Silver Line (MBTA)
The Silver Line is the bus rapid transit system of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. It operates five routes in two sections that were built in separate phases; the first section has two routes from Dudley Square in Roxbury via Washington Street, to Boston's Downtown Crossing and South Station, using articulated buses operating in reserved lanes. The second section runs from South Station Under to Logan Airport in East Boston, South Boston, to Chelsea via the Chelsea Street Bridge; the second section runs dual-mode buses in a dedicated bus tunnel and on shared roadway, including surface streets, the Ted Williams Tunnel, airport roads. Riders can transfer to other lines at South Station. A transfer between these lines and the SL4 can be made at street level just outside South Station. Speed and schedule performance have disappointed some transit advocates and the Silver Line routes fall short of the minimum BRT Standard promulgated by the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy.
Some sections have an exclusive right-of-way, but other sections are delayed by street running in congested mixed traffic. Three Silver Line services operate in a dedicated tunnel from South Station to Boston World Trade Center in a reserved surface right-of-way for another two blocks farther east to Silver Line Way station and beyond there in mixed traffic: SL1 Logan Airport – South Station SL2 Design Center – South Station SL3 Chelsea – South StationDuring rush hours, additional short turns are run between South Station and Silver Line Way to increase frequency on the busiest section of the line. SL1 buses operate in a loop at Logan Airport and only serve the terminal buildings, stopping at the arrivals level. SL3 buses service the Blue Line's Airport station. Both the SL1 and SL3's stops allow passengers to transfer to Massport's free shuttle buses that connect the stations with each other and with other airport destinations, including hotels, the rental car center, the water taxi dock.
A system of moving walkways connects Terminals A and E, the Hilton Hotel, the central parking area. Passengers traveling on SL1, SL2, SL3 pay the standard MBTA subway fare: $2.25 when using a CharlieCard, $2.75 when using CharlieTickets or cash. Ticket vending machines that accept cash and credit cards are installed in the Logan Airport terminals and World Trade Center and South Stations. A faregate-free and cost-free transfer to and from the Red Line is available at South Station for all Waterfront Silver Line riders, but only CharlieCard users get free transfers to other bus lines and reduced fare on Express Bus. CharlieCard and CharlieTicket users but not cash users get a free transfer to SL4 service at its terminus outside South Station, at street level. Passengers boarding SL1 at Logan Airport do not have to pay any fare as part of a program to speed up service by allowing passengers to board using all three sets of doors; the fare-free boarding began as a pilot program on June 6, 2012.
Massport reimburses the MBTA for all lost fare revenue, subject to FAA approval, as airport revenue cannot be used for outside projects. From South Station to Silver Line Way the Neoplan USA AN460LF dual-mode 60 foot articulated buses on these services operate as trolleybuses, powered by overhead electrical wire, to avoid generating internal combustion fumes in the tunnel, continue on thereafter on diesel power, converted to electrical power to run the same electric motors used when running on overhead power; these buses provide higher capacity than standard 40-foot buses. Both the rear and center wheels are powered by electric motors, which permits these buses to continue operation through snow; these buses are using kneeling bus technology and a flip-out ramp. On June 18, 2014, the MBTA approved a $18.5 million contract with Maine Military Authority to overhaul the 32 dual-mode buses. After several buses were delivered, the contract was renegotiated in 2016; the overhauls were completed in August 2018..
