Arizona Stadium is an outdoor college football stadium in Tucson, Arizona, on the campus of the University of Arizona. It is the home field of the Arizona Wildcats of the Pac-12 Conference. Constructed in 1929 to hold 7,000 spectators, the stadium's seating capacity has been expanded numerous times since; as of 2016, the stadium has a total capacity of 55,675. The facility includes the offices of the Wildcat football program, as well as some non-athletic academic offices, including the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab. Located in central Tucson, Arizona Stadium has been home to University of Arizona Wildcats football since 1929. Stadium capacity was 7,000, with the only seating located on the stadium's west side. Arizona's first game at the facility was October 12, 1929, when the Wildcats defeated Caltech 35-0. Capacity was increased to 10,000 in 1938. 4,000 seats were added to both end zones in 1947. In 1950, a horseshoe configuration was constructed around the south end zone resulting in the addition of 8,700 seats.
A multi-level press box and 10,000 seats were added to the west grandstand in 1965. The east side of the stadium received a second tier, consisting of 17,000 seats, in 1976, as the Wildcats prepared to leave the WAC for the Pac-8 in 1978; the Copper Bowl was a postseason bowl game based in Tucson and held at Arizona Stadium for ten years before moving to Phoenix. In 1981, the track team stopped using the stadium and the track was removed. Permanent seating was placed at the north end zone in 1988. Following the 1988 season, a new press box with luxury sky boxes was built; the sky boxes include a 319 loge seats on the first level, 23 luxury suites between the 2nd and 3rd levels, a media level on the 4th floor. Because the stadium was in place, the sky boxes are built so that the structure is cantilevered out over the western edge of the stadium seats, without touching the stadium. Prior to the 1999 season, a new scoreboard with a video monitor was installed. In January 2011, it was announced that a new 5,356-square-foot video board would be installed above the south stands in time for the 2011 season.
It is the seventh-largest video screen in college football. In September 2009, Arizona announced plans for the Lowell-Stevens Football Facility, a $72.3 million north end-zone project with seats and luxury boxes atop a four-story complex housing locker rooms, football offices, a weight training area, a cafeteria for student athletes, the upscale Sands Club, new concessions and bathrooms. The project broke ground after the conclusion of the 2011 season; because the north bleachers were torn down and the project wouldn't be finished during the 2012 season, several rows of seats were added to the bottom of the south endzone in mid-2012. On July 1 of 2013, the project was completed and the team moved into the new facility; because the football offices were housed in the McKale Center, more room was made there for Wildcats basketball and the other Arizona athletic programs. In addition to the Lowell-Stevens Football Facility, the playing surface was changed from natural Bermuda grass to FieldTurf, an infilled synthetic turf.
The new surface allows the team to practice on the field during the week when it was off limits while the grass recovered between games. Because of the extreme sun and temperatures in Tucson, the athletic department chose Revolution CoolPlay FieldTurf, designed to keep the surface temperatures cooler than with other artificial turf, it utilizes cork rather than crumb rubber as the top dressing. FieldTurf is used by more than half of the teams in the Pac-12 Conference and by many other schools around the nation; the football field runs in the traditional north–south configuration and the new artificial Field Turf sits at an elevation of 2,430 feet above sea level. The ZonaZoo student section takes up 9,000 seats on lower east sideline, making it one of the larger student sections in the Pac-12 Conference; the west side bleachers are reserved for season ticket holders and the visiting team gets a section in the southwest corner. The facility includes two dormitories and Navajo, under the south stands.
