Suncheon is a city in South Jeolla Province, South Korea. It is a scenic industrial city of around 250,000 people near Suncheon Bay, it is located in the southeastern corner of Jeollanam-do, just over an hour south-east of Gwangju. Forty minutes south of Suncheon is the port city of Yeosu, twenty minutes to the east of Suncheon is Gwangyang, it is experiencing strong development due to being included as part of the Gwangyang Bay Free Economic Zone, one of three newly created Free Economic Zones in South Korea due to open within the next decade. As of October 14, 2007 plans are being set up and a referendum is being planned for a merging of the cities of Yeosu and Gwangyang into a new metropolitan city, taking advantage of the Gwangyang Bay Free Economic Zone, Yeosu's Expo 2012 bid and port facilities, Suncheon's educational institutes and Gwangyang's POSCO plant. Era of Samhan: Territory of Mahan Era of the three kingdoms: a territory of Baekje, named Gampyeong-gun Era of the unified Silla: named Seungpyeong-gun in 757, the 16th year of King Gyeongdeok's reign Era of Koryeo: renamed Seungju in 940, Taejo's 23rd year on the throne.
Era of Koryeo: called Seungpyeong-gun in 1036, Seongjong's second year as king. Era of Koryeo: raised to the status of Seungju-mok in 1309, the year Chungseon becomes king. Taejong established the Suncheon Dohobu in the 13th year of reign, 1413. Changed to Suncheon-gun in 1895, under Gojong's reign. November 1, 1931: Suncheon-gun Suncheon-myeon becomes Suncheon-eup. August 15, 1949: 9 ri's of Dosa-myeon and part of Haeryong-myeon are annexed by Suncheon on August 13, 1949; the area is elevated to the City of Sunche on the 15th. Other surrounding areas are put into the district of Seungju-gun. January 1, 1995: reborn as'Suncheon City' after annexing Seungju-gun. In October 1948, a rebellion swept Yeosu and nearby towns, when South Korean soldiers refused to take part in the suppression of the ongoing Jeju uprising; the rebel forces killed a number of ROK soldiers, police and landlords. A couple days the rebellion was crushed by the South Korean military. Civilians thought to have aided the rebellion were summarily executed.
2013 Suncheon Garden Expo Korea: The 2013 Suncheon Garden Expo Korea was the first of its kind to be held in Korea. The Expo focused on green industry development such as solar energy, sustainable garden development and electronic transportation, it showcased green technologies, international garden exhibits, wetland conservation. The Expo grounds, its permanent gardens, wetland center, connecting monorail to Suncheon Bay are maintained for continued tourism. Songgwang Temple: It is one of the Three Jewel Temples of Korea and a popular place for Jinul; the temple is located in Songgwang-myeon. It is one of the Sambosachal along with Tongdo Temple of Yangsan. Jinul strived here to renew the tradition of Buddhism 800 years ago; the temple bore 16 state monks in the past. Today, the temple is home for monks from overseas and is a place to study the Buddhist culture of Korea; the temple was first named Gilsang Temple. It was renamed in the Goryeo dynasty under the reign of Myeongjong, to Songgwang Temple.
Reconstructions were done after it was burnt down in the Joseon dynasty, but was damaged again in 1948 and 1951. At present, 33 complexes have been restored after 8 reconstruction projects from 1984 to 1988; the temple has a total of 26 cultural assets, including 17 national cultural assets and 9 local ones. Seonamsa: Seonamsa of Mount Jogye is located in Jukak-ri, Seungju-eup, Suncheon. In the Baekje Kingdom, Adohwasang had first built a small temple in the mountain and named it Biroam of Cheongnyangsan Mountain; the temple was named Seonamsa in the Silla Kingdom by state monk Doseon. Seonamsa is known to be a mixture of the various sects of Buddhism of the Goryeo dynasty. Cheontaejong was established here 900 years ago by Ui Cheon and the monk's heirs have been carried down to the present age. Seonamsa, like Songgwangsa, is a library for studies of Korean Buddhist culture. A total of 18 cultural assets are found here, including 11 local cultural assets. Cheonjaam, Ssanghyangsu: Belongs to the Chinese juniper family, is technically named Juniperus Chinensi Limme.