Five additional all-electric battery-powered buses will arrive in 2019 for Silver Line use. An option order on a separate bus order with New Flyer allowed the MBTA to order a single diesel-electric hybrid bus with the ability to travel on battery power for several miles. If that test bus is deemed successful, the MBTA can purchase 45 additional such buses to replace the dual-mode fleet; this bus has arrived for testing. As of December 2018, the bus can be used on all Silver Line routes. Two Silver Line services run between Dudley Square in Roxbury and downtown Boston along Washington Street in reserved bus lanes: SL4 Dudley Square – South Station SL5 Dudley Square – Downtown CrossingThese two services share most of their route from Dudley Square to Chinatown. Passengers can transfer to SL1, SL2, SL3 buses at South Station. Passengers traveling on SL4 and SL5 pay the standard MBTA bus fare: $1.70 when using a CharlieCard, $2.00 when using a CharlieTicket or cash. At select station
Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority
The Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority is a special district responsible for public transit services, congestion management, specific highway improvement projects, countywide transportation planning for Santa Clara County, California. It is one of the governing parties for the Caltrain commuter rail line. In 1969, Santa Clara County had three private bus companies, all of which were in serious financial trouble: Peninsula Transit, San Jose City Lines, Peerless Stages; the California Legislature passed a Santa Clara County Transit District Act in 1969. However, the Act did not supply any funding for the new district; the formation of the Santa Clara County Transit District was rejected in 1969 and 1970 before it was approved by county voters on June 6, 1972. The SCCTD took over the operations of the three old bus companies on January 1, 1973. On September 26, 1974, the county Board of Supervisors dissolved the Public Works Department. Non-transit operations went into a new General Services Agency, while transit operations were placed into a new Santa Clara County Transportation Agency.
In its early years the Santa Clara County Transportation District approached the task of replacing the bus fleet it inherited from its predecessors, in need of upgrades and repair. At first the district bought propane-fueled Twin Gilligs. SCCTD switched to an all-diesel fleet after six buses went up in flames between December 1977 and April 1978. At the time, critics referred to the buses as "rolling propane bombs." On March 6, 1976, Santa Clara County voters approved a half-cent sales tax, Measure A, to help support the Santa Clara County Transit District. In 1977, the primary Overhaul and Repair Facility was built at the Cerone Yard. In 1977, County Supervisors decided to change the bus fleet from propane to diesel and ordered 102 buses. By 1979, three additional bus yards were commissioned into service. Another issue was improving the diversity of its workforce. In December 1978, the SCCTD approved an affirmative action plan for the Transportation Agency. After a long legal battle, the U. S. Supreme Court by a 6-3 majority upheld the gender component of the plan against a civil rights challenge on March 25, 1987.
On January 1, 1995, the SCCTA merged with the county Congestion Management Agency to become the SCVTA. For convenience, the acronym was shortened to VTA. In 1996, voters approved a half-cent general county sales tax, Measure B, a companion list of transportation projects recommended to be funded with Measure B, called Measure A; the two measures were designed to adhere to the rule in the California State Constitution that requires a two-thirds supermajority to pass any special purpose sales tax, but only a majority vote to pass a general sales tax. The measure was challenged, but in 1998, the California Supreme Court ruled that the two measure system was valid; the tax was to be collected for ten years. In 2000, voters approved a 30-year extension of the 1996 sales tax to fund an extension of Bay Area Rapid Transit to Santa Clara. 2000 Measure A includes funding for light rail extensions, bus service expansion and electrification of Caltrain service, connections from San Jose International Airport to BART, Caltrain and VTA light rail.
The measure was placed on the ballot by the VTA and does not include funding for highway projects. The measure passed with 70% of the vote. Revenues from the sales tax would not begin being collected until April 2006. After 2000, due to the dot-com bust, existing revenue sources declined and VTA was forced to cut service and increase fares. VTA introduced a series of fare increases between 1998 and 2005. VTA's farebox recovery is 13% and the Authority is focused on increasing the ratio. VTA contemplated service reductions in 2003 to address its budget problems. Instead, VTA changed routes to respond to customer demands and by 2008 saw increased ridership numbers. In the process of obtaining the federal funding necessary to build the BART extension, the Federal Transit Administration issued a "Not Recommended" rating in January 2004; the FTA was concerned about the ability of VTA to operate BART and other bus services at the same time. VTA continued to prepare the required environmental documents.
