Santa Maria, California
Santa Maria is a city near the Southern California coast in Santa Barbara County. It is 65 miles northwest of Santa Barbara and 150 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles, its estimated 2018 population was 108,470, making it the most populous city in the county and the Santa Maria-Santa Barbara, CA Metro Area. The city is notable for Santa Maria-style barbecue. Sunset magazine called Santa Maria "The West's Best BBQ Town"; the Santa Maria Valley, stretching from the Santa Lucia Mountains toward the Pacific Ocean, was the homeland of the Chumash people for several thousand years. The Native Americans made their homes on the slopes of the surrounding hills among the oaks, on the banks of the Santa Maria River among the sycamores, along the coast, they had unique plank-built boats, called Tomol, which they used for ocean fishing. In 1769, the Portolá Expedition passed through the Santa Maria Valley during the first Spanish land exploration up the coast of Las Californias Province. Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa was established just north of the valley in 1772, Mission La Purísima Concepción was established near present-day Lompoc in 1787.
Rather than rich soil, white settlers were attracted here by the possibility of free land. In 1821, after the Mexican War of Independence, the mission lands in Santa Maria Valley were made available for private ownership under a Mexican land grant called Rancho Punta de Laguna. At the end of the Mexican War in 1848, California was ceded to the United States. In the late 19th century, after California gained statehood in 1850, the area's rich soil attracted farmers and other settlers. By the end of the century, the Santa Maria River Valley had become one of the most productive agricultural areas in the state. Agriculture is still a key component of the economy for the entire region. Between 1869 and 1874, four of the valley's settlers, Rudolph Cook, John Thornburg, Isaac Fesler, Isaac Miller, built their homes near each other at the present corners on Broadway and Main Street; the townsite was recorded in Santa Barbara in 1875. The new town was named Grangerville changed to Central City, it became Santa Maria on February 18, 1885, since mail was being sent by mistake to Central City, Colorado.
Santa Maria was chosen from the name Juan Pacifico Ontiveros had given to his property 25 years earlier. Streets named after the four settlers now form a 6 block square centered at Broadway and Main Street, the center of town. Oil exploration began in 1888. In 1902, Union Oil discovered the large Orcutt Oil Field in the Solomon Hills south of town, a number of smaller companies began pumping oil. Two years Union Oil had 22 wells in production. Other significant discoveries followed, including the Lompoc Oil Field in 1903 and the Cat Canyon field in 1908. Over the next 80 years more large oil fields were found, thousands of oil wells drilled and put into production. Oil development intensified in the 1930s, with the discovery of the Santa Maria Valley Oil Field in 1934, right underneath the southern and western parts of the city of Santa Maria, which spurred the city's growth further. By 1957 there were 1,775 oil wells in operation in the Santa Maria Valley, producing more than $640 million worth of oil.
Santa Maria is located at 34°57′5″N 120°26′0″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.4 square miles, of which, 22.8 square miles of it is land and 0.6 square miles of it is water. Santa Maria is situated north of the unincorporated township of Orcutt and south of the Santa Maria River; the valley is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and to the east by the San Rafael Mountains and the Los Padres National Forest. The city of Guadalupe, California is 9 miles to the west of Santa Maria. Santa Maria experiences a cool Mediterranean climate typical of coastal areas of California north of Point Conception; the climate is sunny, refreshed by the ocean breeze. Fog is common. Snow in the lowest parts of the city is unknown, with the last brief flurry recorded in January 1949; the only recorded earlier snowfall was in January 1882. Rainfall averages 14 inches annually. Agriculture plays an important role in the city's economy; the Santa Maria area is home to an increasing number of vineyards and winemakers and is centrally located to both the Santa Ynez and Foxen Canyon areas of Santa Barbara County's wine country, San Luis Obispo County's Edna Valley-Arroyo Grande wine country.
