United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
Carlstadt, New Jersey
Carlstadt is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 6,127, reflecting an increase of 210 from the 5,917 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 407 from the 5,510 counted in the 1990 Census. Carlstadt was formed as a village by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 12, 1860, within Lodi Township. Most sources indicate that the community was named for Dr. Carl Klein, the leader of a group of early German settlers who led the project to establish the community though Henry Gannett stated that the name derived from the city of Karlovac in Croatia, known as "Carlstadt" in German; the Borough of Carlstadt was incorporated on June 1894, formally set off from Bergen Township. The borough was formed during the "Boroughitis" phenomenon sweeping through Bergen County, in which 26 boroughs were formed in the county in 1894 alone. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 4.243 square miles, including 3.999 square miles of land and 0.244 square miles of water.
Carlstadt is bordered on the south by East Rutherford in Bergen County and North Bergen in Hudson County, on the north by Wood-Ridge and Moonachie to the east by Ridgefield and South Hackensack, to the northwest by Wallington. It is 8 miles northwest of New York City and 95 miles northeast of Philadelphia; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 6,127 people, 2,378 households, 1,578.992 families residing in the borough. The population density was 1,532.1 per square mile. There were 2,495 housing units at an average density of 623.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 81.41% White, 2.38% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 8.23% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 5.35% from other races, 2.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18.02% of the population. There were 2,378 households out of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.4% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families.
26.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.18. In the borough, the population was spread out with 20.2% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 27.7% from 45 to 64, 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.5 years. For every 100 females there were 95.1 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 92.1 males. The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $62,255 and the median family income was $71,506. Males had a median income of $50,994 versus $41,333 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $30,403. About 7.2% of families and 6.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.0% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. Same-sex couples headed 14 households in 2010, an increase from the 11 counted in 2000; as of the 2000 United States Census there were 5,917 people, 2,393 households, 1,593 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 1,496.4 people per square mile. There were 2,473 housing units at an average density of 625.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 88.90% White, 1.37% African American, 0.08% Native American, 6.19% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.13% from other races, 1.32% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 7.99% of the population. There were 2,393 households out of which 25.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.9% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.4% were non-families. 26.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.04. In the borough the age distribution of the population shows 19.0% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 34.0% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years.
For every 100 females, there were 94.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.4 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $55,058, the median income for a family was $62,040. Males had a median income of $46,540 versus $36,804 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $28,713. About 3.1% of families and 6.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.8% of those under age 18 and 4.3% of those age 65 or over. Corporate residents include: Lion Brand, America's oldest manufacturer of craft yarn Pantone, corporation headquartered in Carlstadt Yoo-hoo, a product of Carlstadt Betson Enterprises, an arcade game manufacturing company, with its offices located just outside the Meadowlands Sports Complex in East Rutherford, New Jersey. Carlstadt is governed under the borough form of New Jersey municipal government; the governing body consists of a mayor and a borough council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election.
A mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office. The borough council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats
Parsippany-Troy Hills, New Jersey
Parsippany-Troy Hills Township called Parsippany, is a township in Morris County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 53,238, reflecting an increase of 2,589 from the 50,649 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 2,171 from the 48,478 counted in the 1990 Census; the name Parsippany comes from the Lenape Native American sub-tribe, which comes from the word parsipanong, which means "the place where the river winds through the valley". Parsippany-Troy Hills is the most populous municipality in Morris County; the name Troy Hills was changed from Troy, to avoid confusion of mail being sent erroneously to Troy, New York. Parsippany-Troy Hills was incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 12, 1928, from portions of Hanover Township, based on the results of a referendum held on May 9, 1928, that split off both East Hanover Township and Parsippany-Troy Hills from Hanover Township. Since 2006.
Parsippany-Troy Hills has been recognized by Money magazine as one of the Best Places to Live in the United States. That year Parsippany was ranked 17th on the highest-ranked location in New Jersey. In 2008, it moved up to 13th position. Parsippany returned to Money magazine's "Best Places" list in 2012, in the 15th position, again in 2014, where it ranked 16th with Money citing its "Arts and leisure". Parsippany's ranking improved to the 5th-ranked position on the "Best Places" list in 2016, but in 2017 dropped to 33rd. In 2018, Parsippany again made the list, at the 23rd-ranked position. After the Wisconsin Glacier melted around 13,000 BC, half of Parsippany was filled with water as this was Lake Passaic. Around the area grasses grew, as the area was tundra and turned into a taiga/boreal forest as the area warmed. Paleo-Indians moved in small groups into the area around 12,500 years ago, attracted by the diversity of plant and animal life. Native Americans settled into the area several thousand years ago, dwelling in the highlands and along the Rockaway River and the Whippany River, where they hunted and fished for the various game that lived in the area and migrated through the area in autumn.
