Pomona College is a private, coeducational, liberal arts college located in Claremont, United States. Established in 1887, it is the member of the Claremont Colleges consortium. Pomona is a selective, four-year undergraduate institution, and enrolled approximately 1,660 students representing 49 states and 63 countries in Fall 2016. The college maintains 48 majors and 600 courses, though students have access to nearly 2000 additional courses at the other Claremont Colleges, the colleges 140-acre main campus is located in a residential community near the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains. The campus is located adjacent to the Village, an area of Claremont that has grown around the college. Pomona College is currently ranked seventh among all institutions in the United States by Forbes. And seventh among all liberal arts colleges by U. S. News & World Report, 70% of enrolled students hail from out of state, 56% receive need-based financial aid, and 57% self-identify as domestic students of color or international students.
Pomona College was established as an institution on October 14,1887. The group’s goal was to create a college in the mold as small New England institutions. The College was originally formed in Pomona, classes first began in a house on September 12,1888. The next year, the moved to Claremont, at the site of an unfinished hotel. This building would eventually become Sumner Hall, current location of the Admissions, the name Pomona College remained after the relocation. The College’s first graduating class had ten members in 1894 and its founders’ values led to the College’s belief in educational equity. Like other Congregationalist-founded colleges such as Harvard, Middlebury, Pomona received its own governing board, ensuring its independence. The board of trustees was composed of graduates of Williams, Dartmouth and Yale, among others. This would allow Pomona to retain its small, liberal arts-focused teaching while gaining the resources of a larger university, on October 14,1925, Pomona College’s 38th anniversary, the Claremont Colleges were incorporated.
By 1997, the consortium reached its present membership of five undergraduate, Pomona ranks eighth in the country for graduates receiving the most competitive graduate fellowships per capita. In 2013, Pomona students received the most Goldwater Scholarships of any liberal arts college, nearly 85% of recent alumni attend graduate or professional school within ten years
Phi Kappa Sigma
Phi Kappa Sigma is an international all-male college secret and social fraternity. Its members are known as PKS, Phi Kaps and sometimes Skullhouse, Phi Kappa Sigma was founded by Dr. Samuel Brown Wylie Mitchell at the University of Pennsylvania. Mitchell recorded the ideas and concepts of Phi Kappa Sigma on August 16,1850. He began to discuss the idea with students, first Charles Hare Hutchinson, and Alfred Victor du Pont, John Thorne Stone, Andrew Adams Ripka, James Bayard Hodge. The fraternitys badge was designed by its founder, Dr. Samuel Brown Wylie Mitchell, outside of changes in size, its official design has remained the same. In the shape of a Maltese cross, the badge is old gold with black decoration, the center of the cross is anchored by a skull and crossbones. The four leaves of the display, the Greek letters Phi, Kappa. The fourth and top leaf display a six-pointed star, the back of the badge has an engraved serpent echoing the serpent from the fraternitys coat of arms. In 2016, the fraternity chapter at Texas Christian University was closed down for heavy drug usage, see List of Phi Kappa Sigma chapters Skip Bayless, sports journalist, ESPN anchor Derek Bok, 25th President of Harvard University, 7th Dean of Harvard Law School Roger B.
Chaffee, Navy pilot, NASA astronaut, killed during Apollo 1 training exercise
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, often cited as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. Researchers worked on computers and inertial guidance during World War II, post-war defense research contributed to the rapid expansion of the faculty and campus under James Killian. The current 168-acre campus opened in 1916 and extends over 1 mile along the bank of the Charles River basin. The Institute is traditionally known for its research and education in the sciences and engineering, and more recently in biology, linguistics. Air Force and 6 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT, the school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, and the aggregated revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the eleventh-largest economy in the world. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a Conservatory of Art and Science, but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars, two days after the charter was issued, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MITs first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865, in 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called Boston Tech, the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker. Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the curriculum drifted to a vocational emphasis, with less focus on theoretical science.
The fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership, during these Boston Tech years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliots repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard Colleges Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard, in its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding. Eventually the MIT Corporation approved an agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty, students. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court effectively put an end to the merger scheme, the neoclassical New Technology campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded largely by anonymous donations from a mysterious Mr. Smith, starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of production and processing
Palos Verdes Estates, California
Palos Verdes Estates is a city in Los Angeles County, United States, situated on the Palos Verdes Peninsula. The city was master-planned by the noted American landscape architect and planner Frederick Law Olmsted, the city is located along the Southern California coastline of the Pacific Ocean. The population was 13,438 at the 2010 census, up from 13,340 in the 2000 census, according to the 2000 U. S. Census, Palos Verdes Estates is the 81st richest place in the United States with at least 1,000 households. The 90274 ZIP code was ranked the 47th most expensive housing area among high property value U. S, ZIP codes in a 2007 study by Forbes. com. Palos Verdes Estates was established as a subdivision in 1923, with 3,200 acres carved out of the former Rancho Palos Verdes property of over 16,000 acres. Frank Vanderlip established both a land holding the Palos Verdes peninsula, and a real estate development trust for the Palos Verdes Estates subdivision. The Commonwealth Trust Company filed the Palos Verdes Protective Restrictions in Los Angeles County in 1923 and these restrictions established rules for the developer and all land owners.
No less than ninety percent of the land was required to be used for single-family homes. The deed restrictions prohibited nuisance businesses, such as polluting industries, none of the lots or homes could be sold to or rented by a non-white. An art jury reviewed all building plans, regulating any structure in regard to style and even small details like color, the construction of fences and hedges were subject to evaluation by the art jury. At the time of the incorporation in 1939, the business. The Malaga Cove Plaza building of the Palos Verdes Public Library, Palos Verdes Estates was one of the earliest masterplanned communities in the United States. Palos Verdes Estates is located at 33°47′13″N 118°23′48″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.8 square miles, over 99% of it land. The 2010 United States Census reported that Palos Verdes Estates had a population of 13,438, the population density was 2,814.8 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Palos Verdes Estates was 10,346 White,161 African American,21 Native American,2,322 Asian,8 Pacific Islander,94 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 631 persons.
The Census reported that 13,421 people lived in households,17 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 91 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 26 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 848 households were made up of individuals and 534 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.65. There were 4,083 families, the family size was 2.97
It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named for the Massachusett tribe, which inhabited the area. The capital of Massachusetts and the most populous city in New England is Boston, over 80% of Massachusetts population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Originally dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution, during the 20th century, Massachusetts economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a leader in biotechnology, higher education, finance. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, in 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of Americas most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, in 1786, Shays Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention.
In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, in the late 18th century, Boston became known as the Cradle of Liberty for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution. The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist, temperance, in the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams, both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world. Massachusetts public school students place among the top nations in the world in academic performance, the official name of the state is the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
While this designation is part of the official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has the position and powers within the United States as other states. Massachusetts was originally inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, and tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed approximately 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans, the first English settlers in Massachusetts, the Pilgrims, arrived via the Mayflower at Plymouth in 1620, and developed friendly relations with the native Wampanoag people. This was the second successful permanent English colony in the part of North America that became the United States, the event known as the First Thanksgiving was celebrated by the Pilgrims after their first harvest in the New World which lasted for three days
North Hollywood, Los Angeles
North Hollywood is a neighborhood in the San Fernando Valley region of the city of Los Angeles. It is home to the NoHo Arts District and the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, there is a municipal park and a recreation center. The neighborhood is an important transportation center, and it is a place where many people have lived or worked. North Hollywood was established by the Lankershim Ranch Land and Water Company in 1887 and it was first named Toluca before being renamed Lankershim in 1896 and finally North Hollywood in 1927. It is not contiguous with Hollywood, being separated by parts of the San Fernando Valley. In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 87,241, in 2000 the median age for residents was 30, considered an average age for city and county neighborhoods, the percentage of residents aged 19 to 34 was among the countys highest. The neighborhood was considered moderately diverse ethnically within Los Angeles, the breakdown was Latinos,57. 7%, whites, 27%, Asians,5. 7%, blacks,5. 6%, and others, 4%.
Mexico and El Salvador were the most common places of birth for the 46. 4% of the residents who were born abroad—a high percentage for Los Angeles, the percentages of never-married men and never-married women were among the countys highest. The median yearly income in 2008 dollars was $42,791, considered average for the city. The percentages of households that earned $40,000 or less were high for the county, renters occupied 75. 4% of the housing stock, and house- or apartment-owners held 24. 6%. North Hollywood is bordered on the north by Sun Valley and on the northeast and east by Burbank, Toluca Lake borders North Hollywood on the southeast and south, and Studio City abuts it on the southwest. It is flanked by Valley Village and Valley Glen on the west, North Hollywood was once part of the vast landholdings of the Mission San Fernando Rey de España, which was confiscated by the government during the Mexican period of rule. A group of investors assembled as the San Fernando Farm Homestead Association purchased the half of the Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando.