The agricultural areas surrounding the city are some of the most productive in California, with primary crops including strawberries, wine grapes, lettuce, squash, spinach and beans. Many cattle ranchers call the Santa Maria Valley home. In recent years, other industries have been added to the city's agricultural and retail mix, including: aerospace; the petroleum industry has had a large presence in the area since oil was first discovered at the Orcutt Oil Field in 1902. By 1957 there were 1,775 oil wells in operation in the Santa Maria Valley, producing more than $640 million worth of oil. According to the City's 2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, updated City of Santa Maria employee figures reported in the 2014-2016 City Budget, the top employers in the city are: The 2010
Palm Springs, California
Palm Springs is a desert resort city in Riverside County, United States, within the Coachella Valley. It is located 55 mi east of San Bernardino, 107 mi east of Los Angeles, 123 mi northeast of San Diego, 268 mi west of Phoenix, Arizona; the population was 44,552 as of the 2010 census. Palm Springs covers 94 square miles, making it the largest city in the county by land area. Golf, tennis, biking and horseback riding in the nearby desert and mountain areas are major forms of recreation in Palm Springs; the city is known for its mid-century modern architecture, design elements, arts and cultural scene. Palm Springs is a popular retirement destination, as well as a winter snowbird destination; the first humans to settle in the area were the Cahuilla people, 2,000 years ago. Cahuilla Indians lived here in isolation from other cultures for hundreds of years prior to European contact, they spoke Ivilyuat, a dialect of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Numerous prominent and powerful Cahuilla leaders were including Cahuilla Lion.
While Palm Canyon was occupied during winter months, they moved to cooler Chino Canyon during the summer months. The Cahuilla Indians had several permanent settlements in the canyons of Palm Springs, due to the abundance of water and shade. Various hot springs were used during wintertime; the Cahuilla hunted rabbit, mountain goat and quail, while trapping fish in nearby lakes and rivers. While men were responsible for hunting, women were responsible for collecting berries and seeds, they made tortillas from mesquite beans. While the Cahuillas spent the summers in Indian Canyons, the current site of Spa Resort Casino in downtown was used during winter due to its natural hot springs. Native-American petroglyphs can be seen in Tahquitz and Indian canyons; the Cahuilla’s irrigation ditches and house pits can be seen here. Ancient petroglyphs and mortar holes can be seen in Andreas Canyon; the mortar holes were used to grind acorns into meals. The Agua Caliente Reservation consists of 31,128 acres. Six thousand seven hundred acres are located by Downtown Palm Springs.
The Native American land is on long lease land and next to one of California’s high-end communities, making the tribe one of the wealthiest in California. The first name for Palm Springs was given by the native Cahuilla: "Se-Khi"; when the Agua Caliente Reservation was established by the United States government in 1876, the reservation land was composed of alternating sections of land laid out across the desert in a checkerboard pattern. The alternating non-reservation sections were granted to the Southern Pacific Railroad as an incentive to bring rail lines through the Sonoran desert. A number of streets and areas in Palm Springs are named for Native-American notables, including Andreas, Amado, Lugu, Patencio and Chino. All of these are common Cahuilla surnames. Presently the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians are composed of several smaller bands who live in the modern day Coachella Valley and San Gorgonio Pass; the Agua Caliente Reservation occupies 32,000 acres, of which 6,700 acres lie within the city limits, making the Agua Caliente natives the city's largest landowners.
As of 1821 Mexico was independent of Spain and in March 1823 the Mexican Monarchy ended. That same year Mexican diarist José María Estudillo and Brevet Captain José Romero were sent to find a route from Sonora to Alta California. With the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo after the Mexican-American war, the region became part of the United States in 1848. One possible origin of palm in the place name comes from early Spanish explorers who referred to the area as La Palma de la Mano de Dios or "The Palm of God's hand"; the earliest use of the name "Palm Springs" is from United States Topographical Engineers who used the term in 1853 maps. According to William Bright, when the word "palm" appears in Californian place names, it refers to the native California fan palm, Washingtonia filifera, abundant in the Palm Springs area. Other early names were "Palmetto Spring" and "Big Palm Springs"; the first European resident in Palm Springs itself was Jack Summers, who ran the stagecoach station on the Bradshaw Trail in 1862.
