Clarendon County, South Carolina
Clarendon County is a county located below the fall line in the Coastal Plain region of U. S. state of South Carolina. As of 2010, its population was 34,971, its county seat is Manning. This area was developed including textile mills. Clarendon County boasts one of the largest man-made lakes in the United States, Lake Marion, completed in 1941 as a New Deal project, it was planned as part of a national rural electrification initiative. Since the late 20th century, the dam's generation of hydroelectric power has stimulated economic development and industry in the region; the South Carolina state legislature established racial segregation of public facilities by state law in the late 19th century. During the Civil Rights Movement, Clarendon County was the site of the Briggs v. Elliott trial challenging segregation of public schools; this case was one of five combined with what came to be known as Brown v. Board of Education, under which the United States Supreme Court ruled in 1954 that racial segregation of public schools was unconstitutional.
Clarendon County was established in 1785, shortly after the American Revolutionary War, when the legislature divided Camden District into seven counties. One was Clarendon County, it was named after Edward Hyde, a Lord Proprietor and earl of Clarendon. During the American Revolutionary War, the Battle of Half Way Swamp was fought in December 1780; that was one of the many Revolutionary battles. Others in this area were the following battles: Richbourg’s Mill, Nelson’s Ferry, Fort Watson/Santee Indian Mound, Tearcoat; the Swamp Fox Murals Trail has been established as an historical landmark depicting the American Revolution and General Francis Marion, the "Swamp Fox". The first European settlers in Clarendon County were ethnic French Huguenots, who traveled by boat up the Santee River, their ancestors had earlier settled in Charleston after leaving France in the late 17th century to escape religious persecution. Transportation of goods by land was difficult, so canals were constructed to carry boat traffic around rapids in the river.
The first notable canal was the Santee Canal, constructed in 1793. But due to the development of the railroads in the mid-1800s and construction linking major markets, the canal was superseded and ended operations some years later. In 1798, the state legislature combined three counties - Clarendon and Salem - to form Sumter District for ease of administration. On December 19, 1855, a legislative act was passed establishing the Clarendon District, with the same boundaries as defined for the county in 1785. During the antebellum period, the county was developed as large plantations to cultivate commodity crops short-staple cotton, by the labor of enslaved African Americans. Cultivation of this crop was made profitable by development of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney, which made processing more labor-efficient. By the time of the Civil War, the population of the county was majority black. In 1855, Captain Joseph C. Burgess was selected to determine the geographical center of the county, the preferred location for the county seat, so that a courthouse village could be built.
The commissioners decided on the site. Manning was developed as the county seat. Captain Burgess deeded six acres to the state, providing sites for the courthouse and jail, in addition to streets 75-feet-wide on four sides. In 1865, toward the end of the American Civil War, a body of General Sherman's Union troops under command of General Potter raided Clarendon county, they destroyed a large portion of Manning, including the court house. The raid took place a few days before Gen. Robert E. Lee´s surrender at Appomattox; the county recovered from the Civil War due to its reliance on agriculture, which suffered a long depression. The State Constitution of 1868 renamed the districts as counties. Agriculture continued as the mainstay of the economy through much of the 19th century, planters had to adjust to a free labor economy, they relied on a system of African-American tenant farmers and sharecroppers. Lumber and related mills and industries became important, with towns developed along railroad lines in the aarea.
Following Reconstruction, white Democrats regained control of the state legislature, passing laws for segregation of public facilities, Jim Crow and a new constitution of 1895 that disfranchised most blacks in the state. This exclusion from the political system was not ended until after decades of activism by African Americans, who gained passage of federal civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s to enforce their constitutional rights. In November 1941, Lake Marion was created as a reservoir by construction of the Santee Dam by the United States Corps of Engineers; the dam was built across the Santee River to generate hydroelectric power for rural electrification, one of the major infrastructure projects initiated under President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal federal investments during the Great Depression. Lake Marion and the Santee Dam were part of the Santee-Cooper Navigation Project. Two notable court cases in Clarendon County in the mid-20th century were part of challenges by the Civil Rights Movement to racial segregation of public facilities.
This was concluded in law by the United States Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education, which declared that separate but equal schools were unconstitutional; the court learned that the separate school were underfunded in most Southern states and equal. These cases were Levi Pearson v. Clarendon County Board of Education, Briggs v. Elliott. Clarendon
Florence County, South Carolina
Florence County is a county located in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 136,885, its county seat is Florence. Florence County is included in SC Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county's population is about 60% urban. Florence County was formed from main sections of Darlington and Marion Counties plus other townships from Williamsburg and Clarendon Counties, starting in 1888; the last section of Williamsburg County was not added until 1921. Florence County was named for the daughter of General W. W. Harlee. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 804 square miles, of which 800 square miles is land and 3.8 square miles is water. Williamsburg County – south Marion County – east Dillon County – north Marlboro County – north Darlington County – northwest Lee County – west Sumter County – southwest Clarendon County – southwest As of the census of 2000, there were 125,761 people, 47,147 households, 33,804 families residing in the county.
