Sumur (Levant)

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Towns of aram.jpg
The location of Zimyra/Sumur (in the north)
Sumur (Levant) is located in Syria
Sumur (Levant)
Shown within Syria
Alternate name Sumura, Zemar, etc.
Location Syria
Region Tartus Governorate
Coordinates 34°42′29″N 35°59′10″E / 34.7081°N 35.9861°E / 34.7081; 35.9861Coordinates: 34°42′29″N 35°59′10″E / 34.7081°N 35.9861°E / 34.7081; 35.9861

Sumur (Biblical Hebrew: צְמָרִי‬ [collective noun denoting the city inhabitants]; Egyptian: Smr; Akkadian: Sumuru; Assyrian: Simirra) was a Phoenician city in what is now Syria. Zemar was a major trade center, the city has also been referred to in English publications as Simyra,[1] Ṣimirra, Ṣumra,[2], Sumura[3] Ṣimura,[4] Zemar,[5] and Zimyra.[6]

Sumur (or "Sumura") appears in the Amarna letters (mid-14th century BCE); Ahribta is named as its ruler. It was under the guardianship of Rib-Hadda, king of Byblos, but revolted against him and joined Abdi-Ashirta's expanding kingdom of Amurru. Pro-Egyptian factions may have seized the city again, but Abdi-Ashirta's son, Aziru, recaptured Sumur.

It is likely, although not completely certain, that the "Sumur" of the Amarna letters is the same city later known as "Simirra."[7] Simirra was claimed as part of the Assyrian empire by Tiglath-Pileser III in 738 BCE, but rebelled against Assyria in 721 at the beginning of the reign of Sargon II.[8]

It has been linked by Maurice Dunand and N. Salisby to the archaeological site of Tell Kazel in 1957.[9]