Fourteen years the Southern Pacific railroad was laid 6 miles to the north, isolating the station. In 1880, local Indian Pedro Chino was selling parcels near the springs to William Van Slyke and Mathew Bryne in a series of questionable transactions. By 1885, when San Francisco attorney John Guthrie McCallum began buying property in Palm Springs, the name was in wide acceptance; the area was named "Palm Valley" when McCallum incorporated the "Palm Valley Land and Water Company" with partners O. C. Miller, H. C. Campbell, James Adams, M. D. McCallum, who had brought his ill son to the dry climate for health, brought in irrigation advocate Dr. Oliver Wozencroft and engineer J. P. Lippincott to help construct a canal from the Whitewater River to fruit orchards on his property, he asked Dr. Welwood Murray to establish a hotel across the street from his residence. Murray did so in 1886; the crops and irrigation syst
Yuma is a city in and the county seat of Yuma County, United States. The city's population was 93,064 at the 2010 census, up from the 2000 census population of 77,515. Yuma is the principal city of the Yuma, Metropolitan Statistical Area, which consists of Yuma County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the 2014 estimated population of the Yuma MSA is 203,247. More than 85,000 retirees make Yuma their winter residence. Yuma is in the Sonoran Desert, Yuma Desert sub-region; the area's first settlers for thousands of years were historic tribes. Their descendants now occupy the Quechan reservations. In 1540, Spanish colonial expeditions under Hernando de Alarcon and Melchior Diaz visited the area and recognized the natural crossing of the Colorado River as an ideal spot for a city; the Colorado River narrows to under 1,000 feet wide in one area. Military expeditions that crossed the Colorado River at the Yuma Crossing include Juan Bautista de Anza, the Mormon Battalion and the California Column.
During and after the California Gold Rush to the late 1870s, the Yuma Crossing was known for its ferry crossings for the Southern Emigrant Trail. This was considered the gateway to California, as it was one of the few natural spots where travelers could cross the otherwise wide Colorado River. Following the United States establishing Fort Yuma, two towns developed one mile downriver; the one on the California side was called Jaeger City, named after the owner of Jaeger's Ferry, which crossed the river there. It was for a time the larger of the two, with the Butterfield Overland Mail office and station, two blacksmiths, a hotel, two stores, other dwellings; the other was called Colorado City. Developed on the south side of the river in what is now Arizona by speculator Charles Poston, it was the site of the custom house; when started, it was just north of the border between Mexican-ruled Sonora and California. After the Gadsden Purchase by the United States, the town bordered on the Territory of New Mexico.
This area was designated as the Territory of Arizona in 1863. The Colorado City site at the time was duly registered in San Diego; the county of San Diego collected taxes from there for many years. From 1853 a smaller settlement, Arizona City, grew up on the high ground across from the fort and was organized under the name of its post office in 1858, it had two stores and two saloons. Colorado City and Jaeger City were completely destroyed by the Great Flood of 1862 and had to be rebuilt on higher ground. At that time Colorado City became part of Arizona City, it took the name Yuma in 1873. From 1854, Colorado City was the major steamboat stop for traffic down the Colorado River. After the 1862 flood, it became part of Arizona City; the steamboats transported passengers and equipment for the various mines and military outposts along the Colorado. They offloaded the cargo from ships at the mouth of the Colorado River at Robinson's Landing and from 1864 at Port Isabel. From 1864, the Yuma Quartermaster Depot, today a state historic park, supplied all forts in present-day Arizona, as well as large parts of Colorado and New Mexico.
After Arizona became a separate territory, Yuma became the county seat for Yuma County in 1871, replacing La Paz, the first seat. The Southern Pacific Railroad bridged the river in 1877, acquired George Alonzo Johnson's Colorado Steam Navigation Company, the only steamboat company on the river. Yuma became the new base of navigation on the river, ending the need for Port Isabel, abandoned in 1879; the warehouses and shipyard there were moved to Yuma. The city of Yuma operates as a charter city under the Charter of the City of Yuma; the elected government of the city is the City Council which follows the mayor–council government system and whose members include: The Mayor of the City of Yuma acts as the chief executive officer of the city, is elected for a period of four years. The mayor is elected from the city at large; the mayor has the following powers and responsibilities: act as an ex officio chairman of the city council and preside over meetings, administer oaths and issue proclamations.
