A snack is a small service of food and eaten between meals. Snacks come in a variety of forms including packaged snack foods and other processed foods, as well as items made from fresh ingredients at home. Traditionally, snacks are prepared from ingredients available at home without a great deal of preparation. Biscuits, cold cuts, leftovers, popcorn and sweets are used as snacks; the Dagwood sandwich was the humorous result of a cartoon character's desire for large snacks. With the spread of convenience stores, packaged snack foods became a significant business. Snack foods are designed to be portable and satisfying. Processed snack foods, as one form of convenience food, are designed to be less perishable, more durable, more portable than prepared foods, they contain substantial amounts of sweeteners and appealing ingredients such as chocolate and specially-designed flavors. Beverages, such as coffee and tea, are not considered snacks although they may be consumed along with or in lieu of snack foods.
A snack eaten shortly before going to bed or during the night may be called a "bedtime snack", "late night snack", or "night snack". In the United States, a popular snack food is the peanut. Peanuts first arrived from South America via slave ships and became incorporated into African-inspired cooking on southern plantations. After the Civil War, the taste for peanuts spread north, where they were incorporated into the culture of baseball games and vaudeville theaters. Along with popcorn, snacks bore the stigma of being sold by unhygienic street vendors; the middle-class etiquette of the Victorian era categorized any food that did not require proper usage of utensils as lower-class. Pretzels were introduced to North America via New Amsterdam in the 17th century. In the 1860s, the snack was still associated with immigrants, unhygienic street vendors, saloons. Due to loss of business during the Prohibition era, pretzels underwent rebranding to make them more appealing to the public; as packaging revolutionized snack foods, allowing sellers to reduce contamination risk, while making it easy to advertise brands with a logo, pretzels boomed in popularity, bringing many other types of snack foods with it.
By the 1950s, snacking had become an all-American pastime, becoming an internationally recognized emblem of middle American life. Healthy snacks include those that have significant vitamins, are low in saturated fat, added sugars, sodium. Examples of healthy snacks include: Eggs, such as hard-boiled eggs and vegetables Lean cheese Lean meats, Low-fat dairy products Nuts and seeds Foods that have whole grains Government bodies, such as Health Canada, recommend that people make a conscious effort to eat more healthy, natural snacks - such as fruit, vegetables and cereal grains – while avoiding high-calorie, low-nutrient junk food. A 2010 study showed that children in the United States snacked on average six times per day twice as as American children in the 1970s; this represents consumption of 570 calories more per day than U. S. children consumed in the 1970s. A Tufts University Department of Psychology empirical study titled "Effect of an afternoon confectionery snack on cognitive processes critical to learning" found that a consumption of a confectionery snack in the afternoon improved spatial memory in the study's sample group, but in the area of attention performance it had a mixed effect.
"Wikibooks Cookbook – A collection of recipes from around the world". Wikibooks
In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitter station. In the United States of America, they are used for all FCC-licensed transmitters. A call sign can be formally assigned by a government agency, informally adopted by individuals or organizations, or cryptographically encoded to disguise a station's identity; the use of call signs as unique identifiers dates to the landline railroad telegraph system. Because there was only one telegraph line linking all railroad stations, there needed to be a way to address each one when sending a telegram. In order to save time, two-letter identifiers were adopted for this purpose; this pattern continued in radiotelegraph operation. These were not globally unique, so a one-letter company identifier was added. By 1912, the need to identify stations operated by multiple companies in multiple nations required an international standard. Merchant and naval vessels are assigned call signs by their national licensing authorities.