In 2006, the Santa Clara County Board of Supervisors placed a half-cent general sales tax increase for unspecified transportation projects along with other county services. It was advocated by supporters of labor groups; the measure would have funded improvements to local hospitals and transportation. On June 6, 2006, voters defeated the measure by a margin of 58% to 42%. In December 2006, the VTA board allocated $185 million to continue engineering work and environmental clearance on the extension, with a proposal to bring a tax increase to operate the BART extension in 2008. VTA is building the first ten miles of its BART Silicon Valley extension to the future Berryessa Transit Center in San Jose. Work continues for a future phase of the extension, proposed to include a 5-mile-long subway tunnel through downtown San Jose and extend the BART system from the planned Berryessa Extension terminus for six miles, ending at-grade in Santa Clara near the Caltrain Station. VTA will cede operations of the line to the Bay Area Rapid Transit District upon completion.
By a two-thirds majority, Santa Clara County voters approved Measure B in November 2008, implementing a 30-year, 1/8-cent local sales tax dedicated to funding the operating and maintenance costs associated with VTA's BART Silicon Valley Extension. The 2008 Measure B sales tax took effect in July 2012. In keeping with 2000 Measure A, VTA needed additional funding to deliver the ful
An articulated bus is an articulated vehicle used in public transportation. It is a single-decker, comprises two or more rigid sections linked by a pivoting joint enclosed by protective bellows inside and outside and a cover plate on the floor; this allows a longer legal length than rigid-bodied buses, hence a higher passenger capacity, while still allowing the bus to maneuver adequately. Due to their high passenger capacity, articulated buses are used as part of bus rapid transit schemes, can include mechanical guidance. Used exclusively on public transport bus services, articulated buses are 18 m or 60 ft in length; the common arrangement of an articulated bus is to have a forward section with two axles leading a rear section with a single axle, with the driving axle mounted on either the front or the rear section. Some articulated buses have a steering arrangement on the rearmost axle which turns in opposition to the front steering axle, allowing the vehicle to negotiate tighter turns, similar to hook-and-ladder fire trucks operating in city environments.
A less common variant of the articulated bus is the bi-articulated bus, where the vehicle has two trailer sections rather than one. Their capacity is around 200 people, their length is about either 25 meters or 80 feet. Early examples of the articulated bus appeared in Europe in the 1920s. In 1938, Twin Coach built an articulated bus for the city of Baltimore. 15 examples of the "Super Twin" were built in 1948. According to contemporary coverage, the Super Twin had a capacity of 58 seated and 120 total, with a weight of 27,500 lb. In Budapest, the first prototypes of the Ikarus 180 were shown in 1961. There is an ongoing exhibition in Budapest at the Hungarian Technical and Transportation Museum in 2010 with the title "The articulated bus is 50 years old." The Ikarus 180 went into limited production in 1963, entered serial production in 1966. In the mid-1960s, AC Transit in California pioneered the American use of a modern articulated bus, operating the experimental commuter coach "XMC 77" on some of its transbay lines.
The XMC-77, which AC Transit dubbed the "Freeway Train", was built in 1958, purchased by the District in October 1965, made its debut run for Line N on March 14, 1966. XMC-77 was exhibited to the public at various locations in the East Bay and the Transbay Terminal, it offered seats for 77 passengers and an observation lounge, complete with a card table to seat a quartet. The 60 ft long coach stood 10 ft 10 in high and was powered by a Cummins engine with an output of 262 hp. Engineering for the XMC-77 was carried out by the local firm of DeLeuw Co.. In the United States, articulated buses were imported from Europe and deployed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. During this time, rising operating costs led to public takeovers of transit systems, the pressure to reduce labor costs in turn meant transporting more passengers in a single vehicle. King County Metro and Caltrans led a Pooled Purchase Consortium, formed in 1976, which awarded a contract to the AM General/M. A. N. Joint venture responsible for assembling MAN SG 220 articulated buses in America.