The height is 12.5 m and the circumference is 3.98m. The tree is about 700 years old. According to the legend, the cane used by a Buddhist on his way back from China had grown into the tree; the tree is uniquely twisted form. Natural monument No, 88. Ieub-ri, Songgwang-myeon. Area 600 pyeong. Nagan Castle, the only remaining Joseon castle in South Jeolla Province, it has many festivals like the Namdo food festival. Suncheon Japanese Castle, a Japanese castle built during the Japanese invasions of Korea. Jogyesan: The mountain where Songgwang Temple and Seonamsa are located. Geumjeonsan: Surrounding north of Nagan Castle. Bonghwasan: The nearest mountain from the center of the city. There's Jukdobong Park having a lookout pavilion. Suncheon Bay Ecological Park, the world's 5th biggest tideland, featuring reed beds and there many types of birds. Goindol Park, a dolmen park in Hwasun, Suncheon. Gochang and Ganghwa Dolmen Sites were designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2000. Suncheon Open Film Location: Reenacting set of slum of Seoul in 1960s.
Suncheonman,nature biodiversity bay. On its website, Suncheon is dubbed by its city council as the City of Beautiful People, its slogan is "Aha! Suncheon." Suncheon is twinned with: Columbia, United States Jinju, South Gyeongsang Ya
Nampo spelled Namp'o, is a city and seaport in South Pyongan Province, North Korea, which lies on the northern shore of the Taedong River, 15 km east of the river's mouth. Known as Chinnamp'o, it was a provincial-level "Directly Governed City" from 1980 to 2004, was designated a "Special City", in 2010, made a part of South P'yŏngan. Namp'o is 50 km southwest of P'yŏngyang, at the mouth of the Taedong River. Namp'o was a small fishing village that became a port for foreign trade in 1897, developing into a modern port in 1945 after World War II. With the rapid increase in state investment, the city's industrial capacity grew; some of the city's industrial facilities include the city's Smelter Complex, Glass Corporation, Shipbuilding Complex, Fishery Complex, other central and local factories. Namp'o is a center for the DPRK shipbuilding industry. North of the city are facilities for freight transportation, aquatic products, fishery, a sea salt factory. Apples grown in the city's Ryonggang district are a famous local product.
Namp'o is divided into 5 kuyŏk and 2 kun, which are in turn subdivided into tong and ri: The Youth Hero Motorway connects Namp'o to P'yŏngyang. Onch'ŏn Airport in Onch'ŏn-gun serves Namp'o Special City; the greater Namp'o area is densely served by the Korean State Railway, with 18 stations on the P'yŏngnam Line, the entirety of the Ryonggang Sŏhaekammun and Taean lines, one station on the Ŭllyul Line being located inside the boundaries of Namp'o-t'ŭkpyŏlsi. The West Sea Barrage of the port of Namp'o, built by erecting an 8-km long sea wall, has three lock chambers which allow the passage of ships up to 50,000 tons, 36 sluices. Namp'o Harbour is used as the primary port of call for receiving foreign food aid assistance into North Korea; the port of Namp'o has modern harbour facilities that can accommodate ships of 20,000 tonnes but is frozen during the winter. Namp'o serves as Pyongyang's port on the Yellow Sea. In 2008, the harbour received several batches of grain delivery. A South Korean-based relief organisation, Join Together Society, donated one batch of flour in October of the same year weighing 500 tons.
Institutes of higher learning in Namp'o include Namp'o University Sŏhae University Samgwang College Sunhwa College Namp'o University of Medicine Namp'o University of Agriculture Namp'o College of Shipping Industry Namp'o Building Materials College Namp'o University of Fisheries Saint Petersburg, Russia Chiautempan, Mexico Loja, Ecuador List of cities in North Korea Geography of North Korea Dormels, Rainer. North Korea's Cities: Industrial facilities, internal structures and typification. Jimoondang, 2014. ISBN 978-89-6297-167-5 Korea Tourist Map North Korea Uncovered, North Korea Google Earth: labels most of Namp'o's infrastructure locations including hotels, nearby UNESCO sites, West Sea Barge, electricity grid, shipping facilities. Nampo City on YouTube North Korea – Passing through Nampo on YouTube Profiles of the cities of DPR Korea – Nampho, koreanologie.univie.ac.at.