In the case of states such as Liberia or Panama, which are flags of convenience for ship registration, call signs for larger vessels consist of the national prefix plus three letters. United States merchant vessels are given call signs beginning with the letters "W" or "K" while US naval ships are assigned call signs beginning with "N". Both ships and broadcast stations were assigned call signs in this series consisting of three or four letters. Ships equipped with Morse code radiotelegraphy, or life boat radio sets, Aviation ground stations, broadcast stations were given four letter call signs. Maritime coast stations on high frequency were assigned three letter call signs; as demand for both marine radio and broadcast call signs grew American-flagged vessels with radiotelephony only were given longer call signs with mixed letters and numbers. Leisure craft with VHF radios may not be assigned call signs, in which case the name of the vessel is used instead. Ships in the US still wishing to have a radio license are under FCC class SA: "Ship recreational or voluntarily equipped."
Those calls follow the land mobile format of the initial letter K or W followed by 1 or 2 letters followed by 3 or 4 numbers. U. S. Coast Guard small boats have a number, shown on both bows in which the first two digits indicate the nominal length of the boat in feet. For example, Coast Guard 47021 refers to the 21st in the series of 47-foot motor lifeboats; the call sign might be abbreviated to the final two or three numbers during operations, for example: Coast Guard zero two one. Aviation mobile stations equipped with radiotelegraphy were assigned five letter call signs.. Land Stations in Aviation were assigned four letter call signs; these call signs were phased out in the 1960s when flight radio officers were no longer required on international flights. USSR kept FRO's for the Moscow-Havana run until around 2000. All signs in aviation are derived from several different policies, depending upon the type of flight operation and whether or not the caller is in an aircraft or at a ground facility.
In most countries, unscheduled general aviation flights identify themselves using the call sign corresponding to the aircraft's registration number. In this case, the call sign is spoken using the International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet. Aircraft registration numbers internationally follow the pattern of a country prefix, followed by a unique identifier made up of letters and numbers. For example, an aircraft registered as N978CP conducting a general aviation flight would use the call sign November-niner-seven-eight-Charlie-Papa. However, in the United States a pilot of an aircraft would omit saying November, instead use the name of the aircraft manufacturer or the specific model. At times, general aviation pilots might omit additional preceding numbers and use only the last three numbers and letters; this is true at uncontrolled fields when reporting traffic pattern positions or at towered airports after establishing two-way communication with the tower controller. For example, Skyhawk eight-Charlie-Papa, left base.
In most countries, the aircraft call sign or "tail number"/"tail letters" are linked to the international radio call sign allocation table and follow a convention that aircraft radio stations receive call signs consisting of five letters. For example, all British civil aircraft have a five-letter call sign beginning with the letter G. Canadian aircraft have a call sign beginning with C–F or C–G, such as C–FABC. Wing In Ground-effect vehicles in Canada are eligible to receive C–Hxxx call signs, ultralight aircraft receive C-Ixxx call signs. In days gone by American aircraft used five letter call signs, such as KH–ABC, but they were replaced prior to World War II by the current American system of civilian aircraft call signs. Radio call signs used for communication in manned spaceflight is not formalized or regulated to the same degree as for aircraft; the three nations curren
A fruit snack is a sugary processed food marketed to the parents as a snack for children in the United States. Fruit snacks are similar to gummy candies; the main content is sugar refined sugar derived from concentrated white grape juice and apple juice. Some fruit snacks have more sugar than gummi candies, they have less protein; the main differences between gummi candies and fruit snacks are the marketing and advertising approaches, the use of refined sugar extracted from tapioca or fruit juice in addition to, or sometimes instead of, refined sugar extracted from sugar beets, corn, or sugarcane. Well-known manufacturers of chewy fruit snacks include Promotion In Motion, Kellogg's, General Mills and Betty Crocker. Fruit snacks gained popularity from their convenience, candy-like taste, marketing that positioned the product as being healthier than candy. Most are stored in disposable plastic packaging. However, they do have an expiration date. Fruit snacks vary in the amount of fruit content. Some, like Welch's, contain some fruit purees.
