Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese politician, medical doctor and philosopher who served as the provisional first president of the Republic of China. He is referred to as the "Father of the Nation" in the Republic of China due to his role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution. Sun remains a unique figure among 20th-century Chinese characters for being revered in both mainland China and Taiwan. Although Sun is considered to be one of the greatest leaders of modern China, his political life was one of constant struggle and frequent exile. After the success of the revolution and the Han Chinese regaining power after 268 years of living under Manchurian rule, he resigned from his post as President of the newly founded Republic of China to Yuan Shikai, led successive revolutionary governments as a challenge to the warlords who controlled much of the nation. Sun did not live to see his party consolidate its power over the country during the Northern Expedition, his party, which formed a fragile alliance with the Chinese Communist Party, split into two factions after his death.
Sun's chief legacy resides in his developing of the political philosophy known as the Three Principles of the People: nationalism, "rights of the people", sometimes translated as "democracy", the people's livelihood. Sun was born as Sun Wen, his genealogical name was Sun Deming; as a child, his pet name was Tai Tseung. Sun's courtesy name was Zaizhi, his baptized name was Rixin. While at school in Hong Kong he got the art name Yat-sen. Sūn Zhōngshān, the most popular of his Chinese names, is derived from his Japanese name Nakayama Shō, the pseudonym given to him by Tōten Miyazaki while in hiding in Japan. Sun Yat-sen was born on 12 November 1866 to Madame Yang, his birthplace was the village of Xiangshan County, Guangdong. He had a cultural background of Cantonese, his father owned little land and worked as a tailor in Macau, as a journeyman and a porter. After finishing primary education, he moved to Honolulu in the Kingdom of Hawaii, where he lived a comfortable life of modest wealth supported by his elder brother Sun Mei.
At the age of 10, Sun Yat-sen began seeking schooling, he met childhood friend Lu Haodong. By age 13 in 1878, after receiving a few years of local schooling, Sun went to live with his elder brother, Sun Mei in Honolulu. Sun Mei financed Sun Yat-sen's education and would be a major contributor for the overthrow of the Manchus. During his stay in Honolulu, Sun Yat-sen went to ʻIolani School where he studied English, British history, mathematics and Christianity. While he was unable to speak English, Sun Yat-sen picked up the language and received a prize for academic achievement from King David Kalākaua before graduating in 1882, he attended Oahu College for one semester. In 1883 he was sent home to China as his brother was becoming worried that Sun Yat-sen was beginning to embrace Christianity; when he returned to China in 1883 at age 17, Sun met up with his childhood friend Lu Haodong again at Beijidian, a temple in Cuiheng Village. They saw many villagers worshipping the Beiji Emperor-God in the temple, were dissatisfied with their ancient healing methods.
They broke the statue, incurring the wrath of fellow villagers, escaped to Hong Kong. While in Hong Kong in 1883 he studied at the Diocesan Boys' School, from 1884 to 1886 he was at The Government Central School. In 1886 Sun studied medicine at the Guangzhou Boji Hospital under the Christian missionary John G. Kerr, he earned the license of Christian practice as a medical doctor from the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese in 1892. Notably, of his class of 12 students, Sun was one of the only two. In the early 1880s, Sun Mei sent his brother to ʻIolani School, under the supervision of British Anglicans and directed by an Anglican prelate named Alfred Willis; the language of instruction was English. Although Bishop Willis emphasized that no one was forced to accept Christianity, the students were required to attend chapel on Sunday. At Iolani School, young Sun Wen first came in contact with Christianity, it made a deep impression on him. Schriffin writes that Christianity was to have a great influence on Sun's whole future political life.