The leading investor was Isaac Lankershim, a Northern California stockman and grain farmer, in 1873, Isaac Lankershims son and future son-in-law, James Boon Lankershim and Isaac Newton Van Nuys, moved to the San Ferndando Valley and took over management of the property. Van Nuys thought the property could profitably grow wheat using the dryland farming developed on the Great Plains. In time the Lankershim property, under its name, the Los Angeles Farming and Milling Company. Lankershim established a townsite which the residents named Toluca along the old road from Cahuenga Pass to San Fernando, the land boom of the 1880s went bust by the 1890s, but despite another brutal drought cycle in the late 1890s, the fruit and nut farmers remained solvent. The Toluca Fruit Growers Association was formed in 1894, the next year the Southern Pacific opened a branch line slanting northwest across the Valley to Chatsworth
The Catalina Casino is located in Avalon on Santa Catalina Island, off the coast of Los Angeles in California. It is the most visible landmark in Avalon Bay, and when approaching it from the mainland, the large building contains a movie theatre and island art and history museum. The Catalina Casino gets its name from the Italian language term casino, there is no gambling at the facility. The Catalina Casino was built on a site known as Sugarloaf Point. The site was graded for the construction of the Hotel St. Catherine. However, it was built in Descanso Canyon instead. When chewing gum magnate William Wrigley Jr. bought the stake in Catalina Island in 1919. It served as a ballroom and Avalons first high school, until it too small for Avalons growing population. In 1928, the Sugarloaf was razed to make room for a casino building. Sugarloaf Rock was further blasted away to enhance the Casinos ocean view, on May 29,1929, the new Catalina Casino was completed under the direction of Wrigley and David M.
Renton, at a cost of 2 million dollars. Its design, by Sumner Spaulding and Walter Weber, is in the Art Deco and it was the first movie theatre to be designed specifically for films with sound. It received the Honor Award from the California Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, with a height equal to a 12-story building, it was built to serve as a theatre on the main floor and a ballroom and promenade on the upper level. Movie studio tycoons such as Cecil B, and Samuel Goldwyn frequently came by yacht to the Casino to preview their newest cinema productions. It serves as the civil defense shelter, large enough to accommodate Catalinas entire year-round population. Within its walls is stored enough food and water for all Avalons residents for two weeks, the steel structure of the predecessor Sugarloaf Casino can still be found in Avalons abandoned bird park. The bird park was conceived by Mrs. Wrigley in the 1930s, in 1993 the movie theater was photographed by Hiroshi Sugimoto, for his art series Theatres.
In September 2008, the Catalina Casino had the first live production of a musical on its stage. Surrounded by sea on three sides, the structure of the Catalina Casino is the equivalent of 12 stories tall
Eli P. Clark
Eli P. Clark was a pioneer railway builder of Southern California and a leader in the civic and social activities of Los Angeles. Eli P. Clark was born on November 25,1847 near Iowa City, was a prosperous farmer at the time of his birth. His mother was Elvira E. Calkins, Clark attended the public schools of his district and of Grinnell and attended Iowa College, in that city. When he was 18 years of age, he passed the teachers examination, Clark was a schoolteacher in Iowa for two years. At the end of time, when he was 20 years of age, the family removed to southern Missouri. There, Clark was associated with his father in the management and working of the farm during the summer months, Clark crossed the plains to Prescott, Arizona in 1875, the trip requiring three months. There he met Gen. M. H. Sherman, who became his brother-in-law. In 1877, Clark was appointed auditor of the Arizona Territory, in position he served for five terms. While in this capacity, he had the attention of Gen. John C, frémont, the 5th Territorial Governor of Arizona, and a friendship sprang up between them that ended only with Frémonts death.
In 1878, in partnership with A. D. Adams, Clark engaged in the business, operating under the name of Clark & Adams. Clark immediately evidenced his further interest in the undertaking by becoming one of the organizers of the new company, of which he was elected secretary and treasurer. In 1891, Clark came to Los Angeles to be associated with his brother-in-law, General Sherman, in the construction and operation of railways in the city. The Los Angeles Consolidated Railroad Company was formed, with General Sherman as president, the first lines were constructed and electrified by July,1891 and subsequent growth was rapid. A rival cable operation was acquired in 1892, all local lines were consolidated by 1894 and the system linked many areas in the downtown area, with a total of 108 route miles. The bondholders placed the blame for the troubles on Clark and Sherman. On March 19,1895 they renamed the system the Los Angeles Railway and it and other properties would eventually be purchased by Henry E.