Others only have trace amounts of juice, in addition to sugar. Fruit leathers differ in; the ingredients may be the same, or they may be made from pureed, dried fruit and concentrated, high-sugar fruit juice. More than half the weight of the fruit snacks is simple sugars, they contain an average of 12% water by weight, 25% starch, a small amount of fat, a negligible amount of protein. The nutritional value or content of fruit snacks has long been contested. Much of the controversy surrounds the nutritional value in sugar, found in large amounts in some fruit snacks. Parents are advised to treat their children's consumption of fruit snacks the same way they would a candy or any other sugary snack food item; as of 2015, fruit snacks cost two to five times the price of gummy bears. The modern processed fruit snack has nothing in common with dried fruit; the first modern fruit snack was Joray Fruit Rolls, which were developed by confectioner Louis Shalhoub in the 1970s. It was used by backpackers as a lightweight, high-energy food rather than as healthful-sounding candy for children.
The name fruit snack was first used in 1983 by General Mills, which they used to describe their version of Shalhoub's product, Fruit Roll-Ups, which contained far more sugar. By the mid-1980s, the fruit snack was a multimillion-dollar business. However, sales declined over the next few years. In some cases, manufactures of fruit snacks have faced class-action lawsuits over their marketing claims that fruit snacks are "healthy." In 2015, two women filed a class-action lawsuit in New York against Welch's Fruit Snacks, alleging illegal supplementation with vitamins, in violation of the jelly bean rule. The jelly bean rule prohibits food manufacturers from deceiving consumers into buying candy by adding vitamins and marketing the candy as a healthful food; the licensed manufacturer replied that the complaint is without merit, "It is a fact that fruit, whether in the form of juices or more purees, has always been the first ingredient in Welch’s Fruit Snacks. Our labeling is truthful and gives consumers the information they need to make informed decisions.”
The case was voluntarily dismissed in 2017. In 2017, another person filed a class-action lawsuit in New Jersey against Welch's Fruit Snacks, alleging that the snack food is marketed as being more healthful than similar products despite being nutritionally similar to candy. General Mills, owner of Betty Crocker products, introduced the first Fruit Corners Fruit Roll-Ups in 1983 and Fruit by the Foot. Fruit Roll-Ups and Fruit by the Foot are packaged and the products are rolled around a material so the snack does not stick to itself. However, the two snacks differ with respect to taste and consistency. Fruit Gushers are fruit snacks in the shape of elongated hexagonal bipyramids, which made from sugar and fruit juice, with small amounts of other ingredients. Introduced in 1991, they are produced by General Mills under the Betty Crocker brand name, may be found in generic forms as well. Among the many product types under the Welch's brand are Welch’s Fruit Snacks, which are manufactured and marketed under license by The Promotion In Motion Companies, Inc.
Welch’s Fruit Snacks are made with fruit purees, corn syrup, sugar and juices, among other ingredients. Kellogg's created "Fruit Winders" in the UK, similar to the American Fruit by the Foot by General Mills, only in fewer flavors. Unlike Fruit by the Foot, Fruit Winders contain no artificial colorings and each flavor is made with real purée derived from the fruit it represents. Fruit Winders were introduced in the Ireland in 2001 under the Kellogg's brand; the product was first called "Real Fruit Winders", changed to "Screamin Fruit Winders" before being changed to "Kellogg's Fruit Winders". When the product first came out, the flavors were Orange and Blackcurrant, with Apple introduced shortly after. A public call-in contest was held where people would vote for a new Fruit Winders flavor; the choices were Tropical and Lemon. The winning flavor was Tropical, but Raspberry and Lemon were introduced on afterwards. In 2006, Fruit Winders discontinued the Orange, Tropical and Lemon flavors along with the spin-off products, made the strands small enough ti fit two on each winder.
Apple and Blackcurrant were placed into the Doubles, including brands with Strawberry, leaving Strawberry the only flavour t
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011; the Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre, which makes it the fifth-most densely populated city with over 250,000 residents in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census. 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. Vancouver is named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living cities for five consecutive years.
Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place; the original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on July 1, 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B. I.. As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the Canadian Pacific Railway, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886.
By 1887, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended westward to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport to the Pacific Ocean, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient / East Asia, Eastern Canada, Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third-largest port by tonnage in the Americas, 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North"; the city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "Van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands.
The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", the origin of the name that became "Vancouver". Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were living in the "Vancouver" area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish and Tseil-Waututh peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River. Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579; the explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River as far as Point Grey.
The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men from California, to nearby New Westminster on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver. Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities. A sawmill established at Moodyville in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging, it was followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street; this mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, it remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement which came to be called Gastown grew around
Pudong is a district of Shanghai located east of the Huangpu River across from the historic city center of Shanghai in Puxi. The name refers to its historic position as "The East Bank" of the Huangpu River, which flows through central Shanghai, although it is now administered as the Pudong New Area, a state-level new area which extends all the way to the East China Sea; the traditional area of Pudong is now home to the Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone and the Shanghai Stock Exchange and many of Shanghai's best-known buildings, such as the Oriental Pearl Tower, the Jin Mao Tower, the Shanghai World Financial Center, the Shanghai Tower. These modern skyscrapers directly face Puxi's historic Bund, a remnant of former foreign concessions in China; the rest of the new area includes the Port of Shanghai, the Shanghai Expo and Century Park, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai Pudong International Airport, the Jiuduansha Wetland Nature Reserve, the Shanghai Disney Resort. Pudong—literally "The East Bank of the Huangpu River"—originally referred only to the less-developed land across from Shanghai's Old City and foreign concessions.
The area was farmland and only developed, with warehouses and wharfs near the shore administered by the districts of Puxi on the west bank: Huangpu and Nanshi. Pudong was established as a county in 1958 until 1961 which the county was split among Huangpu, Nanshi and Chuansha County. In October 1, 1992 the original area of Pudong County and Chuansha County merged and established Pudong New Area. In 1993, the Chinese government set up a Special Economic Zone in Chuansha, creating the Pudong New Area; the western tip of the Pudong district was designated as the Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone and has become a financial hub of modern China. Several landmark buildings were constructed, including the Oriental Pearl Tower, the Jin Mao Building, the supertall Shanghai World Financial Center 494 m and Shanghai Tower; these buildings—all along Century Avenue and visible from the historic Bund—now form the most common skyline of Shanghai. On May 6, 2009, it was disclosed that the State Council had approved the proposal to merge Nanhui District with Pudong and comprise the majority of eastern Shanghai.
In 2010, Pudong was host to the main venues of the Shanghai Expo, whose grounds now form a public park. Pudong New Area consist of the original Pudong County, Chuansha County, Nanhui County. Districts of the direct-controlled municipality of Shanghai are administratively on the same level as prefecture-level cities. However, the government of Pudong has a status equivalent to that of a sub-provincial city, a half-level above a prefecture-level city; this is due to Pudong's importance as the financial hub of China. The Pudong Communist Party Secretary is the top office of the district, followed by the district governor of Pudong; the Pudong party chief is customarily a member of the Shanghai Party Standing Committee. On April 27, 2015, People's Government of Pudong New Area is working with China Pilot Free-Trade Zone Administrative Committee. Pudong means "East Bank". Pudong is bounded by the East China Sea in the east. Pudong is distinguished from Puxi, the older part of Shanghai, it has an area of 1,210.4 square kilometres and according to the 2010 Census, a population of 5,044,430 inhabitants, 1.9 million more than in 2000.