Contemporaneously, Crown entered an agreement with Ikarus to produce the Crown-Ikarus 286, coupling American-made powertrains with the Hungarian Ikarus 280 chassis. Articulated buses have been used in Australia, Italy, Canada, Poland ) The first modern British "bendy buses" were built by Leyland-DAB and used in the city of Sheffield in the 1980s, they were subsequently withdrawn from service. The main benefits of an articulated bus over the double-decker bus are rapid simultaneous boarding and disembarkation through more and larger doors, somewhat larger passenger capacity, increased stability arising from a lower centre of gravity, smaller frontal area giving less air resistance than double decker buses thus better fuel efficiency a smaller turning radius, higher maximum service speed, the ability to pass under low bridges, improved accessibility for people with disabilities and the elderly. During late 2003 and early 2004, a series of onboard fires on newly delivered Mercedes-Benz Citaros led to Londoners humorously nicknaming the vehicles chariots of fire.
Mercedes-Benz addressed the problem, although the vehicles were out of service for a period. However, no overheating or fire-related incidents have been recorded in Vancouver's articulated electric trolley buses from a similar cause. Vancouver's articulated trolley buses were chosen for the higher torque output of their electric motors, which outperform diesel-based low-floor buses. In some circumstances of urban operation, articulated buses may be involved in more accidents
SEPTA Route 103
SEPTA Route 103 is a bus route operated by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority on the outskirts of Philadelphia, United States. Route 103 runs between Ardmore and the 69th Street Transportation Center in Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, it began as a streetcar line in 1902, operated by the Ardmore and Llanerch Street Railway the Philadelphia Suburban Transportation Company until converted bus operation to December 1966. SEPTA acquired PSTC and assumed operations of the Red Arrow Lines in January 1970; the route begins at a loop around Suburban Square shopping center in Ardmore heads west along Montgomery Avenue. A short distance it turns left at Woodside Road, crossing under the Paoli/Thorndale Line near Ardmore, which serves Amtrak's Keystone Service. After its stint on Woodside, it takes a left onto Lancaster Avenue. While Route 103 is close to the Ardmore station in this area, it doesn't have a direct connection to the station aside from a walk across the parking lot near the station at Suburban Square.
From Lancaster Avenue, Route 103 is divided. Southbound buses use Rittenhouse Place, East Athens Avenue, Cricket Avenue to County Line Road. Northbound buses from County Line Road use Ardmore Avenue to Lancaster Avenue. Shortly after the split between Lancaster Avenue and County Line Roads, Route 103 makes a turn onto a private busway known as Hathaway Lane, where it encounters County Line Road Station, little more than a shed; the road was right-of way for the trolley rails until it was paved over, why some of the old P&W/Red Arrow Line sheds still remain intact. The exception to this is the plexiglass bus shelter at Belmont Avenue Station. Although Hathaway Lane continues to serve as a private road for the Route 103 bus south of Haverford Road, there are some sections that contain parallel roads for residents and the general public. Both the busway and West Hathaway Lane go under the Norristown High Speed Line at Ardmore Junction. Merwood Road Station contains residential parallel roads on both sides of the busway, in the form of both West Hathaway and East Hathaway Lane.
East Hathaway is a dead-end street north of Merwood Road and a one-way street between Eagle and Merwood Roads. West Hathaway Lane moves away from the busway at the intersection of Huntington Lane. Though the Ardmore Busway ends at the intersection of Darby Road & Eagle Road in Oakmont, a "Red Arrow" bus shelter can be found after the intersection on Darby Road; the former trolley right-of-way runs west of Darby Road while the current bus route runs down Darby until making a left turn at Brookline Boulevard in Havertown. From there, the bus heads east and makes a right turn onto Earlington Road as it runs south again through Penfield; when Earlington Road ends at Township Line Road the bus turns left heads up to 77th Street. It turns right onto 77th Street. Route 103 buses took over SEPTA Route 105 routing from 77th Street & City Avenue to 69th Street Transportation Center in the early 2000s. Route 103 turns left onto Woodbine Avenue a right onto 75th Street, it travels down that street for about 4 blocks buses merge into Lansdowne Avenue before making a quick left onto Cardington Road/Victory Avenue.