The population density was 157 people per square mile. There were 51,836 housing units at an average density of 65 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 58.65% White, 39.34% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.70% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from other races, 0.68% from two or more races. 1.10% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 47,147 households out of which 33.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.70% were married couples living together, 18.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.30% were non-families. 24.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.90% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 11.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females, there were 88.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,144, the median income for a family was $41,274. Males had a median income of $32,065 versus $21,906 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,876. About 13.50% of families and 16.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.30% of those under age 18 and 16.50% of those age 65 or over. In census 2000, the population of Florence County was classified as 58% urban and 42% rural, containing the two urban areas of Florence and Lake City. Along with Darlington County, it comprises part of the Florence Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 136,885 people, 52,653 households, 36,328 families residing in the county. The population density was 171.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 58,666 housing units at an average density of 73.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 54.9% white, 41.3% black or African American, 1.2% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 1.1% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 8.4% were American, 7.8% were English, 6.7% were Irish, 6.2% were German. Of the 52,653 households, 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.7% were married couples living together, 19.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families, 26.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.06. The median age was 37.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $40,487 and the median income for a family was $48,896. Males had a median income of $38,934 versus $30,163 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,932. About 14.5% of families and 18.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.1% of those under age 18 and 14.0% of those age 65 or over. Florence Johnsonville Lake City Effingham Mars Bluff National Register of Historic Places listings in Florence County, South Carolina Florence County Website 1905 Reprint of Bishop Gregg's History of the Old Cheraws with additional material as an appendix.
Florence County History and Images
Sumter, South Carolina
Sumter is a city in and the county seat of Sumter County, South Carolina, United States. Known as the Sumter Metropolitan Statistical Area, the namesake county adjoins Clarendon and Lee to form the core of Sumter-Lee-Clarendon tricounty area of South Carolina that includes the three counties in the east central Piedmont; the population was 39,643 at the 2000 census, it rose to 40,524 at the 2010 census. Incorporated as Sumterville in 1845, the city's name was shortened to Sumter in 1855, it has prospered from its early beginnings as a plantation settlement. The city and county of Sumter bear the name of General Thomas Sumter, the "Fighting Gamecock" of the American Revolutionary War. During the Civil War, the town was an important supply and railroad repair center for the Confederacy. After the war, Sumter grew and prospered, using its large railroad network to supply cotton, by the start of the 20th century, tobacco to the region. During the 20th century, Sumter grew into a major industrial center.
Starting with the opening of Shaw Air Force Base in 1941, industry grew after World War II. Sumter became known for textiles, biotech industries, a thriving retail environment, medical center of its region in addition to agricultural products, which makes it a hub for business in the east-central portion of South Carolina; the J. Clinton Brogdon House, Carnegie Public Library, Heriot-Moise House, Charles T. Mason House, Myrtle Moor, O'Donnell House, Rip Raps Plantation, Salem Black River Presbyterian Church, Henry Lee Scarborough House, Stateburg Historic District, Sumter County Courthouse, Sumter Historic District, Sumter Town Hall-Opera House, Temple Sinai, Elizabeth White House, Lincoln High School, Singleton's Graveyard are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Known as the Gamecock City, Sumter lies near the geographic center of the state of South Carolina at 33°55′37″N 80°21′49″W. Sumter is 100 miles west of Myrtle Beach's Grand Strand and 175 miles east of the Blue Ridge Mountains.
Columbia, the state capital, lies about 45 miles to the west, Charleston is around 100 miles to the south. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 26.8 square miles, of which 26.6 square miles are land and 0.2 square mile is covered by water. As of the census of 2010, 40,541 people, 16,232 households, 10,049 families resided in the city; the population density was 575.6/km². The 16,032 housing units averaged 232.8/km². The racial makeup of the city was 47.07% Caucasian, 47.03% Black, 0.23% Native American]], 1.27% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.12% from other races, 1.41% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 2.37% of the population. Of the 14,564 households,h 35.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.0% were married couples living together, 19.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were not families. About 27.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.14. In the city, the population was distributed as 27.8% under the age of 18, 12.5% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 17.9% from 45 to 64, 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,590, for a family was $38,668. Males had a median income of $27,078 versus $22,002 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,949. About 13.0% of families and 16.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.8% of those under age 18 and 15.3% of those age 65 or over. The following table shows Sumter's crime rate in six crime classifications that Morgan Quitno uses in their calculations for "America's most dangerous cities" rankings, in comparison to the national average; the statistics provided. According to the Congressional Quarterly Press 2008 City Crime Rankings: Crime in Metropolitan America, Sumter Statistical Metropolitan Area ranks as having the fifth highest overall crime rate out of 338 statistical metropolitan areas in the United States of America.