The Steward Observatory Mirror Lab, a mirror fabrication facility for large telescopes, sits under the east wing. As mentioned above, there are offices located in the Lowell-Stevens facility housing Football Operations. In May 2013, the university held spring commencement ceremonies in the stadium for the first time since 1972. A reported 25,000 friends and family were in attendance at the ceremony and following light show and fireworks display; the stadium has been the site of several concerts, including Fleetwood Mac in 1977 and a Jay-Z concert with Kelly Clarkson in 2009. In 1983, the stadium's parking lot, located on the northeast end of the facility, was one of several filming locations for the 20th Century Fox comedy Revenge of the Nerds; the film's Adams College Greek Games sequence was shot in the space on Cherry Avenue between East 4th Street and East University Boulevard. List of NCAA Division I FBS football stadiums Arizona Athletics.com – official athletics site – Arizona Stadium
Arizona State University
Arizona State University is a public metropolitan research university on five campuses across the Phoenix metropolitan area, four regional learning centers throughout Arizona. ASU is one of the largest public universities by enrollment in the U. S; as of fall 2018, the university had about 80,000 students attending classes across its metro campuses, including 66,000-plus undergraduates and more than 12,000 postgraduates. The university is organized into 17 colleges, featuring more than 170 cross-discipline centers and institutes. ASU offers 350 degree options for undergraduates students, as well as more than 400 graduate degree and certificate programs. ASU has nearly 600 ASU scholar-athletes across 26 varsity-level sports; the Arizona State Sun Devils compete in the Pac-12 Conference and have won 59 Pac-10/Pac-12 championships dating to 1979, have captured 24 NCAA championships dating to its first title in 1965. In addition to its athletic program, the university is home to over 1,100 registered student organizations.
ASU's charter, approved by the board of regents in 2014, is based on the "New American University" model created by ASU President Michael M. Crow upon his appointment as the institution's 16th president in 2002, it defines ASU as "a comprehensive public research university, measured not by whom it excludes, but rather by whom it includes and how they succeed. Since 2005, ASU has been ranked among the top research universities in the U. S. public and private, based on research output, development, research expenditures, number of awarded patents and awarded research grant proposals. The 2019 university ratings by U. S. News & World Report rank ASU No. 1 among the Most Innovative Schools in America for the fourth year in a row. U. S. News & World Report shows 84% of the student applications get accepted. A diverse faculty of more than 4,400 scholars includes 4 Nobel laureates, 6 Pulitzer Prize winners, 4 MacArthur Fellows Program "Genius Grant" members and 19 National Academy of Sciences members.
Additionally, among the faculty are 180 Fulbright Program American Scholars, 72 National Endowment for the Humanities fellows, 38 American Council of Learned Societies fellows, 36 members of the Guggenheim Fellowship, 21 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 9 National Academy of Engineering members and 3 National Academy of Medicine members. The National Academies has bestowed "highly prestigious" recognition on 227 ASU faculty members. Arizona State University was established as the Territorial Normal School at Tempe on March 12, 1885, when the 13th Arizona Territorial Legislature passed an act to create a normal school to train teachers for the Arizona Territory; the campus consisted of a single, four-room schoolhouse on a 20-acre plot donated by Tempe residents George and Martha Wilson. Classes began with 33 students on February 8, 1886; the curriculum evolved over the years and the name was changed several times. In 1923, the school stopped offering high school courses and added a high school diploma to the admissions requirements.
In 1925, the school became the Tempe State Teachers College and offered four-year Bachelor of Education degrees as well as two-year teaching certificates. In 1929, the 9th Arizona State Legislature authorized Bachelor of Arts in Education degrees as well, the school was renamed the Arizona State Teachers College. Under the 30-year tenure of president Arthur John Matthews, the school was given all-college student status; the first dormitories built in the state were constructed under his supervision in 1902. Of the 18 buildings constructed while Matthews was president, six are still in use. Matthews envisioned an "evergreen campus," with many shrubs brought to the campus, implemented the planting of 110 Mexican Fan Palms on what is now known as Palm Walk, a century-old landmark of the Tempe campus. During the Great Depression, Ralph Waldo Swetman was hired to succeed President Matthews, coming to Arizona State Teachers College in 1930 from Humboldt State Teachers College where he had served as president.