Huntington in September,1898 and would ultimately become Los Angeles’ illustrious Yellow Car system. This line is noteworthy as it was the first interurban line in Southern California, Clark was largely instrumental in the organization of this company, along with brother-in-law Sherman, and was president and general manager. This line was the earliest ancestor of Huntington’s great Pacific Electric Railway, in 1906, Sherman and Clark sold a controlling interest in their LAP system to E. H
Encino, Los Angeles
Encino is a neighborhood in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles, California. Fray Juan Crespi, a Franciscan missionary travelling with the expedition, all of Crespis name was dropped except encino. Rancho Los Encinos was established in 1845 when a parcel of former Mission San Fernando land was granted to three Mission Indians by governor Pio Pico. Many ranchos were created after the secularization of the California missions, Encino derives its name from the rancho. In 2008, the city estimated that the resident population had increased to 44,581, in 2000 the median age for residents was 42, considered old for city and county neighborhoods, the percentages of residents aged 50 and older were among the countys highest. The neighborhood was considered not especially diverse ethnically within Los Angeles, the breakdown was whites,80. 1%, Latinos,8. 5%, Asians,4. 9%, blacks,2. 4%, and others,4. 1%. Iran and Russia were the most common places of birth for the 32. 8% of the residents who were born abroad—an average percentage for Los Angeles, the median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $78,529, considered high for the city.
The percentage of households that earned $125,000 and up was high for Los Angeles County, the average household size of 2.3 people was low when compared to the rest of the city and the county. Renters occupied 38. 4% of the stock and house- or apartment-owners held 61. 6%. The percentages of divorced residents and of widowed men and women were among the countys highest, in 2000 military veterans amounted to 10. 6% of the population, a high rate for the county. Encino is situated in the portion of the southern San Fernando Valley. It is flanked on the north by Reseda and the Sepulveda Basin, on the east by Sherman Oaks, on the southeast by Bel-Air, on the south by Brentwood, the local economy provides jobs primarily in health care, social services, and professional services sectors. There are approximately 3,800 businesses employing about 27,000 people at a payroll of $1,400,000,000. Encino is in Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors district 3 and it is represented within the city of Los Angeles by the Encino Neighborhood Council, an advisory body under the auspices of the city Department of Neighborhood Empowerment.
The United States Postal Service operates the Encino Post Office at 5805 White Oak Avenue, forty-six percent of Encino residents aged 25 and older had earned a four-year degree by 2000, a high percentage for both the city and the county. The percentage of residents with a masters degree or higher was high for the county. Lull Special Education Center, LAUSD,17551 Miranda Street Lanai Road Elementary School, LAUSD,4241 Lanai Road As of 2009, public high schools serving portions of Encino are Birmingham High School in Lake Balboa, and Reseda High School in Reseda. In 1982 the board considered closing Rhoda Street Elementary School in Encino, in April 1983 an advisory committee of the LAUSD recommended closing eight LAUSD schools, including Rhoda Street School
Claremont is a city on the eastern edge of Los Angeles County, United States,30.3 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. It is located in the eastern San Gabriel Valley, at the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains, Claremont is known as the home of the Claremont Colleges and other educational institutions, and for its tree-lined streets with numerous historic buildings. In July 2007, it was rated by CNN/Money magazine as the fifth best place to live in the United States, due to its large number of trees and residents with doctoral degrees, it is sometimes referred to as The City of Trees and PhDs. Some critics say that the expansion negatively altered the original, small-town feel of The Village, Claremont has been a winner of the National Arbor Day Associations Tree City USA award for 22 consecutive years. When the city incorporated in 1907, local citizens started what has become the citys tree-planting tradition. Claremont is one of the few remaining places in North America with American Elm trees that have not been exposed to Dutch elm disease, the stately trees line Indian Hill Boulevard in the vicinity of the citys Memorial Park.