Sumter adopted the council-manager form of government on June 11, 1912. The city council appoints a city manager to serve as chief administrative officer to run the day-to-day business of the city; this individual serves at the pleasure of the council. A mayor is elected to serve as the chairman of the city council. Six councilmen, who are not subject to term limits, are elected by ward, whereas the mayor is elected at-large. Sumter City Council is responsible for making policies and enacting laws and regulations to provide for future community and economic growth; the council is responsible for providing the necessary support for the orderly and efficient operation of city services. Martha Priscilla Shaw, Sumter's first female mayor from 1952 to 1956, was the first woman to serve as a mayor in South Carolina. On July 1, 2011, Sumter School Districts 2 and 17 combined to form the newly consolidated Sumter School District. Sumter is home to Crestwood High School, Lakewood High School, Sumter High School.
The last is one of the largest high schools in the Midlands and the fifth-largest in the state, located on the southwest side of Sumter. The schools in this district have each received national recognition as Blue Ribbon Schools, producing st
South Carolina's 5th congressional district
The 5th Congressional District of South Carolina is a congressional district in northern South Carolina bordering North Carolina. The district includes all of Cherokee, Fairfield, Lancaster, Lee and York counties and parts of Newberry and Sumter counties. Outside the growing cities of Rock Hill, Fort Mill, Lake Wylie the district is rural and agricultural; the district borders were contracted from some of the easternmost counties in the 2012 redistricting. The district's character is similar to other rural districts in the South. Democrats still hold most offices outside Republican-dominated York County. However, few of the area's Democrats can be described as liberal by national standards; the largest blocs of Republican voters are in the fast-growing suburbs of Charlotte, North Carolina and Cherokee County, which shares the Republican tilt of most of the rest of the Upstate. York County is by far the largest county in the district, with one-third of its population, its Republican bent has pushed the district as a whole into the Republican column in recent years.
In November 2010, the Republican Mick Mulvaney defeated longtime Congressman John Spratt and became the first Republican since Robert Smalls and the end of Reconstruction to represent the district. Following Mulvaney's confirmation as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, a special election was held in 2017 to determine his successor. Republican Ralph Norman narrowly won the special election against Archie Parnell. From 2003 to 2013 the district included all of Cherokee, Chesterfield, Dillon, Kershaw, Marlboro and York counties and parts of Florence and Sumter counties. In the first season of House of Cards, protagonist Frank Underwood represents the district in the United States House of Representatives as a Democrat. South Carolina's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
U.S. Route 401
U. S. Route 401 is a north–south United States highway, a spur of U. S. Route 1, that travels along the Fall Line from Sumter, South Carolina to Interstate 85 near Wise, North Carolina. Starting in Sumter, South Carolina, US 401 goes northeast through swamp and farmland, as it connects the cities of Darlington and Bennettsville before crossing the state line into North Carolina. Traversing the state for 77.2 miles, it is a two-lane rural road, to only have local traffic along it thanks to nearby Interstate 95. In North Carolina, the highway becomes more utilized, as it connects several mid-size and large cities in the state. In the sandhills region, it connects the cities of Laurinburg and Fayetteville, all three of which have business routes connecting the downtown areas; the road is two-lane still, but expands to four-lane in each city. The road runs somewhat parallel to nearby Interstate 95 from Fayetteville through Lillington to Fuquay-Varina. In Wake County, US 401 is center-stage again as a major north-south corridor, connecting bedroom communities to downtown Raleigh.
Once it leaves the county, it reverts to a rural road connecting the small cities of Louisburg and Warrenton. US 401 ends at Interstate 85, just north of the community of Wise. Overall, the route goes through endless fields of farmland broken now and by cities and small towns. With exceptions to both the sandhills region and Wake County, most travelers would be better served using Interstate 95. US 401 was established in 1957 as a renumbering of US 15A, from Sumter to Raleigh, NC 59, from Raleigh to Norlina. In 1967, northbound US 401 was rerouted along South Street west onto McDowell Street, formally using Lenoir Street, in Raleigh; that same year, US 401 was rerouted onto a bypass route northwest of downtown Fayetteville, replacing part of NC 59. In 1971, US 52/US 401 was placed on a new bypass northwest of Darlington. In 1984, US 401 was rerouted along the eastern half of the Raleigh Beltline. In 1991, US 401 was rerouted back through downtown Raleigh after I-440 was established along the entire Raleigh Beltline.
In 2001, US 401 was extended north, in concurrency with US 1, to its current northern terminus to I-85, north of Norlina. On July 16, 2015, US 401 was placed onto new four-lane superstreet alignment bypassing east of Rolesville; the first US 401 existed between 1926-1931 in Virginia, it was replaced by US 52. The second US 401 existed between 1932-1934, in North Carolina and South Carolina, it was replaced by US 15 and US 15A. Considered an important link between Fayetteville and Raleigh, NCDOT has set up the US 401 Corridor Study; the purpose of the study is to identify deficiencies in the existing corridor and develop alternatives for accommodating future growth in traffic volumes. The corridor study includes NC 55 and NC 210. Estimated costs for all road improvements along the corridor is around $193–222.6 million. Property acquisition and construction is unfunded at this time. Media related to U. S. Route 401 at Wikimedia Commons Endpoints of US Route 401 Mapmikey's South Carolina Highways Page: US 401 NCRoads.com: U.
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website