He served a three-year term. During his tenure, enrollment at the college doubled. Matthews conceived of a self-supported summer session at the school at Arizona State Teachers College, a first for the school. In 1933, Grady Gammage president of Arizona State Teachers College at Flagstaff, became president of Arizona State Teachers College at Tempe, beginning a tenure that would last for nearly 28 years, second only to Swetman's 30 years at the college's helm. Like President Arthur John Matthews before him, Gammage oversaw the construction of several buildings on the Tempe campus, he guided the development of the university's graduate programs. During his presidency, the school's name was changed to Arizona State College in 1945, to Arizona State University in 1958. At the time, two other names were considered: Tempe University and State University at Tempe. Among Gammage's greatest achievements in Tempe was the Frank Lloyd Wright-desig
The Arizona Cardinals are a professional American football franchise based in the Phoenix metropolitan area. The Cardinals compete in the National Football League as a member of the league's National Football Conference West division; the Cardinals were founded as the Morgan Athletic Club in 1898, are the oldest continuously run professional football team in the United States. The Cardinals play their home games at State Farm Stadium, which opened in 2006 and is located in the northwestern suburb of Glendale; the team was established in Chicago in 1898 as an amateur football team and joined the NFL as a charter member on September 17, 1920. Along with the Chicago Bears, the club is one of two NFL charter member franchises still in operation since the league's founding; the club moved to St. Louis in 1960 and played in that city through 1987. Before the 1988 season, the team moved west to Tempe, Arizona, a college suburb east of Phoenix, played their home games for the next 18 seasons at Sun Devil Stadium on the campus of Arizona State University.
In 2006, the club moved to their current home field in Glendale, although the team's executive offices and training facility remain in Tempe. The franchise has won two NFL championships, both; the first occurred in 1925, but is the subject of controversy, with supporters of the Pottsville Maroons believing that Pottsville should have won the title. Their second title, the first to be won in a championship game, came in 1947, nearly two decades before the first Super Bowl, they returned to the title game to defend in 1948, but lost the rematch 7–0 in a snowstorm in Philadelphia. Since winning the championship in 1947, the team suffered many losing seasons, holds the longest active championship drought of North American sports at 70 consecutive seasons after Major League Baseball's Chicago Cubs ended their 108 year drought in 2016. In 2012 the Cardinals became the first NFL franchise to lose 700 games since its inception; the franchise's all-time win-loss record at the conclusion of the 2018 season is 560–762–40.
They have been to the playoffs ten times and have won seven playoff games, three of which were victories during their run in the 2008–09 NFL playoffs. During that season, they won their only NFC Championship Game since the 1970 AFL–NFL merger, reached Super Bowl XLIII; the team has won five division titles since their 1947–48 NFL championship game appearances. The Cardinals are the only NFL team who have never lost a playoff game at home, with a 5–0 record: the 1947 NFL Championship Game, two postseason victories during the aforementioned 2008–09 NFL playoffs, one during the 2009–10 playoffs, one during the 2015–16 playoffs. From 1988 through 2012, the Cardinals conducted their annual summer training camp at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff; the Cardinals moved their training camp to State Farm Stadium in 2013. The stadium was the site of the 2015 Pro Bowl, unlike in past years, where it was held at Aloha Stadium in Honolulu, Hawaii; the stadium played host to Super Bowls XLII and XLIX, will host Super Bowl LVII in 2023.
The franchise's inception dates back to 1898, when a neighborhood group gathered to play in the Chicago South Side, calling themselves Morgan Athletic Club. Chicago painting and building contractor Chris O'Brien acquired the team, which he relocated to Normal Field on Racine Avenue; the team was known as Racine Normals until 1901, when O'Brien bought used jerseys from the University of Chicago. He described the faded maroon clothing as "Cardinal red" and the team became the Racine Street Cardinals; the team became in 1920 a charter member of the American Professional Football Association, which two years was rechristened to National Football League. The team entered the league as the Racine Cardinals, however the name was changed in 1922 to Chicago Cardinals to avoid confusion with the Horlick-Racine Legion, who entered the league the same year. Except for 1925, when they were awarded the championship after the Pottsville Maroons were suspended, the Cardinals experienced only minimal success on the playing field during their first 26 seasons in the league.