Buses make a left into the SEPTA Private Bus Way to terminate at the North Terminal of the 69th Street Transportation Center, a terminal that did not exist when Route 103 was trolley. This is not the original termination point for Route 103 trolley as they came into the West Terminal; the Line as a trolley & bus merged into West Chester Pike where it joined its counterpart Route 104, another Red Arrow Bus Lines converted from trolleys in 1954. A mural of a trolley station was painted on a building on the corner where the right-of-way used to exist. From this point both the Routes 103 and 104 buses continued eastward along West Chester Pike until reaching the 69th Street Terminal in Upper Darby, the same location they reached when they were trolley lines. Today the North Terminal is served by 5 other SEPTA Bus Routes. West Terminal continues to serve trolleys today in the form of the former Philadelphia Suburban Transportation Company Media & Sharon Hill Trolley Lines. SEPTA Route 103 Schedules and Map
El Paso, Texas
El Paso is a city in and the county seat of El Paso County, United States, in the far western part of the state. The 2017 population estimate for the city from the U. S. Census was 683,577, its metropolitan statistical area covers all of El Paso and Hudspeth counties in Texas, has a population of 844,818. El Paso stands on the Rio Grande across the Mexico–United States border from Ciudad Juárez, the most populous city in the Mexican state of Chihuahua with 1.4 million people. Las Cruces, in the neighboring U. S. state of New Mexico, has a population of 215,579. On the U. S. side, El Paso metropolitan area forms part of the larger El Paso–Las Cruces CSA, with a population of 1,060,397. Bi-nationally, these three cities form a combined international metropolitan area sometimes referred to as the Paso del Norte or the Borderplex; the region of 2.5 million people constitutes the largest bilingual and binational work force in the Western Hemisphere. The city is home to three publicly traded companies, former Western Refining, now Andeavor. as well as home to the Medical Center of the Americas, the only medical research and care provider complex in West Texas and Southern New Mexico, the University of Texas at El Paso, the city's primary university.
The city hosts the annual Sun Bowl college football post-season game, the second oldest bowl game in the country. El Paso has a strong military presence. William Beaumont Army Medical Center, Biggs Army Airfield, Fort Bliss call the city home. Fort Bliss is one of the largest military complexes of the United States Army and the largest training area in the United States. Headquartered in El Paso are the DEA domestic field division 7, El Paso Intelligence Center, Joint Task Force North, United States Border Patrol El Paso Sector, the U. S. Border Patrol Special Operations Group. In 2010 and 2018, El Paso received an All-America City Award. El Paso ranked in the top three safest large cities in the United States between 1997 and 2014, including holding the title of safest city between 2011 and 2014; the El Paso region has had human settlement for thousands of years, as evidenced by Folsom points from hunter-gatherers found at Hueco Tanks. The evidence suggests 10,000 to 12,000 years of human habitation.
The earliest known cultures in the region were maize farmers. When the Spanish arrived, the Manso and Jumano tribes populated the area; these were subsequently incorporated into the Mestizo culture, along with immigrants from central Mexico, captives from Comanchería, genízaros of various ethnic groups. The Mescalero Apache were present. Spanish explorer Don Juan de Oñate was born in 1550 in Zacatecas, Zacatecas and was the first New Spain explorer known to have observed the Rio Grande near El Paso, in 1598, celebrating a Thanksgiving Mass there on April 30, 1598. However, the four survivors of the Narváez expedition, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Alonso del Castillo Maldonado, Andrés Dorantes de Carranza, his enslaved Moor Estevanico, are thought to have passed through the area in the mid-1530s. El Paso del Norte was founded on the south bank of the Río Bravo del Norte, in 1659 by Fray Garcia de San Francisco. In 1680, the small village of El Paso became the temporary base for Spanish governance of the territory of New Mexico as a result of the Pueblo Revolt, until 1692 when Santa Fe was reconquered and once again became the capital.