Korean State Railway
The Korean State Railway is the operating arm of the Ministry of Railways of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and has its headquarters at P'yŏngyang. The current Minister of Railways is Jang Hyuk, who has held the position since 2015; the railway lines of North Korea were built during the Japanese occupation of Korea by the Chosen Government Railway, the South Manchuria Railway and various owned railway companies such as the Chosen Railway. At the end of the Pacific War, in the territory of today's North Korea Sentetsu owned 2,879.3 km of railway, of which 2,466.1 km was standard gauge, 413.2 km was 762 mm narrow gauge. At the same time, in September 1945 in the future territory of the DPRK there were 678 locomotives (124 steam tank, 446 tender, 99 narrow gauge steam, 8 electric locomotives, along with one steam-powered railway crane, 29 powered railcars, 747 passenger cars, 6,928 freight cars. With the official division of Korea into Soviet and American zones of occupation along the 38th parallel in August 1945, train service on the Kyŏngwŏn and Kyŏngŭi Lines was interrupted.
However, as early as 26 August, the Soviet army began operating trains on the Kyŏngŭi Line north of Sariwŏn. In May 1946 it was made illegal to cross the 38th parallel without a permit, on 9 August of that year identification cards were made compulsory for rail travel in the northern part of Korea; the beginnings of the Korean State Railway as an independent entity can be traced to 10 August 1946, when the Provisional People’s Committee for North Korea nationalised all railways in the Soviet occupation zone. The railways were nearly paralysed by a lack of experienced staff as a result of the expulsion of ethnic Japanese - most railway workers the skilled labourers, the locomotive crews, mechanics and administrators, were Japanese. Passengers resorted to riding on the infrequent freight trains, on locomotives. Kukch'ŏl's actual establishment, as a department of the Ministry of Transportation of the DPRK, dates to 1948, after the formal establishment of the People's Democratic Republic of Korea.
When Kukch'ŏl was formally established that year, it had 3,767 km of railway in functional condition, including the restoration of the electrification on the Yangdŏk–Sinch'ang–Ch'ŏnsŏng section of the P'yŏngwŏn Line, the new electrification of the Kaego–Koin section of the Manp'o Line. On 10 December 1947, the assets of the Chosen Government Railway were formally divided between North and South, leaving the KSR with 617 steam locomotives, 8 electric locomotives, 1,280 passenger cars and 9,154 freight cars. Other new construction took place prior to 1950, but the Korean War which broke out on 25 June 1950 interrupted progress; the Korean People's Army was dominant, occupying most of the Korean Peninsula apart from a small pocket around Pusan. At the same time, war aid in the form of locomotives and freight cars arrived from friendly socialist countries such as the USSR, Poland and Czechoslovakia. American-led United Nations forces turned the tide of the war, however. Throughout the Korean War, much of the railway infrastructure and many of the locomotives were destroyed.
On 31 December 1950, a train, consisting of the locomotive Matei 10 and 25 cars, going from Hanp'o to Munsan was ordered to stop at Changdan by the US Army, was destroyed. UN forces were pushed back south of the 38th parallel, by the end of the year the war had become a stalemate. North Korea was left devastated after the war, with damage being more extensive than in the south. Factories, bridges and railways were destroyed in heavy US Air Force bombing raids. Reconstruction, started before the end of the war and, with the aid of the Chinese People's Volunteer Corps, by the time the ceasefire was signed 1,382 km of railway lines had been restored; the north's transportation network was so damaged that in many places, the horse was the only viable means of transport.
Royal Australian Air Force
The Royal Australian Air Force, formed March 1921, is the aerial warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force. It operates the majority of the ADF's fixed wing aircraft, although both the Australian Army and Royal Australian Navy operate aircraft in various roles, it directly continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps, formed on 22 October 1912. The RAAF provides support across a spectrum of operations such as air superiority, precision strikes, intelligence and reconnaissance, air mobility, space surveillance, humanitarian support; the RAAF took part in many of the 20th century's major conflicts. During the early years of the Second World War a number of RAAF bomber, fighter and other squadrons served in Britain, with the Desert Air Force located in North Africa and the Mediterranean. From 1942, a large number of RAAF units were formed in Australia, fought in South West Pacific Area. Thousands of Australians served with other Commonwealth air forces in Europe, including during the bomber offensive against Germany.