Paintings in a rock cave were found in the late 1970s in western Parsippany in the highlands. From 1611 to 1614, the Dutch established the colony of New Netherland, which claimed territory between the 40th and 45th parallel north, a zone which included northern New Jersey; the Native Americans traded furs and food with the Dutch for various goods. In return the Dutch gave the Native Americans metal pots, guns and blankets. Trading with the Native Americans occurred until 1643 when a series of wars broke out between the Dutch and Native Americans. There were hostile relations between the Dutch and Native Americans between 1643 and 1660; this prevented colonization by the Dutch of the Morris County region, technically included in their claimed "New Netherland." On August 27, 1664, three English ships approached Fort Amsterdam and the fort was surrendered to the English. The English now controlled New Netherland and Morris County was now under control of the colony of New York. Relations with the Native Americans improved for a while.
There was a war with the Dutch ten years later. The Dutch re-took control of New Amsterdam but after a year returned it to the English. Relations with the Native Americans and English improved for a while. English settlers started to move into the area around 1700; the Parsippany area had flat land and fertile soil, a fresh water supply, allowing them to succeed at farming. All types of game waterfowl, provided colonists a chance to succeed. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 25.394 square miles, including 23.563 square miles of land and 1.831 square miles of water. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Greystone Park, Lake Hiawatha, Lake Intervale, Lake Parsippany, Mount Tabor, Powder Mill, Rainbow Lakes, Rockaway Neck and Troy Hills. Lake Hiawatha and Mount Tabor are neighborhoods with their own ZIP codes. In 2000, 55% of Parsippany residents had a 07054 ZIP code. In 2011, Parsippany residents could live in one of 12 ZIP codes.
Until 2000, there was a 13th ZIP code within Parsippany, eliminated with changes at the Greystone Park Psychiatric Hospital. The township has a humid continental climate, with cold winters and warm-to-hot summers, it is cooler than Manhattan at night and in the early morning. The record low temperature is −26 °F, the record high is 104 °F. Parsippany-Troy Hills lies in the Newark Piedmont Basin. Around 500 million years ago, a chain of volcanic islands crashed into proto North America, riding over the North American Plate and creating the New Jersey Highlands, which start in the western portion of the township; this strike created land formations in the rest of eastern New Jersey. Around 450 million years ago, a small continent and thin, collided with North America, creating folding and faulting in western New Jersey and southern Appalachia; the swamps and meadows of Parsippany were created when the North American Plate separated from the African Plate. An aborted rift system or half gruben was created.
The land area lowered between a fault west of Paterson. The Ramapo Fault goes though western part of the township; the Wisconsin Glacier came into the area around 21,000 BC and left around 13,000 BC due to a warming in climate. As the glacier melted, this created rivers and lakes, leaving most of the township under Lake Passaic, the biggest lake
DIC Corporation is Japanese chemical company, specializing in the development and sale of inks, polymers, specialty plastics and compounds and biochemicals. It was founded in 1908 as Kawamura Ink Manufactory, renamed to Kawamura Kijuro Shoten in 1915, incorporated as Dainippon Printing Ink Manufacturing in 1937 and renamed to Dainippon Ink and Chemicals in 1962 before the name was changed to the present name DIC Corporation in 2008 on the occasion of its 100th anniversary; the company slogan "Color & Comfort By Chemistry" suggests that DIC products should deliver color and comfort to daily life. The company operates worldwide and includes the Sun Chemical corporation, based in the Americas and Europe. DIC in Japan has 10 plants in Japan, located in Tokyo, Hokuriku, Kashima, Shiga, Komaki and Tatebayashi; the main research laboratory in Japan is located in Sakura, Chiba cooperating with DIC development centers in China and the Sun Chemical Group's research laboratories. The company is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange.
1908 Founded as Kawamura Ink Manufactory 1937 Incorporated Dainippon Printing Ink Manufacturing 1950 Listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange 1962 Merged with Japan Reichhold, changed Company name to Dainippon Ink and Chemicals 1986 Acquired Sun Chemical’s Graphic Art Material Dept. 1987 Acquired Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. 1999 Acquired Totalfina S. A.’s Printing Ink Dept. 2005 Sold Reichhold 2008 Changed Company name to DIC Corporation 2009 Established DIC Graphics, joint venture with Dai Nippon Printing integrating DIC's domestic printing ink business and DNP's printing ink business DIC is divided in 4 business units: Printing Inks, Fine Chemicals and Application Materials. Printing Inks Offset inks, gravure inks, flexo inks, can coatings, news inks, packaging adhesives and printing supplies. Fine Chemicals Organic pigments, liquid crystal materials, alkyl phenols, metal carboxylates, sulfurized chemicals. Polymers General polymers Specialty polymers Application Materials Liquid compounds Solid compounds Processed products.
The DIC Color System Guide is a spot color system, based on Munsell color theory. It is common in Japan, comparable in role to the Pantone systems – the other common system in Japan is by Toyo Ink. DIC owns 47.7% of the sports club chain "Renaissance". In 1990, the company established the Kawamura Memorial DIC Museum of Art to exhibit artwork collected by the company and its affiliates; the museum is located in a 30-hectare park near to its Central Research Laboratories. Official website DIC Corporation, Corporate Profile Yahoo! Finance - DIC Corporation Company Profile "Company history books". Shashi Interest Group. April 2016. Wiki collection of bibliographic works on DIC Corporation