During the post-World War II years, the team reached two straight NFL finals against the Philadelphia Eagles, winning in 1947 – eight months after Charles Bidwill's death – and losing the following year. After years of bad seasons and losing fans to the cross-town rivals Chicago Bears, by the late 1950s the Cardinals were bankrupt, owner Violet Bidwill Wolfner became interested in a relocation. Due to the formation of the rival American Football League, the NFL allowed Bidwill to relocate the team to St. Louis, where they became the St. Louis Cardinals. During the Cardinals' 28-year stay in St. Louis, they advanced to the playoffs just three times, never hosting or winning in any appearance; the overall mediocrity of the Cardinals, combined with a then-21-year-old stadium, caused game attendance to dwindle, owner Bill Bidwill decided to move the team to Arizona. Not long after the 1987 NFL season, Bidwill agreed to move to Arizona on a handshake deal with state and
Glendale is a city in Maricopa County, United States, located about nine miles northwest from Downtown Phoenix. According to the 2017 U. S. Census estimates, the population of the city is 246,709. In the late 1800s what is now known as Glendale, was all desert. William John Murphy, a native of New Hartford, New York, who resided in the town of Flagstaff in what was known as the territory of Arizona, was in charge of building a 40-mile-long Arizona Canal from Granite Reef to New River for the Arizona Canal Company. In 1885, he completed the canal. Murphy was deep in debt, since he had agreed to be paid in Arizona Canal Company stock and bonds and land instead of cash. In 1887, Murphy formed the Arizona Improvement Company, his objective was to sell the water rights south of the canal. Murphy had to raise capital from out of state sources in order to meet payroll and construction expenses. Murphy decided to refer to this land as "Glendale". In order to develop and interest potential investors and settlers in this new town, Murphy decided to provide a better way of access from Phoenix to Glendale and ending in the town of Peoria by building an 18-mile-long diagonal road which he named Grand Avenue.
In 1891, Burgess Hadsell worked with Murphy to bring 70 Brethren and River Brethren families to Glendale to form a temperance colony. Soon settlers, attracted by the town's ban on alcoholic beverages, continued to arrive. In 1895, Murphy platted the original town site and amended the plat to include a town park and some business lots, it was bounded by Lamar Road on the south, 55th Avenue on the east, Myrtle Avenue on the north, 59th Avenue on the west. The construction of a railroad from Prescott to Phoenix was made possible with an exchange of the right-of-way made by Murphy along Grand Avenue; the railroad allowed Glendale settlers to transport goods to the north and receive building materials. The construction and commercial applications of the Beet Sugar Factory in 1906 contributed to the growth of Glendale. Though the operations of the factory only lasted until 1913, it played an important role in the increase of immigrant and migrant settlers in the city. Glendale is located at 33°32′19″N 112°11′11″W.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 55.8 square miles, of which, 55.7 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 226,710 people, 79,114 households, 54,721 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,929.5 people per square mile. There were 79,667 housing units at an average density of 1,430.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.54% White, 6% Black or African American, 1.7% Native American, 3.9% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 16.95% from other races, 4.0% from two or more races. 35.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 79,114 households out of which 39.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.5% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.2% were non-families. 21.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.33. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.1% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 31.9% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, 7.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $45,015, the median income for a family was $51,162. Males had a median income of $35,901 versus $27,736 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,124. About 8.8% of families and 11.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.3% of those under age 18 and 9.5% of those age 65 or over. Adobe Mountain Desert Park Glendale Chocolate Festival Glendale Folk & Heritage Festival Glendale Glitters Glendale Jazz and Blues Festival Historic Manistee Ranch Historic Sahuaro Ranch Cerreta Candy Co. factory tour Downtown Glendale featuring antique shops and restaurants Deer Valley Rock Art Center State Farm Stadium Gila River Arena Brelby Theatre Company Spotlight Youth Theatre Elsie McCarthy Sensory Garden Westgate Entertainment District Glendale is the site of two major sports venues: State Farm Stadium and Gila River Arena.