The mayor is recognized as the official head of the city by the courts and has the power to take command of the police and govern the city by proclamation during times of great danger. The City of Yuma City Council is the governing body of the City of Yuma and is vested with all powers of legislation in municipal affairs; the council is composed of six council members elected from the city at large for four-year terms, as well as the Mayor of Yuma. A deputy mayor is elected by the Council who shall act as Mayor during the temporary absence of the mayor; the current council members are Gary Knight, Leslie McClendon, Jacob Miller, Edward Thomas, Mike Shelton, Karen Watts. The next election is the August 2019 Primary for the three city council seats that are held by Miller and Shelton; the City Council appoints a city administrator who acts as the chief administrative officer of the city. The city administrator is directly responsible to the City Council for the administration of all city affairs placed in his charge by the City Charter, or by ordinances passed by the Council.
Some of the administrator's duties include: see that all laws and provisions of the City Charter are faithfully executed and submit the annual budget and capital
Southern California is a geographic and cultural region that comprises California's southernmost counties, is the second most populous urban agglomeration in the United States. The region is traditionally described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, Ventura; the more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is used and is based on historical political divisions. The Colorado Desert and the Colorado River are located on southern California's eastern border with Arizona, the Mojave Desert is located north on California's Nevada border. Southern California's southern border is part of the Mexico–United States border. Southern California includes the built-up urban area which stretches along the Pacific coast from Ventura through Greater Los Angeles down to Greater San Diego, inland to the Inland Empire and Coachella Valley, it encompasses eight metropolitan areas, three of which together form the Greater Los Angeles Combined Statistical Area with over 18 million people, the second-biggest CSA after the New York CSA.
These three MSAs are: the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the Inland Empire (, the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area. In addition, Southern California contains the San Diego metropolitan area with 3.3 million people, Bakersfield metro area with 0.9 million, the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, El Centro metropolitan areas. The Southern California Megaregion is larger still, extending east into Las Vegas and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana. Within southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the country's largest metropolitan areas. With a population of 4,042,000, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation; the counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino, Riverside are the five most populous in the state, are in the top 15 most populous counties in the United States.
The motion picture and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in southern California. Hollywood, a district of Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, synonymous with the neighborhood name. Headquartered in southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal Pictures, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros. Universal, Warner Bros. and Sony run major record companies. Southern California is home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, Body Glove are all headquartered here. Skateboarder Tony Hawk; some of the most famous surf locations are in southern California as well, including Trestles, The Wedge, Huntington Beach, Malibu. Some of the world's largest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, the U. S. Open of Surfing, are held in southern California; the region is important to the world of yachting with premier events including the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii.
The San Diego Yacht Club held the America's Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995 and hosted three America's Cup races during that time. The first modern era triathlon was held in Mission Bay, San Diego, California in 1974. Since southern California, San Diego in particular have become a mecca for triathlon and multi-sport racing and culture. Southern California is home to many sports sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the southern California coast for its beaches; the inland desert city of Palm Springs is popular. Southern California is not a formal geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes southern California vary. Geographically, California's North-South midway point lies at 37° 9' 58.23" latitude, around 11 miles south of San Jose. When the state is divided into two areas, the term southern California refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state; this definition coincides neatly with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ North latitude, which form the northern borders of San Luis Obispo and San Bernardino counties.
