is located here, as well as a technical school operated by the Tennessee Board of Regents. Trousdale County is one of two counties in Tennessee to have legalized parimutuel betting on horse racing, but no group has stepped forward to build a racetrack.
Trousdale County was formed in 1870 from parts of Macon, Smith and Wilson counties. It was named for William Trousdale, Brigadier General in the Mexican War, Governor of Tennessee, 1849–1851, U. S. Minister to Brazil, 1853–1857. Hartsvillians had sought the creation of their own, separate county in 1849, but the effort failed. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 117 square miles, of which 114 square miles is land and 2.5 square miles is water. It is the smallest county by area in Tennessee. Macon County Smith County Wilson County Sumner County Old Hickory Wildlife Management Area As of the census of 2000, there were 7,259 people, 2,780 households, 2,034 families residing in the county; the population density was 64 people per square mile. There were 3,095 housing units at an average density of 27 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 86.57% White, 11.35% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.99% from other races, 0.72% from two or more races.
1.52% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,780 households out of which 31.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.30% were married couples living together, 11.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.80% were non-families. 23.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.20% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 24.90% from 45 to 64, 14.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,212, the median income for a family was $37,401. Males had a median income of $27,466 versus $21,207 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,838.
About 9.70% of families and 13.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.00% of those under age 18 and 20.00% of those age 65 or over. Hartsville, the county seat, is the only constituted municipality in Trousdale County. Unincorporated communities include: National Register of Historic Places listings in Trousdale County, Tennessee Official website TNGenWeb Tennessee Central Economic Alliance for Trousdale County Trousdale County at Curlie
The Bluegrass region is a geographic region in the U. S. state of Kentucky. It makes up the northern part of the state, where a majority of the state's population has lived and developed its largest cities, its area is bounded by the cities of Frankfort, Paris and Stanford. Before European-American settlement, various cultures of Indigenous peoples of the Americas adapted to the region; the region had a savannah of wide grasslands, with interspersed enormous oak trees. The local indigenous peoples hunted its large herds of bison and other game near mineral licks; the name "Kentucky" means "meadow lands" in several different Indigenous languages of the Americas, was applied to this region. Europeans adopted the name to apply to the state. "Bluegrass" is a common name given in the United States for grass of the Poa genus, the most famous being the Kentucky bluegrass. Americans settled in number in the region, during the decades which followed the American Revolutionary War, they migrated from Virginia.
By 1800 these planters noticed that horses grazed in the Bluegrass region were more hardy than those from other regions. Within decades of increased settlement, the remaining herds of bison had moved west; the breeding of Thoroughbred horses was developed in the region, as well as of other quality livestock. Kentucky livestock was driven to other areas of the Ohio River valley for sale. Planters, supported by slave labor cultivated major commodity crops, such as tobacco and grapes; the first commercial winery in the United States was opened in the Bluegrass region in 1801, in present-day Jessamine County by a group of Swiss immigrants. It was authorized by the Kentucky General Assembly; the Bluegrass region is characterized by underlying fossiliferous limestone and shale of the Ordovician geological age. Hills are rolling, the soil is fertile for growing pasture. Since the antebellum years, the Bluegrass region has been a center for breeding quality livestock Thoroughbred race horses. Since the late 20th century, the area has become developed with residential and commercial properties around Lexington, the business center.
Farms are losing ground to development and disappearing. In 2006, The World Monuments Fund included the Bluegrass region on its global list of 100 most endangered sites; the Kentucky Bluegrass is bounded on the east by the Cumberland Plateau, with the Pottsville Escarpment forming the boundary. On the south and west, it borders the Pennyroyal Plateau, with Muldraugh Hill, another escarpment, forming the boundary. Much of the region is drained by its tributaries; the river cuts a deep canyon called the Kentucky River Palisades through the region, preserving meanders that indicate that the river was once a mature low valley, uplifted. Near the Kentucky River, the region exhibits Karst topography, with sinkholes and disappearing streams that drain underground to the river. Although Bluegrass music is popular throughout the region, the genre is indirectly named for the state rather than the region. Klotter, James C. and Daniel Rowland, eds. Bluegrass Renaissance: The History and Culture of Central Kentucky, 1792–1852, Raitz and Nancy O'Malley, "The Nineteenth-Century Evolution of Local-Scale Roads in Kentucky's Bluegrass," Geographical Review, 94, 415–39 Bluegrass Heritage Museum Local Directory for Frankfort, the State Capital Slayman, Andrew.
"A Race Against Time for Kentucky's Bluegrass Country". World Monuments Fund. Archived from the original on 2009-10-13. Retrieved 2009-11-07. Raitz, Carl. "Local-scale turnpike roads in nineteenth-century Kentucky". Journal of Historical Geography. 33: 1–23. Doi:10.1016/j.jhg.2005.12.003