Sun was baptized in Hong Kong by Rev. C. R. Hager an American missionary of the Congregational Church of the United States to his brother's disdain; the minister would develop a friendship with Sun. Sun attended To Tsai Church, founded by the London Missionary Society in 1888, while he studied Western Medicine in Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese. Sun pictured a revolution as similar to the salvation mission of the Christian church, his conversion to Christianity was related to his revolutionary ideals and push for advancement. In 1924 Liao Chongzhen, a prominent and influential government official of the day, arranged a meeting between Sun and Martha Root, a well-known journalist and traveling teacher of the Bahá'í Faith in the late 19th and early 20th century. In this meeting Sun came into contact with the Teachings of the Bahá'í Faith, expressing his appreciation for the Cause and declaring it "highly relevant to the
Nanjing romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of 6,600 km2 and a total population of 8,270,500 as of 2016. The inner area of Nanjing enclosed by the city wall is Nanjing City, with an area of 55 km2, while the Nanjing Metropolitan Region includes surrounding cities and areas, covering over 60,000 km2, with a population of over 30 million. Situated in the Yangtze River Delta region, Nanjing has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having served as the capital of various Chinese dynasties and republican governments dating from the 3rd century to 1949, has thus long been a major center of culture, research, economy, transport networks and tourism, being the home to one of the world's largest inland ports; the city is one of the fifteen sub-provincial cities in the People's Republic of China's administrative structure, enjoying jurisdictional and economic autonomy only less than that of a province.
Nanjing has been ranked seventh in the evaluation of "Cities with Strongest Comprehensive Strength" issued by the National Statistics Bureau, second in the evaluation of cities with most sustainable development potential in the Yangtze River Delta. It has been awarded the title of 2008 Habitat Scroll of Honor of China, Special UN Habitat Scroll of Honor Award and National Civilized City. Nanjing boasts many high-quality universities and research institutes, with the number of universities listed in 100 National Key Universities ranking third, including Nanjing University which has a long history and is among the world top 10 universities ranked by Nature Index; the ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. Nanjing is one of the top three Chinese scientific research centers, according to the Nature Index strong in the chemical sciences. Nanjing, one of the nation's most important cities for over a thousand years, is recognized as one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China.
It has been one of the world's largest cities, enjoying peace and prosperity despite wars and disasters. Nanjing served as the capital of Eastern Wu, one of the three major states in the Three Kingdoms period; the city served as the seat of the rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and the Japanese puppet regime of Wang Jingwei during the Second Sino-Japanese War. It suffered severe atrocities including the Nanjing Massacre. Nanjing has served as the capital city of Jiangsu province since the establishment of the People's Republic of China, it boasts many important heritage sites, including the Presidential Palace and Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum. Nanjing is famous for human historical landscapes and waters such as Fuzimiao, Ming Palace, Chaotian Palace, Porcelain Tower, Drum Tower, Stone City, City Wall, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake and Purple Mountain. Key cultural facilities include Nanjing Museum and Nanjing Art Museum; the city has a number of other names, some historical names are now used as names of districts of the city.
When it was the capital of a state, for instance during the ROC, Jing was adopted as the abbreviation of Nanjing. The city first became a Chinese national capital as early as the Jin dynasty; the name Nanjing, which means "Southern Capital", was designated for the city during the Ming dynasty, about six hundred years later. Nanjing is known as Jinling or Ginling and the old name has been used since the Warring States period in the Zhou dynasty. Archaeological discovery shows. Zun, a kind of wine vessel, was found to exist in Beiyinyangying culture of Nanjing in about 5000 years ago. In the late period of Shang dynasty, Taibo of Zhou came to Jiangnan and established Wu state, the first stop is in Nanjing area according to some historians based on discoveries in Taowu and Hushu culture. According to a legend quoted by an artist in Ming dynasty, Chen Yi, King of the State of Wu, founded a fort named Yecheng in today's Nanjing area in 495 BC. In 473 BC, the State of Yue conquered Wu and constructed the fort of Yuecheng on the outskirts of the present-day Zhonghua Gate.