The Claremont Institute, a think tank, is located there. Several retirement communities, among them Pilgrim Place, the Claremont Manor, the citrus groves and open space which once dominated the northern portion of the city have been replaced by residential developments of large homes. The northern, foothill area includes the Padua Hills Theatre, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.35 square miles, of which 13.3 square miles is land and 0.05 square miles is water. Its geographic location puts it well within the known as the San Gabriel Valley. Claremont is approximately 24 miles east of Pasadena and 30 miles east of downtown Los Angeles, in the summer months, temperatures can rise into the triple digits. In the autumn months, Claremont can receive gusty winds known as the Santa Ana Winds, in the winter, most of its annual rainfall occurs. Snow is rare but can often be viewed in the nearby San Gabriel Mountains, in early summer, Claremont can receive overcast weather due to its strong onshore flow from the ocean known as May Gray or June Gloom.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Claremont had a population of 34,926, the population density was 2,589.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Claremont was 24,666 White,1,651 African American,172 Native American,4,564 Asian,38 Pacific Islander,2,015 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 6,919 persons. The Census reported that 29,802 people lived in households,4,926 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 429 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 138 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,957 households were made up of individuals and 1,556 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.57. There were 7,925 families, the family size was 3.10
Arnold Sigurd Kirkeby was an American hotelier, art collector and real estate investor. He is now best known for owning the mansion in the West Los Angeles suburb of Bel-Air, Kirkeby was born in Chicago, the son of Norwegian immigrants. He was married to Carlotta Cuesta, the daughter of Angel LaMadrid Cuesta, founder of the Cuesta-Rey Cigar Company based in Tampa, Florida. Arnold Kirkeby was the founder of the Kirkeby Hotel chain, beginning in Chicago with the Drake Hotel, after selling the hotel chain, he invested in the Janss Investment Company development of Westwood, Los Angeles, California in 1959. As part of project, Kirkeby broke ground on the Kirkeby Center on Wilshire Boulevard in 1960. Kirkeby Center is now known as the Occidental Petroleum Building, and is the home of the Armand Hammer Museum. Television fans will note that Kirkeby owned the mansion located at 750 Bel Air Road, Bel Air. Series producer Paul Henning paid the family $500 per day for filming on the mansions grounds, the mansions interior and rear were duplicated on Stage 4 at General Service Studios.
Contractual provisions at the time prevented disclosure of the address in press releases. The mansion had previously used by Jerry Lewis in the 1960 film Cinderfella. Kirkeby died aboard American Airlines Flight 1 when it crashed shortly after takeoff from New York City
Santa Monica, California
Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, United States. The Census Bureau population for Santa Monica in 2010 was 89,736, due in part to an agreeable climate, Santa Monica became a famed resort town by the early 20th century. The city has experienced a boom since the late 1980s through the revitalization of its core, significant job growth. The Santa Monica Pier remains a popular and iconic destination, Santa Monica was long inhabited by the Tongva people. Santa Monica was called Kecheek in the Tongva language, the first non-indigenous group to set foot in the area was the party of explorer Gaspar de Portolà, who camped near the present-day intersection of Barrington and Ohio Avenues on August 3,1769. Named after the Christian saint Monica, there are two different accounts of how the name came to be. One says it was named in honor of the feast day of Saint Monica, another version says it was named by Juan Crespí on account of a pair of springs, the Kuruvungna Springs, that were reminiscent of the tears Saint Monica shed over her sons early impiety.
In Los Angeles, several battles were fought by the Californios, following the Mexican–American War, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which gave Mexicans and Californios living in state certain unalienable rights. US government sovereignty in California began on February 2,1848, in the 1870s the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad, connected Santa Monica with Los Angeles, and a wharf out into the bay. The first town hall was a modest 1873 brick building, a beer hall and it is Santa Monicas oldest extant structure. By 1885, the towns first hotel was the Santa Monica Hotel, around the start of the 20th century, a growing population of Asian Americans lived in and around Santa Monica and Venice. A Japanese fishing village was near the Long Wharf while small numbers of Chinese lived or worked in Santa Monica, the two ethnic minorities were often viewed differently by White Americans who were often well-disposed towards the Japanese but condescending towards the Chinese. The Japanese village fishermen were an economic part of the Santa Monica Bay community.
Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. built a plant in 1922 at Clover Field for the Douglas Aircraft Company, in 1924, four Douglas-built planes took off from Clover Field to attempt the first aerial circumnavigation of the world. Two planes returned after covering 27,553 miles in 175 days, the Douglas Company kept facilities in the city until the 1960s. The Great Depression hit Santa Monica deeply, one report gives citywide employment in 1933 of just 1,000. Hotels and office building owners went bankrupt, in the 1930s, corruption infected Santa Monica. The federal Works Project Administration helped build several buildings, most notably City Hall, the main Post Office and Barnum Hall were among other WPA projects