The Texas Revolution was not felt in the region, as the American population was small. However, the region was claimed by Texas as part of the treaty signed with Mexico and numerous attempts were made by Texas to bolster these claims. However, the villages which consisted of what is now El Paso and the surrounding area remained a self-governed community with both representatives of the Mexican and Texan government negotiating for control until Texas irrevocably took control in 1846. During this interregnum, 1836–1848, Americans nonetheless continued to settle the region; as early as the mid-1840s, alongside long extant Hispanic settlements such as the Rancho de Juan María Ponce de León, Anglo settlers such as Simeon Hart and Hugh Stephenson had established thriving communities of American settlers owing allegiance to Texas. Stephenson, who had married into the local Hispanic aristocracy, established the Rancho de San José de la Concordia, which became the nucleus of Anglo and Hispanic settlement within the limits of modern-day El Paso, in 1844: the Republic of Texas, which claimed the area, wanted a chunk of the Santa Fe trade.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo made the settlements on the north bank of the river part of the US, separate from Old El Paso del Norte on the Mexican side. The present Texas–New Mexico boundary placing El Paso on the Texas side was drawn in the Compromise of 1850. El Paso remained the largest settlement in New Mexico as part of the Republic of Mexico until its cession to the U. S. in 1848, when the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified the border was to run north of El Paso De Norte around the Ciudad Juárez Cathedral which became part of the state of Chihuahua. El Paso County was established in March 1850, with San Elizario as the first county seat; the United States Senate fixed a boundary between Texas and New Mexico at the 32nd parallel, thus ignoring history and topography. A military post called "The Post opposite El Paso" was established in 1849 on Coons' Rancho beside the settlement of Franklin, which became the nucleus of the future El Paso, Texas.
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Lynx is a bus system run by the Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority, serving the greater Orlando, Florida area in Orange and Osceola counties with limited service to Polk County. Bus routes are referred to as Links; the standard adult one-way fare is $2 with free single transfers valid for 90 minutes. LYNX runs the zero-fare Lymmo Bus in Downtown Orlando, connecting many downtown destinations to parking and the LYNX Central Station by controlling traffic signals on a three-mile route along a separate right-of-way or a combination of separate right-of-way and mixed traffic. All LYNX buses, except the Lymmo, have bike racks for use at no extra charge. Other LYNX services include a commuter assistance Vanpool program. Bus stop signs were designed with a lynx paw in place of the traditional bus stop signs, which show a bus; the route numbers are attached to the bus stop signs. The budget for fiscal year 2019, which runs from October 2018 through September 2019 is $142,371,000; the Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority was formed in May 1972 under the name Orange-Seminole-Osceola Transportation Authority.
The bus service was named Tri-County Transit, or TCT for short. The authority changed its name in 1994 via a public naming contest and started doing business as Lynx; the agency opened Lynx Central Station in November 2004 and a new operations center called Lynx Operations Center in 2007. LYNX opened through a partnership with the city of Kissimmee the Osceola Satellite Facility to operate their Kissimmee routes Link 10, 18, 26, 55, 56, 57, 108, 306, 416, 426 and 427; the only Kissimmee route that does not operate from OSF is FastLink 441, run out of LOC. LYNX operates a total of 88 bus routes in the Orlando area, serving Orange and Seminole counties with limited service to Polk County. Lynx routes include Link local bus routes, KnightLynx service to the University of Central Florida campus, Disney Direct commuter service to Walt Disney World Resort, FastLink limited stop bus routes, the Lymmo zero-fare service in Downtown Orlando, NeighborLink community circulator buses providing curb-to-curb service through advance reservations.
The base fare for Lynx buses is $2 for a single ride. A single transfer to another route is available for free. A rolling 24-Hour Pass must be purchased onboard the bus. Lynx offers a rolling 7-Day Pass for $16 and a rolling 30-Day pass for $50. A Lynx Discount Fare ID allows for discounted fares for children ages 7 to 18, high school students, senior citizens over age 65, persons with disabilities; the discount fare costs $1 for a single ride, $2.25 for a rolling 24-Hour Pass, $8 for a rolling 7-Day Pass, $25 for a rolling 30-Day Pass. The fare for Links 416 and 427 in Polk County costs $1.50 for a single ride, $1.25 for students, $0.75 for senior citizens and disabled persons. Under 7 can board for free with fare-paying rider. Paul Skoutelas Official website National Transit Database ridership profile for Lynx