Both venues are part of the Glendale Sports and Entertainment District development plan, meant to spur growth in the sparsely inhabited Yucca district. Both venues are owned by the City of Glendale. State Farm Stadium has been the home field of the Arizona Cardinals in the National Football League since 2006, the annual Fiesta Bowl college football game since 2007. Both the Cardinals and bowl game moved from Sun Devil Stadium on the Arizona State University campus in Tempe. Since opening, the facility has brought two Super Bowls, three college football national championship games, the NCAA Men's Basketball Final Four, WrestleMania XXVI and International Champions Cup soccer to Glendale. Designed by architect Peter Eisenman, the stadium was featured on The History Channel TV series, Modern Marvels because of its roll-out natural grass field. Gila River Arena and Westgate City Center is adjacent to State Farm Stadium, is the home of the Arizona Coyotes of the National Hockey League, it was the home of the now defunct Arizona Sting of the National Lacrosse League.
The inaugural Street League Ska
Arizona Wildcats football
The Arizona Wildcats football program represents the University of Arizona in the sport of American college football. Arizona competes in the Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the South Division of the Pac-12 Conference. Arizona began competing in intercollegiate football in 1889; the school joined the Pac-10 Conference in 1978 alongside rival Arizona State, became a member of the Pac-12 South Division when the conference realigned in 2011. Arizona has won six conference championships, including the 1993 Pac-10 title, have appeared in 21 bowl games. Arizona's home stadium is Arizona Stadium, which opened in 1939 and has a capacity of 55,675. Arizona's archrival is in-state foe Arizona State Sun Devils; the Wildcats and Sun Devils meet annually in the Territorial Cup. As heading into the 2018 season, Arizona's all-time record is 607–451–33; the varsity football program at the University of Arizona began in 1899, though the Wildcats nickname was not adopted until later.
Stuart Forbes became the first head coach of Arizona football history and the team compiled a 1–1–1 record. From 1900 to 1901, William W. Skinner served as head football coach at the University of Arizona. While there, he studied geology, he guided Arizona to 3 -- 4 -- 1 records, respectively. On November 7, 1914, the team traveled to the west coast to play Occidental one of the reigning gridiron powers in California. Occidental won 14–0. Arizona received the name "Wildcats" after a Los Angeles Times correspondent, Bill Henry, wrote that "The Arizona men showed the fight of wildcats". Pop McKale was a successful high school coach in the Tucson area when he was hired at UA. In 1921, Drop-kicker/receiver Harold "Nosey" McClellan led the nation in scoring with 124 points. Wildcats finished the regular season 7–1, were invited to UA's first bowl game, the East-West Christmas Classic in San Diego, to play powerhouse Centre College of Kentucky; the Wildcats did not compete in football in 1918 due to World War I.
On October 18, 1926, UA quarterback and student body president John "Button" Salmon died from injuries sustained in a car wreck. His final words, spoken to coach "Pop" McKale, were: "Tell them.....tell the team to Bear Down." Soon thereafter, the UA student body adopted "Bear Down" as the school's athletic motto. On October 18, 1929, Arizona opened up Arizona Stadium for college football play, they won their first game against Caltech with a shutout score of 25–0. McKale retired after sixteen seasons at Arizona; the McKale Center, the University of Arizona's home basketball venue, was opened in 1973 and named in McKale's honor. Fred Enke replaced McKale as head coach of the Wildcats and in one season as head coach, he posted a record of 3–5–1 before getting demoted to assistant coach. Gus Farwick served as the head football coach at the University of Arizona in 1932, compiling a record of 4–5 before his resignation. Tex Oliver coached the Arizona Wildcats to a 32–11–4 record in five seasons. During that stretch, his teams never had a losing season.