Another definition for southern California uses Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains as the northern boundary. Though there is no official definition for the northern boundary of southern California, such a division has existed from the time when Mexico ruled California and political disputes raged between the Californios of Monterey in the upper part and Los Angeles in the lower part of Alta California. Following the acquisition of California by the United States, the division continued as part of the attempt by several pro-slavery politicians to arrange the division of Alta California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. Instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be a
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of Arizona, with 1,626,000 people. It is the fifth most populous city in the United States, the most populous American state capital, the only state capital with a population of more than one million residents. Phoenix is the anchor of the Phoenix metropolitan area known as the Valley of the Sun, which in turn is part of the Salt River Valley; the metropolitan area is the 11th largest by population in the United States, with 4.73 million people as of 2017. Phoenix is the seat of Maricopa County and the largest city in the state at 517.9 square miles, more than twice the size of Tucson and one of the largest cities in the United States. Phoenix was settled in 1867 as an agricultural community near the confluence of the Salt and Gila Rivers and was incorporated as a city in 1881, it became the capital of Arizona Territory in 1889. It has a hot desert climate. Despite this, its canal system led to a thriving farming community with the original settler's crops remaining important parts of the Phoenix economy for decades, such as alfalfa, cotton and hay.
Cotton, citrus and copper were known locally as the "Five C's" anchoring Phoenix's economy. These remained the driving forces of the city until after World War II, when high-tech companies began to move into the valley and air conditioning made Phoenix's hot summers more bearable; the city averaged a four percent annual population growth rate over a 40-year period from the mid-1960s to the mid-2000s. This growth rate slowed during the Great Recession of 2007–09, has rebounded slowly. Phoenix is the cultural center of the state of Arizona; the Hohokam people occupied the Phoenix area for 2,000 years. They created 135 miles of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable, paths of these canals were used for the Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct, they carried out extensive trade with the nearby Ancient Puebloans and Sinagua, as well as with the more distant Mesoamerican civilizations. It is believed that periods of drought and severe floods between 1300 and 1450 led to the Hohokam civilization's abandonment of the area.
After the departure of the Hohokam, groups of Akimel O'odham, Tohono O'odham, Maricopa tribes began to use the area, as well as segments of the Yavapai and Apache. The O'odham were offshoots of the Sobaipuri tribe, who in turn were thought to be the descendants of the Hohokam; the Akimel O'odham were the major group in the area and lived in small villages, with well-defined irrigation systems that spread over the entire Gila River Valley, from Florence in the east to the Estrellas in the west. Their crops included corn and squash for food, while cotton and tobacco were cultivated, they banded together with the Maricopa for protection against incursions by the Yuma and Apache tribes. The Maricopa are part of the larger Yuma people; the Tohono O'odham lived in the region, as well, but their main concentration was to the south and stretched all the way to the Mexican border. The O'odham lived in small settlements as seasonal farmers who took advantage of the rains, rather than the large-scale irrigation of the Akimel.
They grew crops such as sweet corn, tapery beans, lentils, sugar cane, melons, as well as taking advantage of native plants such as saguaro fruits, cholla buds, mesquite tree beans, mesquite candy. They hunted local game such as deer and javelina for meat; the Mexican–American War ended in 1848, Mexico ceded its northern zone to the United States, residents of that region became U. S. citizens. The Phoenix area became part of the New Mexico Territory. In 1863, the mining town of Wickenburg was the first to be established in Maricopa County, to the northwest of Phoenix. Maricopa County had not yet been incorporated; the Army created Fort McDowell on the Verde River in 1865 to forestall Indian uprisings. The fort established a camp on the south side of the Salt River by 1866, the first settlement in the valley after the decline of the Hohokam. Other nearby settlements merged to become the city of Tempe; the history of the city of Phoenix begins with Jack Swilling, a Confederate veteran of the Civil War.