At least 2.1 million of residents of Pudong are newcomers from other provinces or cities in China. Pudong is the most populous district in Shanghai. According to the 2010 Census, it has 5,044,430 people in 1,814,802 families, around 1/4 of Shanghai's total population, an explosive growth since the last census thanks to immigrants. Pudong's resident population growth is well above national average because it is a popular immigration destination; the 2010 census shows a 58.26% increase in the last decade, or an annual pace of 4.7%. In particular, the district saw am immigration growth of 189.5%, or an annual pace of 11.22%. Excluding immigrants, the birth rate is 0.806% while the death rate is 0.729, resulting a net growth of 0.077%. The total fertility rate is 1.03, well below the replacement level. The district has a negative registered household population growth if immigrants are excluded, thus the growth is purely driven by immigration; the 2010 Census shows a population density of 3,909/km2.
About 3/4 of the population live in the northern part and part of city center called "Northern Territory". 1/4 live in the "Southern Territory", the Nanhui District. The Northern Territory has a 6,667 population density, while the Southern Territory has 1,732/km2. Suburbs saw a greater increase in population during 2000-2010 with the help of the city's suburb expansion policy; some counties in the traditional city center saw a population decrease. * – Liuzao town merged into Chuanshaxin town. ** – Luchaogang town and Shengang Subdistrict merged and form Nanhui Xincheng town. Shanghai Maritime University Shanghai Dianji University Shanghai Fisheries University China Executive Leadership Academy in Pudong Fudan University in Zhangjiang New York University Shanghai ShanghaiTech University Public schools: No. 2 High School Attached to East China Normal University Jianping High School Dongchang High School of ECNU Pudong Foreign Languages School of Shanghai International Studies UniversityInternational schools: Dulwich College Shanghai French School of Shanghai Pudong Campus Nord Anglia International School Shanghai Pudong German School Shanghai Pudong Campus Shanghai American School Pudong Campus Shanghai Japanese School Pudong Campus, SJS Senior
Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country; the southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire, along with the British Straits Settlements protectorate.
Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. In 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation; the country is multi-cultural, which plays a large role in its politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with large minorities of Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians, indigenous peoples. While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims; the government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister; the country's official language is a standard form of the Malay language.
English remains an active second language. Since independence, Malaysian GDP has grown at an average of 6.5% per annum for 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism and medical tourism. Today, Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked fourth largest in Southeast Asia and 38th largest in the world, it is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the East Asia Summit and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, a member of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement. The name "Malaysia" is a combination of the word "Malay" and the Latin-Greek suffix "-sia"/-σία; the word "melayu" in Malay may derive from the Tamil words "malai" and "ur" meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively. "Malayadvipa" was the word used by ancient Indian traders. Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word "melayu" or "mlayu" may have been used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to accelerate or run.
This term was applied to describe the strong current of the river Melayu in Sumatra. The name was adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on Sumatra. Before the onset of European colonisation, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as "Tanah Melayu". Under a racial classification created by a German scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natives of maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race. Following the expedition of French navigator Jules Dumont d'Urville to Oceania in 1826, he proposed the terms of "Malaysia", "Micronesia" and "Melanesia" to the Société de Géographie in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the existing term "Polynesia". Dumont d'Urville described Malaysia as "an area known as the East Indies". In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as "Melayunesia" or "Indunesia", favouring the former.
In modern terminology, "Malay" remains the name of an ethnoreligious group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, smaller islands that lie between these areas. The state that gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 took the name the "Federation of Malaya", chosen in preference to other potential names such as "Langkasuka", after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium CE; the name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation. One theory posits the name was chosen so that "si" represented the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo, Sarawak to Malaya in 1963. Politicians in the Philippines contemplated renaming their state "Malaysia" before the modern country took the name. Evidence of modern human habitation in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years.
In the Malay Peninsula, the first inhabitants are thought to be Negritos. Traders and settlers from India and China arrived as early as the first century AD, establishing trading ports and coastal towns in the second and third centuries, their presence resulted in strong Indian and Chinese influences on the local cultures, the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sanskrit inscriptions appear as early as the fifth century; the Kingdom of
Juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables. It can refer to liquids that are flavored with concentrate or other biological food sources, such as meat or seafood, such as clam juice. Juice is consumed as a beverage or used as an ingredient or flavoring in foods or other beverages, as for smoothies. Juice emerged as a popular beverage choice after the development of pasteurization methods enabled its preservation without using fermentation; the largest fruit juice consumers are New Colombia. Fruit juice consumption on average increases with country income level; the word "juice" comes from Old French in about 1300. The "Old French jus "juice, liquid"... from Latin ius "broth, juice, soup," from PIE root *yeue- "to blend, mix food"." The use of the word "juice" to mean "the watery part of fruits or vegetables" was first recorded in the early 14th century. Since the 19th century, the term "juice" has been used in a figurative sense.
Today, "au jus" refers to meat served along with its own juice as a gravy. Juice is prepared by mechanically squeezing or macerating fruit or vegetable flesh without the application of heat or solvents. For example, orange juice is the liquid extract of the fruit of the orange tree, tomato juice is the liquid that results from pressing the fruit of the tomato plant. Juice may be prepared in the home from fresh fruit and vegetables using a variety of hand or electric juicers. Many commercial juices are filtered to remove fiber or pulp, but high-pulp fresh orange juice is a popular beverage. Additives are put in some juices, such as artificial flavours. Common methods for preservation and processing of fruit juices include canning, concentrating, freezing and spray drying. Although processing methods vary between juices, the general processing method of juices includes: Washing and sorting food source Juice extraction Straining and clarification Blending pasteurization Filling and sterilization Cooling and packingAfter the fruits are picked and washed, the juice is extracted by one of two automated methods.
In the first method, two metal cups with sharp metal tubes on the bottom cup come together, removing the peel and forcing the flesh of the fruit through the metal tube. The juice of the fruit escapes through small holes in the tube; the peels can be used further, are washed to remove oils, which are reclaimed for usage. The second method requires the fruits to be cut in half before being subjected to reamers, which extract the juice. After the juice is filtered, it may be concentrated in evaporators, which reduce the size of juice by a factor of 5, making it easier to transport and increasing its expiration date. Juices are concentrated by heating under a vacuum to remove water, cooling to around 13 degrees Celsius. About two thirds of the water in a juice is removed; the juice is later reconstituted, in which the concentrate is mixed with water and other factors to return any lost flavor from the concentrating process. Juices can be sold in a concentrated state, in which the consumer adds water to the concentrated juice as preparation.
Juices are pasteurized and filled into containers while still hot. If the juice is poured into a container while hot, it is cooled as as possible. Packages that cannot stand heat require sterile conditions for filling. Chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide can be used to sterilize containers. Plants can make anywhere from 1 to 20 tonnes a day. High intensity pulsed electric fields are being used as an alternative to heat pasteurization in fruit juices. Heat treatments sometimes fail to make microbiological stable products. However, it was found that processing with high intensity pulsed electric fields can be applied to fruit juices to provide a shelf stable and safe product. In addition, it was found that pulsed electric fields provide a fresh-like and high nutrition value product. Pulsed electric field processing is a type of nonthermal method for food preservation. Pulsed electric fields use short pulses of electricity to inactivate microbes. In addition, the use of PEF results in minimal detrimental effects on the quality of the food.
Pulse electric fields kill microorganisms and provide better maintenance of the original colour and nutritional value of the food as compared to heat treatments. This method of preservation works by placing two electrodes between liquid juices applying high voltage pulses for microseconds to milliseconds; the high voltage pulses are of intensity in the range of 10 to 80 kV/cm. Processing time of the juice is calculated by multiplying the number of pulses with the effective pulse duration; the high voltage of the pulses produce an electric field that results in microbial inactivation that may be present in the juice. The PEF temperatures are below that of the temperatures used in thermal processing. After the high voltage treatment, the juice is refrigerated. Juice is able to transfer electricity due to the presence of several ions from the processing; when the electric field is applied to the juice, electric current