Oliver's "Blue Brigade" played an expanded, more nationwide schedule, Arizona produced their first All-Americans under Oliver. The team's 1938 record of 8–2 was a school best to date. Oliver resigned after the 1937 season to accept the head football coach position at Oregon. Orian Landreth replaced Oliver and struggled in his one season as head coach, compiling a 3–6 record before he was fired; that season was the first losing season for the Wildcats in several years. Mike Casteel came to Arizona from his post as an assistant coach at Michigan State. In his eight seasons, Casteel compiled a 46–26–3 record and led the Wildcats to the first bowl berth in three decades in his final season, a loss in the 1949 Salad Bowl to Drake. Robert Winslow served as Arizona's head football coach for three seasons, posting a record of 12–18–1, with the team improving every year under his tutelage, going 2–7–1, 4–6 and 6–5 in Winslow's three years. Winslow resigned after three seasons. In 1954, under coach Warren Woodson, who came to Arizona from Hardin–Simmons, the Wildcats were led by starting halfback Art Luppino.
He went on to lead the nation in rushing, all-purpose running, kickoff returns. Luppino became the first player in NCAA history to lead the nation in rushing twice, he tied for the national title in all-purpose running and was third in scoring. Woodson was replaced after five seasons and a 26–22–2 record and was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a coach in 1989. Ed Doherty came to Arizona from his post as an assistant coach for the NFL's Philadelphia Eagles. In two seasons, Doherty compiled a record of 4–15–1 before getting fired. Doherty is the only person to serve as head football coach at both Arizona and archrival Arizona State. Jim LaRue running backs coach at Houston, was hired to take over the program as head coach after Doherty's firing. LaRue's 1961 team finished the season ranked # 17 in the final AP Poll. After that season, Arizona joined the Western Athletic Conference and LaRue's teams posted records of 5–5, 5–5, 6–3–1, 3–7 and 3–7 before LaRue was fired because of the sub-par on-the-field performances but pressure from fans and alumni.
Darrell Mudra came to Arizona from North Dakota State. His first team posted a record of 3–6–1 but in his second year, Mudra's Wildcats posted a record of 8–3, capped with a loss in the 1968 Sun Bowl, only the Wildcats third bowl appearance in school history and first since 1949. Mudra left Arizona after two seasons to accept the head football coach position at Western Illinois, his final record is 11–9–1. Mudra was inducted into the College Football
Florida State Seminoles
The Florida State Seminoles are the athletic teams representing Florida State University located in Tallahassee, Florida. They compete as a member of the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level competing in the Atlantic Coast Conference for all sports since the 1991–92 season; the Seminoles' athletic department fields 20 teams. They have collectively won 19 team national championships, over 100 team conference championships, as well as numerous individual national and conference titles. Florida State Athletics began in 1902 when the Florida State College football teams played three seasons; the 1905 Buckman Act reorganized the existing seven Florida colleges into three institutions, segregated by race and gender. As a result of this reorganization, the coeducational Florida State College was renamed the Florida State College for Women; the Florida State University became a co-ed institution in 1947 with most of the newly enrolled male students back from service in World War II.
The "Seminoles" name, chosen by students in a 1947 vote, alludes to Florida's Seminole people who in the early nineteenth century resisted efforts of the United States government to remove them from Florida. Since 1978 the teams have been represented by the symbols Renegade; the symbol represents an actual historical figure, Seminole war leader Osceola, whose clothing represents appropriate period dress. The athletic logo, in use since the early 1970s, shows a profile of a shouting Seminole warrior in circle; the model for the logo was Florida State music faculty member Thomas Wright, composer of the Florida State University Fight Song and Victory Song. The use of names and images associated with Seminole history is sanctioned by the Seminole Tribe of Florida. Athletic programs resumed and Florida State fielded its first football team in 43 years with FSU facing Stetson on October 18, 1947. Florida State was a founding member of the Dixie Conference, in 1948, when other southern institutions seeking to create a "purely amateur" athletic conference based on the principle of complete amateurism, with no athletic scholarships.