In 333 BC, after eliminating the State of Yue, the State of Chu built Jinling Yi in the western part of present-day Nanjing. It was renamed Moling during reign of Qin Shi Huang. Since the city experienced destruction and renewal many times; the area was successively part of Kuaiji and Danyang prefectures in Qin and Han dynasty, part of Yangzhou region, established as the nation's 13 supervisory and administrative regions in the 5th year of Yuanfeng in Han dynasty. Nanjing was the capital city of Danyang Prefecture, had been the capital city of Yangzhou for about 400 years from late Han to early Tang. Nanjing first became a state capital in AD 229, when the state of Eastern
Republic of China (1912–1949)
The Republic of China controlled the Chinese mainland between 1912 and 1949. It was established in January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China, its government moved to Taipei in December 1949 due to the Kuomintang's defeat in the Chinese Civil War. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, leader of the Beiyang Army, his party led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. Song Jiaoren was assassinated shortly after and the Beiyang Army led by Yuan Shikai maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai tried to reinstate the monarchy before abdicating due to popular unrest. After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916, members of cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed their autonomy and clashed with each other. During this period, the authority of the Beiyang government was weakened by a restoration of the Qing dynasty.
In 1921, Sun Yat-sen's Kuomintang established a rival government in Canton City, Canton Province, together with the fledgling Communist Party of China. The economy of North China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became KMT leader after Sun Yat-sen's death, started the Northern Expedition military campaign in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, completed in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanking, massacred communists in Shanghai, which forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. There were industrialization and modernization, but conflict between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remnant warlords, the Empire of Japan. Nation-building took a backseat to the Second Sino-Japanese War when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 that turned into a full-scale invasion. After the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War resumed in 1946 between the KMT and CPC, with both sides receiving foreign assistance due to the Cold War from the USA and USSR, respectively.
During this period, the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replaced the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. Near the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the Chinese Communist Party established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the Chinese mainland; the Government of the Republic of China moved from Nanking to Taipei in 1949, controlling only the Taiwan area after 1949. The official name of the state in the mainland was the "Republic of China". Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era; the ROC used alternate names throughout its existence were Republican China or Republican Era, as well as the Beiyang government, the Nationalist government.
A republic was formally established on 1 January 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution, which itself began with the Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911 overthrowing the Qing dynasty and ending over two thousand years of imperial rule in China. From its founding until 1949 it was based on mainland China. Central authority waxed and waned in response to warlordism, Japanese invasion, a full-scale civil war, with central authority strongest during the Nanjing Decade, when most of China came under the control of the Kuomintang under an authoritarian one-party military dictatorship. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Empire of Japan surrendered control of Taiwan and its island groups to the Allies, Taiwan was placed under the Republic of China's administrative control; the communist takeover of mainland China in the Chinese Civil War in 1949 left the ruling Kuomintang with control over only Taiwan, Kinmen and other minor islands. With the 1949 loss of mainland China in the civil war, the ROC government retreated to Taiwan and the KMT declared Taipei the provisional capital.
The Communist Party of China took over all of mainland China and founded the People's Republic of China in Beijing. In 1912, after over two thousand years of imperial rule, a republic was established to replace the monarchy; the Qing dynasty that preceded the republic experienced a century of instability throughout the 19th century, suffered from both internal rebellion and foreign imperialism. The ongoing instability led to the outburst of Boxer Rebellion in 1900, whose attacks on foreigners led to the invasion by the Eight Nation Alliance. China signed the Boxer Protocol and paid a large indemnity to the foreign powers: 450 million taels of fine silver. A program of institutional reform proved too late. Only the lack of an alternative regime prolonged its existence until 1912; the establishment of the Chinese Republic developed out of the Wuchang Uprising against the Qing government on 10 October 1911. That date is now celebrated annually as the ROC's national day known as the "Double Ten Day".
On 29 December 1911, Sun Yat-sen was elected president b
Jiangsu is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education and tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu is the third smallest, but the fifth most populous and the most densely populated of the 23 provinces of the People's Republic of China. Jiangsu has the highest GDP per capita of Chinese provinces and second-highest GDP of Chinese provinces, after Guangdong. Jiangsu borders Shandong in the north, Anhui to the west, Zhejiang and Shanghai to the south. Jiangsu has a coastline of over 1,000 kilometres along the Yellow Sea, the Yangtze River passes through the southern part of the province. Since the Sui and Tang dynasties, Jiangsu has been a national economic and commercial center due to the construction of Grand Canal. Cities such as Nanjing, Wuxi and Shanghai are all major Chinese economic hubs. Since the initiation of economic reforms in 1990, Jiangsu has become a focal point for economic development, it is regarded as China's most developed province measured by its Human Development Index.
Jiangsu is home to many of the world's leading exporters of electronic equipment and textiles. It has been China's largest recipient of foreign direct investment since 2006, its 2014 nominal GDP was more than 1 trillion US dollars, the sixth-highest of all country subdivisions. Jiangsu's name is a compound of the first elements of the names of the two cities of Jiangning and Suzhou; the abbreviation for this province is "苏", the second character of its name. During the earliest Chinese dynasties, the area, now Jiangsu was far away from the center of Chinese civilization, in the northwest Henan. During the Zhou dynasty more contact was made, the state of Wu appeared as a vassal to the Zhou dynasty in south Jiangsu, one of the many hundreds of states that existed across northern and central China at that time. Near the end of the Spring and Autumn period, Wu became a great power under King Helu of Wu, defeated in 484 BC the state of Qi, a major power in the north in modern-day Shandong province, contest for the position of overlord over all states of China.
The state of Wu was subjugated in 473 BC by the state of Yue, another state that had emerged to the south in modern-day Zhejiang province. Yue was in turn subjugated by the powerful state of Chu from the west in 333 BC; the state of Qin swept away all the other states, unified China in 221 BC. Under the reign of the Han dynasty, Jiangsu was removed from the centers of civilization in the North China Plain, was administered under two zhou: Xuzhou Province in the north, Yangzhou Province in the south. During the Three Kingdoms period, southern Jiangsu became the base of the Eastern Wu, whose capital, Jianye, is modern Nanking; when nomadic invasions overran northern China in the 4th century, the imperial court of the Jin dynasty moved to Jiankang. Cities in southern and central Jiangsu swelled with the influx of migrants from the north. Jiankang remained as the capital for four successive Southern dynasties and became the largest commercial and cultural center in China. After the Sui dynasty united the country in 581, the political center of the country shifted back to the north, but the Grand Canal was built through Jiangsu to link the Central Plain with the prosperous Yangtze Delta.
The Tang dynasty relied on southern Jiangsu for annual deliveries of grain. It was during the Song dynasty, which saw the development of a wealthy mercantile class and emergent market economy in China, that south Jiangsu emerged as a center of trade. From onwards, south Jiangsu major cities like Suzhou or Yangzhou, would be synonymous with opulence and luxury in China. Today south Jiangsu remains one of the richest parts of China, Shanghai, arguably the wealthiest and most cosmopolitan of mainland China cities, is a direct extension of south Jiangsu culture; the Jurchen Jin dynasty gained control of North China in 1127 during the Jin-Song wars, Huai River, which used to cut through north Jiangsu to reach the Yellow Sea, was the border between the north, under the Jin, the south, under the Southern Song dynasty. The Mongols took control of China in the thirteenth century; the Ming dynasty, established in 1368 after driving out the Mongols who had occupied China put its capital in Nanjing. Following a coup by Zhu Di, the capital was moved to Beijing, far to the north.
The entirety of modern-day Jiangsu as well as neighbouring Anhui province kept their special status, however, as territory-governed directly by the central government, were called Nanzhili. Meanwhile, South Jiangsu continued to be an important center of trade in China; the Qing dynasty changed this situation by establishing Nanzhili as Jiangnan province. "In 1727 the to-min or "idle people" of Cheh Kiang province, the yoh-hu or "music people" of Shan Si provi
Nanjing University, known as Nanda, is a major public university, the oldest institution of higher learning in Nanjing, a member of the elite C9 League of Chinese universities. Established in 1902 as Sanjiang Normal School, it underwent a number of name changes until it was renamed Nanjing University in 1950, it merged with the University of Nanking in 1952. In addition to its membership in the C9 League, Nanjing University has been designated a Class A institution in the Double First Class University plan, a government initiative to cultivate an elite group of Chinese universities into "world-class" institutions; the university is perennially ranked one of the best research universities in China, one of China's most selective universities. It is ranked among the top universities worldwide in major global university rankings. Regarding research output, the Nature Index 2017 ranks Nanjing University number 2 in China, number 3 in Asia Pacific and number 12 in the world. NJU has two main campuses: the Xianlin campus in the northeast of Nanjing, the Gulou campus in the city center of Nanjing.
Nanjing, situated in the lower part of the Yangtze, has been the capital of various kingdoms and dynasties, with the reputation as the center of education. In 258 CE, the Kingdom of Wu under the reign of Emperor Jing of Wu, founded a Confucian learning institute for the purpose of learning Six Arts. In the first year of Jianwu reign, Taihsueh campus was built in today's Fuzimiao area on the banks of Qinhuai River, Nanking Imperial University began recruiting students from common families instead of only from noble families. Like its forerunner Chengjun and succeeding Shang Hsiang founded by Yu in Chungyuan, the earliest recorded imperial higher learning institutions and their successors, it was the Kingdom's central university, which after Han dynasty excellent students from local schools could be selected to attend to pursue further education. In 470 during the Former Song dynasty, the Imperial Central University became a comprehensive institution combining higher education and research, with five divisions: Literature, Confucian Study, Xuan Study and Yin Yang Study.
The campus of School of Literature and School of History were located in today's Nanjing University Gulou campus, west to Gulou mountain, the campus was moved to today's Chaotian Palace area at the time when Wang Jian was university president and the areas of study were narrowed, with a heavy focus on Confucian classics. In the period the faculty members included such scholars and scientists as Zu Chongzhi, Ge Hong, Wang Xizhi, students included such figures as Xiao Daocheng, Emperor Gao of Southern Qi who studied at School of Confucian Studies, Zhong Rong, a founding scholar of poetics who graduated from division of literature. After the fall of Chen dynasty, the school was closed and replaced by Nanking Academy in Sui dynasty. In 937 when campus of the imperial national university was again in Fuzimiao area, Li Shandao, a scholar of the university, established another national school Lushan National Academy outside the capital city Nanking, called Bailudong Shuyuan, a famous academy that hosted many renowned scholars including Zhu Xi, Lu Jiuyuan and Wang Yangming.
In 1382 the Imperial University moved campus from Nanking Fuzimiao area to south of Qintian Mountain and Xuanwu Lake (the area around Nanjing University campus before 1952. In 1952 Nanjing University moved to Gulou and its engineering school was split and formed several independent colleges including Nanjing Institute of Technology, which at its peak spanning 10 Li and hosting near 10,000 students, around there were institutes including Qintian Jian and Taiyi Yuan. In 1403 Peking Guozijian was established; the Imperial University of Nanking developed and flourished in the period, consisting of six schools: three basic level colleges, two middle level schools and one advanced level school, altogether 4 years to complete according to the system, one and a half years for both of the former two levels and one year for the latter level, to achieve 8 credit points a year and upon graduation Chushen would be awarded, with subjects including Confucian classics, literature, law, calligraphy and archery, etc.
Yongle Encyclopedia was completed at Imperial Nanking University in 1408 after five years compilation, 9169 scholars selected from nationwide took part in it, thereinto 2180 were student scholars of the university. The publishing house of the imperial university of Nanking had been a publishing centre for several hundred years. Wu Cheng'en, Tang Hsiantzu and Zheng Chenggong studied there during the Ming dynasty; each time when Nanking became a non-capital city, the Nanking Imperial University was changed to be regional Nanking Academy. The Imperial Nanking University was changed to Nanking Academy in 1650 after Qing dynasty replaced Ming dynasty, in 1865 after Taiping Rebellion the academy was relocated to Chaotian Palace; the ancient school history was recognized during ROC. In 1954 the school authority controlled by CPC decided to set the year starting to establish the modern new type school Sanjiang Normal College as the school's new founding year. In 1902, Sanjiang Normal College (三江師範學堂
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script