A plum tomato known as a processing tomato or paste tomato, is a type of tomato bred for sauce and packing purposes. They are oval or cylindrical in shape, with fewer locules than standard round tomatoes and a higher solid content, making them more suitable for processing. Plum tomatoes are sometimes favored by cooks for use during the tomato off-season, as they are considered more amenable to handling and are therefore available in a state closer to ripe than other supermarket tomatoes. Varieties available in markets include Roma VF and San Marzano, though there are many other varieties, such as the short-season Ropreco Paste and the larger Amish Paste and Big Mama. Five hybrid cultivars grown in California constitute over 60% of total production of processing tomatoes. Small plum tomatoes are known as grape tomatoes. Canned tomato List of tomato cultivars T. et al.. Processing Tomato Production in California. UC Vegetable Research and Information Center
Lycopene is a bright red carotenoid hydrocarbon found in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables, such as red carrots, watermelons and papayas, but it is not in strawberries or cherries. Although lycopene is chemically a carotene, it has no vitamin A activity. Foods that are not red may contain lycopene, such as asparagus and parsley. In plants and other photosynthetic organisms, lycopene is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of many carotenoids, including beta-carotene, responsible for yellow, orange, or red pigmentation and photoprotection. Like all carotenoids, lycopene is a tetraterpene, it is insoluble in water. Eleven conjugated double bonds give lycopene its deep red color. Owing to the strong color, lycopene is useful as a food coloring and is approved for use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand and the European Union. Lycopene is a symmetrical tetraterpene assembled from eight isoprene units, it is a member of the carotenoid family of compounds, because it consists of carbon and hydrogen, is a carotene.
Isolation procedures for lycopene were first reported in 1910, the structure of the molecule was determined by 1931. In its natural, all-trans form, the molecule is long and straight, constrained by its system of 11 conjugated double bonds; each extension in this conjugated system reduces the energy required for electrons to transition to higher energy states, allowing the molecule to absorb visible light of progressively longer wavelengths. Lycopene absorbs all but the longest wavelengths of visible light, so it appears red. Plants and photosynthetic bacteria produce all-trans lycopene; when exposed to light or heat, lycopene can undergo isomerization to any of a number of cis-isomers, which have a bent rather than linear shape. Different isomers were shown to have different stabilities due to their molecular energy. In human blood, various cis-isomers constitute more than 60% of the total lycopene concentration, but the biological effects of individual isomers have not been investigated. Carotenoids like lycopene are found in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in plants, photosynthetic bacteria and algae.
They are responsible for the bright orange–red colors of fruits and vegetables, perform various functions in photosynthesis, protect photosynthetic organisms from excessive light damage. Lycopene is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, xanthophylls. Dispersed lycopene molecules can be encapsulated into carbon nanotubes enhancing their optical properties. Efficient energy transfer occurs between the encapsulated dye and nanotube — light is absorbed by the dye and without significant loss is transferred to the nanotube. Encapsulation increases chemical and thermal stability of lycopene molecules; the unconditioned biosynthesis of lycopene in eukaryotic plants and in prokaryotic cyanobacteria is similar, as are the enzymes involved. Synthesis begins with mevalonic acid, converted into dimethylallyl pyrophosphate; this is condensed with three molecules of isopentenyl pyrophosphate, to give the 20-carbon geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. Two molecules of this product are condensed in a tail-to-tail configuration to give the 40-carbon phytoene, the first committed step in carotenoid biosynthesis.
Through several desaturation steps, phytoene is converted into lycopene. The two terminal isoprene groups of lycopene can be cyclized to produce beta-carotene, which can be transformed into a wide variety of xanthophylls. Lycopene is the pigment in tomato-containing sauces, turning plastic cookware orange, is insoluble in water, it can be dissolved only in organic oils. Because of its nonpolarity, lycopene in food preparations will stain any sufficiently porous material, including most plastics. To remove this staining, the plastics can be soaked in a solution containing a small amount of household bleach; the bleach does not dissolve the non-polar lycopene. Absorption of lycopene requires that it be fat to form micelles. Intestinal absorption of lycopene is enhanced by cooking. Lycopene dietary supplements may be more efficiently absorbed than lycopene from food. Lycopene is not an essential nutrient for humans, but is found in the diet from dishes prepared from tomatoes; the median and 99th percentile of dietary lycopene intake have been estimated to be 5.2 and 123 mg/d, respectively.
Fruits and vegetables that are high in lycopene include autumn olive, tomatoes, pink grapefruit, pink guava, seabuckthorn and rosehip. Ketchup is a common dietary source of lycopene. Although gac has the highest content of lycopene of any known fruit or vegetable and tomato-based sauces and ketchup account for more than 85% of the dietary intake of lycopene for most people; the lycopene content of tomatoes depends on variety and increases. Unlike other fruits and vegetables, where nutritional content such as vitamin C is diminished upon cooking, processing of tomatoes increases the concentration of bioavailable lycopene. Lycopene in tomato paste is up to four times more bioavailable than in fresh tomatoes. Processed tomato products such as pasteurized tomato juice, soup and ketchup contain a higher conce
Tomato paste is a thick paste made by cooking tomatoes for several hours to reduce the water content, straining out the seeds and skins, cooking the liquid again to reduce the base to a thick, rich concentrate. By contrast, tomato purée is a liquid with a consistency between crushed tomatoes and tomato paste, made from tomatoes that have been boiled and strained. Based on the manufacturing conditions, the paste can be the basis for making ketchup or reconstituted tomato juice: Hot break: heated to about 100 °C, pectin is preserved, paste is thicker and can be used for ketchup Warm break: heated to about 79 °C, colour is not preserved, but flavour is preserved Cold break: heated to about 66 °C, colour and flavour are preserved, so it can be reconstituted into juice Tomato paste is traditionally made in parts of Sicily, southern Italy and Malta by spreading out a much-reduced tomato sauce on wooden boards that are set outdoors under the hot August sun to dry the paste until it is thick enough, when it is scraped up and held together in a richly colored, dark ball.
Today, this artisan product is harder to find than the industrial version. Commercial production uses tomatoes with lower overall moisture. Tomato paste became commercially available in the early 20th Century. In the UK, tomato paste is referred to as concentrate. In the US, tomato paste is concentrated tomato solids, sometimes with added sweetener, with a standard of identity. Tomato purée has a lower tomato solids requirement. European markets have a preference to tomato paste with salt, while some middle eastern countries such as Israel prefer tomato paste with sugar. In Nigeria, tomato paste is used as a blood tonic, it is believed. Tomato purée Tomato sauce Ketchup List of tomato dishes
The tomato is the edible red, berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum known as a tomato plant. The species originated in western South America; the Nahuatl word tomatl gave rise to the Spanish word tomate, from which the English word tomato derived. Its use as a cultivated food may have originated with the indigenous peoples of Mexico; the Spanish encountered the tomato from their contact with the Aztec during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and brought it to Europe. From there, the tomato was introduced to other parts of the European-colonized world during the 16th century; the tomato is consumed in diverse ways, raw or cooked, in many dishes, sauces and drinks. While tomatoes are fruits — botanically classified as berries — they are used as a vegetable ingredient or side dish. Numerous varieties of the tomato plant are grown in temperate climates across the world, with greenhouses allowing for the production of tomatoes throughout all seasons of the year. Tomato plants grow to 1–3 meters in height.
They are vines that have a weak stem that sprawls and needs support. Indeterminate tomato plants are cultivated as annuals. Determinate, or bush, plants are annuals that stop growing at a certain height and produce a crop all at once; the size of the tomato varies according to the cultivar, with a range of 0.5–4 inches in width. The word "tomato" comes from the Spanish tomate, which in turn comes from the Nahuatl word tomatl, meaning "the swelling fruit"; the native Mexican tomatillo is tomate. When Aztecs started to cultivate the Andean fruit to be larger and red, they called the new species xitomatl; the scientific species epithet lycopersicum is interpreted from Latin in the 1753 book, Species Plantarum, as "wolfpeach", where wolf is from lyco and peach is from persicum. The usual pronunciations of "tomato" are and; the word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" and have become a symbol for nitpicking pronunciation disputes.
In this capacity, it has become an American and British slang term: saying "" when presented with two choices can mean "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me". Botanically, a tomato is a fruit—a berry, consisting of the ovary, together with its seeds, of a flowering plant. However, the tomato is considered a "culinary vegetable" because it has a much lower sugar content than culinary fruits. Tomatoes are not the only food source with this ambiguity; this has led to legal dispute in the United States. In 1887, U. S. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables, but not on fruit, caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. The U. S. Supreme Court settled this controversy on May 10, 1893, by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable, based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use—they are served with dinner and not dessert; the holding of this case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff of 1883, the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purposes.
Tomato plants are vines decumbent growing 180 cm or more above the ground if supported, although erect bush varieties have been bred 100 cm tall or shorter. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials, dying annually in temperate climates, although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Determinate types are annual in all climates. Tomato plants are dicots, grow as a series of branching stems, with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing; when that tip stops growing, whether because of pruning or flowering, lateral buds take over and grow into other functional, vines. Tomato vines are pubescent, meaning covered with fine short hairs; these hairs facilitate the vining process, turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture if the vine's connection to its original root has been damaged or severed. Most tomato plants have compound leaves, are called regular leaf plants, but some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf style because of their resemblance to that particular relative.
Of RL plants, there are variations, such as rugose leaves, which are grooved, variegated, angora leaves, which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. The leaves are 10–25 cm long, odd pinnate, with five to 9 leaflets on petioles, each leaflet up to 8 cm long, with a serrated margin, their flowers, appearing on the apical meristem, have the anthers fused along the edges, forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. Flowers in domestic cultivars can be self-fertilizing; the flowers are 1–2 cm across, with five pointed lobes on the corolla. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry; as a true fruit, it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization, its flesh comprising