Three years FSU left the conference to become an independent, having won ten conference titles including three in football and two in men's track and field. In 1976, Florida State joined the Metro Conference in all sports except football, which remained independent. For fifteen years FSU competed and won sixty-eight conference titles as well as five national titles including two in softball, two in women's track and field, one in women's golf. Since 1991, Florida State has been a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference. Since joining the conference, FSU has won eighty-five ACC titles and eight national titles including three in football, three in men's track and field, one in soccer, one in cheerleading. After the 2005 conference expansion was complete, FSU was placed in the newly formed Atlantic Division. Florida State's school colors of garnet and gold are a merging of the university's past. In 1904 and 1905, the Florida State College won football championships wearing purple and gold uniforms.
When FSC became Florida State College for Women in 1905, the FSCW student body selected crimson as the official school color. The administration in 1905 took crimson and combined it with the recognizable purple of the championship football teams to achieve the color garnet; the garnet and gold colors were first used on an FSU uniform in a 14–6 loss to Stetson on October 18, 1947. On April 11, 2014, as part of the university's'Ignition Tradition' rebranding of the program and black were added to the official school colors; the addition of the two colors is to better represent the colors present on the flag of the Seminole Tribe of Florida. Florida State maintains two traditional rivals in all sports with the Florida Gators and the Miami Hurricanes. Florida State University is the only school in the State of Florida to play both Florida and Miami year in and year out in all sports. Most notably is the football rivalry with the Gators who hold a 35–26–2 all-time lead against the Seminoles; the series began with Florida dominating for the first few years, but it has since become more balanced.
In the past forty meetings, FSU has gone 23-17-1. The rivalry with Miami dates back to 1951, when the Hurricanes defeated the Seminoles 35–13 in their inaugural meeting; the schools have played uninterrupted since 1966, with Miami holding the all-time advantage, 33–30. Florida State holds a 10–5 advantage since the Hurricanes became a conference foe in 2004. Florida State developed a rivalry with their Atlantic Division foe Clemson. Florida State leads the all-time series 20–12. In addition to their in-state rivals, Florida State enjoys baseball rivalries with Georgia Tech. Florida State University was founded with money donated by Francis Eppes VII, a grandson of Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, principal author of the Declaration of Independence, founder of the University of Virginia; as a result, both teams play for the Jefferson-Eppes Trophy in football. With the recent realignment of the divisions, the Seminoles found themselves in one division and the Cavaliers in another.
Florida State has had 16 athletic directors in its history. Florida State University sponsors teams in eleven women's NCAA sanctioned sports. Florida State competes as a member of the Coastal Collegiate Sports Association in beach volleyball. Florida State's baseball program is one of the most successful in collegiate sports, having been to twenty-two College World Series in fifty-six Tournament appearances, havi
United States Football League
The United States Football League was an American football league that played for three seasons, 1983 through 1985. The league played a spring/summer schedule in each of its active seasons; the 1986 season was scheduled to be played in the autumn/winter, directly competing against the long-established National Football League. However, the USFL ceased operations; the ideas behind the USFL were conceived in 1965 by New Orleans businessman David Dixon, who saw a market for a professional football league that would play in the summer, when the National Football League and college football were in their off-season. Dixon had been a key player in the construction of the Louisiana Superdome and the expansion of the NFL into New Orleans in 1967, he developed "The Dixon Plan"—a blueprint for the USFL based upon securing NFL-caliber stadiums in top TV markets, securing a national TV broadcast contract, controlling spending—and found investors willing to buy in. Though the original franchise owners and founders of the USFL had promised to abide by the general guidelines set out by Dixon's plan, problems arose before the teams took the field, with some franchises facing financial problems and instability from the beginning.