He saw a potential for farming. He formed a small community that same year about four miles east of the city. Lord Darrell Duppa was one of the original settlers in Swilling's party, he suggested the name "Phoenix", as it described a city born from the ruins of a former civilization; the Board of Supervisors in Yavapai County recognized the new town on May 4, 1868, the first post office was established the following month with Swilling as the postmaster. On February 12, 1871, the territorial legislature created Maricopa County by dividing Yavapai County; the first election for county office was held in 1871. He ran unopposed; the town grew during the 1870s, President Ulysses S. Grant issued a land patent for the site of Phoenix on April 10, 1874. By 1875, the town had a telegraph office
Borrego Springs, California
Borrego Springs is a census-designated place in San Diego County, California. The population was 3,429 at the 2010 census, up from 2,535 at the 2000 census, made up of both seasonal and year-round residents. Borrego Springs is surrounded by Anza-Borrego State Park, the largest California State Park; the village of Borrego Springs is recognized as a designated "international dark sky" settlement, there are no stop lights in Borrego Springs and night time lighting is kept to a minimum to protect the views of the night sky. Borrego Springs is 90 miles from downtown San Diego and the lights of the developed California coast. Borrego Springs was designated as California's first International Dark-Sky Community by the International Dark-Sky Association, it is a center for public astronomy activities throughout the year. Borrego Springs has modern architecture and ranch-style house architecture. A local landmark is the traffic roundabout between the airport and downtown, known as Christmas Circle; the town includes a branch of the San Diego County Library.
The name of Anza-Borrego State Park is derived from a combination of Juan Bautista de Anza and "borrego", Spanish for lamb, in honor of the local herds of bighorn sheep. Tourism is the primary industry in Borrego Springs; the 600,000-acre Anza-Borrego Desert State Park surrounds the town, making it the largest desert state park in the nation. There are four public golf courses, a tennis center, horseback riding, it is a destination for snow birders who seasonally migrate each year from colder northern climates in winter to warmer terrain. According to the United States Geological Survey Borrego Springs is located at 33°15′24″N 116°22′30″W; this points at "Christmas Circle Drive", at the intersection of Palm Canyon Drive and Borrego Springs Road, where most maps place the community. According to the United States Census Bureau Borrego Springs is located at 33°14′50″N 116°22′19″W. Located between "Frying Pan Road" and "Double O Road", this is 3,530 feet south-southeast of the USGS location. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Borrego Springs census-designated place has a total area of 43.4 square miles, 99.22% of it land and 0.78% water.
The village is located on the floor of the Borrego Valley, acknowledged as the westernmost extent of the great southwestern geographical region known as the Sonoran Desert. Borrego Springs is situated on the valley floor within a diverse variety of desert fauna. One of the iconic species found within the Borrego Springs area is the California Fan Palm, Washingtonia filifera, a lower risk/near-threatened species and the only palm native to the western United States. An abandoned Calcite Mine, which dates to World War II days, is situated on the northeast slope of the Santa Rosa Mountains in the State Park. Average January temperatures are a maximum of 69.0 °F and a minimum of 43.4 °F. Average July temperatures are a maximum of 106.8 °F and a minimum of 74.9 °F. There are an average of 172.6 days with highs of 90 °F or higher and an average of only 2.6 days with lows of 32 °F or lower. The record high temperature was 122 °F on June 25, 1990; the record low temperature was 20 °F on January 5, 1971.
Average annual precipitation is 6.13 inches and there are an average of 24 days with measurable precipitation. The wettest year was 1983 with 18.73 inches and the driest year was 1953 with 1.35 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 8.78 inches in January 1993. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 2.46 inches on March 2, 1983. Although snow falls in the lowlands, 6.5 inches fell in December 1967. The 2010 United States Census reported that Borrego Springs had a population of 3,429; the population density was 79.0 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Borrego Springs was 2,766 White, 20 African American, 34 Native American, 22 Asian, 5 Pacific Islander, 500 from other races, 82 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,218 persons; the Census reported that 3,429 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 1,571 households, out of which 283 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 828 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 82 had a female householder with no husband present, 57 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 85 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 13 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 507 households were made up of individuals and 262 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18. There were 967 families; the population was spread out with 592 people under the age of 18, 165 people aged 18 to 24, 477 people aged 25 to 44, 1,044 people aged 45 to 64, 1,151 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 56.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.4 males. There were 2,611 housing units at an average density of 60.1 per square mile, of which 1,235 were owner-occupied, 336 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 8.0%. 2,593 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 836 people lived in rental housing units. As of t