By the time the war ended, a total of 216,900 men and women served in the RAAF, of whom 10,562 were killed in action. The RAAF served in the Berlin Airlift, Korean War, Malayan Emergency, Indonesia–Malaysia Confrontation and Vietnam War. More the RAAF has participated in operations in East Timor, the Iraq War, the War in Afghanistan, the military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; the RAAF has 259 aircraft. The RAAF traces its history back to the Imperial Conference held in London in 1911, where it was decided aviation should be developed within the armed forces of the British Empire. Australia implemented this decision, the first dominion to do so, by approving the establishment of the "Australian Aviation Corps"; this consisted of the Central Flying School at Point Cook, opening on 22 October 1912. By 1914 the corps was known as the "Australian Flying Corps". Soon after the outbreak of war in 1914, the Australian Flying Corps sent aircraft to assist in capturing German colonies in what is now north-east New Guinea.
However, these colonies surrendered before the planes were unpacked. The first operational flights did not occur until 27 May 1915, when the Mesopotamian Half Flight was called upon to assist the Indian Army in protecting British oil interests in what is now Iraq; the corps saw action in Egypt, Palestine and on the Western Front throughout the remainder of the First World War. By the end of the war, four squadrons—Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4 -- had seen operational service. 5, 6, 7 and 8—had been established. A total of 460 officers and 2,234 other ranks served in the AFC, whilst another 200 men served as aircrew in the British flying services. Casualties included 111 wounded, 6 gassed and 40 captured; the Australian Flying Corps remained part of the Australian Army until 1919, when it was disbanded along with the First Australian Imperial Force. Although the Central Flying School continued to operate at Point Cook, military flying ceased until 1920, when the Australian Air Corps was formed; the Australian Air Force was formed on 31 March 1921.
King George V approved the prefix "Royal" in June 1921 and became effective on 31 August 1921. The RAAF became the second Royal air arm to be formed in the British Commonwealth, following the British Royal Air Force; when formed the RAAF had more aircraft than personnel, with 21 officers and 128 other ranks and 153 aircraft. In September 1939, the Australian Air Board directly controlled the Air Force via RAAF Station Laverton, RAAF Station Richmond, RAAF Station Pearce, No. 1 Flying Training School RAAF at Point Cook, RAAF Station Rathmines and five smaller units. In 1939, just after the outbreak of the Second World War, Australia joined the Empire Air Training Scheme, under which flight crews received basic training in Australia before travelling to Canada for advanced training. A total of 17 RAAF bomber, fighter and other squadrons served in Britain and with the Desert Air Force located in North Africa and the Mediterranean. Thousands of Australians served with other Commonwealth air forces in Europe during the Second World War.
About nine percent of the personnel who served under British RAF commands in Europe and the Mediterranean were RAAF personnel. With British manufacturing targeted by the German Luftwaffe, in 1941 the Australian government created the Department of Aircraft Production to supply Commonwealth air forces, the RAAF was provided with large numbers of locally built versions of British designs such as the DAP Beaufort torpedo bomber and Mosquitos, as well as other types such as Wirraways and Mustangs. In the European theatre of the war, RAAF personnel were notable in RAF Bomber Command: although they represented just two percent of all Australian enlistments during the war, they accounted for twenty percent of those killed in action; this statistic is further illustrated by the fact that No. 460 Squadron RAAF flying Avro Lancasters, had an official establishment of about 200 aircrew and yet had 1,018 combat deaths. The squadron was therefore wiped out five times over. Total RAAF casualties in Europe were 5,488 killed or missing.