Due to pressure from the NFL, some franchises had difficulty securing leases in stadiums that were used by NFL teams, forcing them to scramble to find alternate venues in their chosen city or hurriedly move to a new market. The USFL had no hard salary cap, some teams escalated player payrolls to unsustainable levels despite pledges to keep costs under control. While a handful of USFL franchises abided by the Dixon Plan and were stable, others suffered repeated financial crises, there were many franchise relocations and ownership changes during the league's short existence; these problems were worsened as some owners began engaging in bidding wars for star players against NFL teams and each other, forcing other owners to do the same or face a competitive disadvantage. On the field, the USFL was regarded as a good product. Many coaches and team executives had NFL experience, many future top NFL players and coaches got their start in the new league, including several who were inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame or the College Football Hall of Fame.
The Michigan Panthers won the first USFL championship in 1983. The Philadelphia Stars won the second USFL championship in 1984, after relocating to Baltimore, won the final USFL championship in 1985 as the Baltimore Stars in what was a rematch of the first USFL title game. In 1985, the USFL voted to move from a spring to a fall schedule in 1986 to compete directly with the NFL; this was done at the urging of New Jersey Generals majority owner Donald Trump and a handful of other owners as a way to force a merger between the leagues. As part of this strategy, the USFL filed an anti-trust lawsuit against the National Football League in 1986, a jury ruled that the NFL had violated anti-monopoly laws. However, in a victory in name only, the USFL was awarded a judgment of just $1, which under anti-trust laws, was tripled to $3; this court decision ended the USFL's existence. The league never played the 1986 season, by the time it folded, it had lost over US$163 million; the USFL is significant in part for the level of talent that played in the league.
The league was noteworthy for signing three consecutive Heisman Trophy winners: Georgia running back Herschel Walker and Boston College quarterback Doug Flutie signed with the New Jersey Generals, Nebraska running back Mike Rozier signed with the Pittsburgh Maulers out of college as did numerous other collegiate stars. Future Pro Football Hall of Fame members defensive end Reggie White of the University of Tennessee, offensive tackle Gary Zimmerman and quarterbacks Jim Kelly of the University of Miami and Steve Young of Brigham Young University, began their professional careers with the USFL's Memphis Showboats, Los Angeles Express, Houston Gamblers, Los Angeles Express, respectively. A number of NFL veterans of all talent levels played in the USFL, it is true that some NFL backups such as quarterbacks Chuck Fusina and Cliff Stoudt, G Buddy Aydelette, WR Jim Smith who had limited success in the NFL became major stars in the USFL. However, many NFL backups struggled or did not make it in the USFL.
Additionally, the USFL lured in NFL starters, including a handful of stars in the primes of their careers, including the 1980 NFL MVP, Cleveland Browns' quarterback Brian Sipe, the Buffalo Bills' three-time pro bowl running back Joe Cribbs, the Kansas City Chiefs' three-time pro bowl safety Gary Barbaro. The USFL was the brainchild of David Dixon, a New Orleans antiques dealer, instrumental in bringing the New Orleans Saints to town. In 1965, he envisioned football as a possible summer sport. Over the next 15 years, he studied the last two challengers to the NFL's dominance of pro football—the American Football League and the World Football League. In 1980, he commissioned a study by Frank Magid Associates that found promising results for a spring and summer football league, he had formed a blueprint for the prospective league's operations, which included early television exposure, heavy promotion in home markets, owners with the resources and patience to absorb years of losses—which he felt would be inevitable until the league found its feet.
He assembled a list of prospective franchises located in markets attractive to a potential television partner. Knowing that a number of past challengers to the NFL had foundered due to financial troubles, Dixon wanted to ensure that USFL teams had the wherewithal to put a