The beginning of the Pacific War—and the rapid advance of Japanese forces—threatened the Australian mainland for the first time in its history. The RAAF was quite unprepared for the emergency, had negligible forces available for service in the Pacific. In 1941 and early 1942, many RAAF airmen, including Nos. 1, 8, 21 and 453
Ecuador the Republic of Ecuador, is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, the Pacific Ocean to the west. Ecuador includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometres west of the mainland; the capital city is Quito, the largest city. What is now Ecuador was home to a variety of Amerindian groups that were incorporated into the Inca Empire during the 15th century; the territory was colonized by Spain during the 16th century, achieving independence in 1820 as part of Gran Colombia, from which it emerged as its own sovereign state in 1830. The legacy of both empires is reflected in Ecuador's ethnically diverse population, with most of its 16.4 million people being mestizos, followed by large minorities of European and African descendants. Spanish is the official language and is spoken by a majority of the population, though 13 Amerindian languages are recognized, including Quichua and Shuar; the sovereign state of Ecuador is a middle-income representative democratic republic with a developing economy, dependent on commodities, namely petroleum and agricultural products.
It is governed as a democratic presidential republic. One of 18 megadiverse countries in the world, Ecuador hosts many endemic plants and animals, such as those of the Galápagos Islands. In recognition of its unique ecological heritage, the new constitution of 2008 is the first in the world to recognize enforceable Rights of Nature, or ecosystem rights, it has the fifth lowest homicide rate in the Americas. Various peoples had settled in the area of the future Ecuador before the arrival of the Incas; the archeological evidence suggests that the Paleo-Indians' first dispersal into the Americas occurred near the end of the last glacial period, around 16,500–13,000 years ago. The first Indians who reached Ecuador may have journeyed by land from North and Central America or by boat down the Pacific Ocean coastline. Much migrations to Ecuador may have come via the Amazon tributaries, others descended from northern South America, others ascended from the southern part of South America through the Andes.
They developed different languages while emerging as unique ethnic groups. Though their languages were unrelated, these groups developed similar groups of cultures, each based in different environments; the people of the coast developed a fishing and gathering culture. Over time these groups began to interact and intermingle with each other so that groups of families in one area became one community or tribe, with a similar language and culture. Many civilizations arose in Ecuador, such as the Valdivia Culture and Machalilla Culture on the coast, the Quitus, the Cañari; each civilization developed its own distinctive architecture and religious interests. In the highland Andes mountains, where life was more sedentary, groups of tribes cooperated and formed villages. Through wars and marriage alliances of their leaders, a group of nations formed confederations. One region consolidated under a confederation called the Shyris, which exercised organized trading and bartering between the different regions.
Its political and military power came under the rule of the Duchicela blood-line. When the Incas arrived, they found that these confederations were so developed that it took the Incas two generations of rulers—Topa Inca Yupanqui and Huayna Capac—to absorb them into the Inca Empire; the native confederations that gave them the most problems were deported to distant areas of Peru and north Argentina. A number of loyal Inca subjects from Peru and Bolivia were brought to Ecuador to prevent rebellion. Thus, the region of highland Ecuador became part of the Inca Empire in 1463 sharing the same language. In contrast, when the Incas made incursions into coastal Ecuador and the eastern Amazon jungles of Ecuador, they found both the environment and indigenous people more hostile. Moreover, when the Incas tried to subdue them, these indigenous people withdrew to the interior and resorted to guerrilla tactics; as a result, Inca expansion into the Amazon Basin and the Pacific coast of Ecuador was hampered.
The indigenous people of the Amazon jungle and coastal Ecuador remained autonomous until the Spanish soldiers and missionaries arrived in force. The Amazonian people and the Cayapas of Coastal Ecuador were the only groups to resist Inca and Spanish domination, maintaining their language and culture well into the 21st century. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the Inca Empire was involved in a civil war; the untimely death of both the heir Ninan Cuchi and the Emperor Huayna Capac, from a European disease that spread into Ecuador, created a power vacuum between two factions. The northern faction headed by Atahualpa claims that Huayna Capac gave a verbal decree before his death about how the empire should be divided, he gave the territories pertaining to present-day Ecuador and northern Peru to his favorite son Atahualpa, to rule from Quito. He willed that his heart be buried in Quito, his favorite city, the rest of his body be buried with his ancestors in Cuzco. Huáscar did not recognize his fa
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta