The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars and all other forms of matter and energy. While the spatial size of the entire Universe is unknown, it is possible to measure the size of the observable universe, estimated to be 93 billion light years in diameter. In various multiverse hypotheses, a universe is one of many causally disconnected constituent parts of a larger multiverse, which itself comprises all of space and time and its contents; the earliest scientific models of the Universe were developed by ancient Greek and Indian philosophers and were geocentric, placing Earth at the center of the Universe. Over the centuries, more precise astronomical observations led Nicolaus Copernicus to develop the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar System. In developing the law of universal gravitation, Isaac Newton built upon Copernicus' work as well as observations by Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Further observational improvements led to the realization that the Sun is one of hundreds of billions of stars in the Milky Way, one of at least hundreds of billions of galaxies in the Universe.
Many of the stars in our galaxy have planets. At the largest scale galaxies are distributed uniformly and the same in all directions, meaning that the Universe has neither an edge nor a center. At smaller scales, galaxies are distributed in clusters and superclusters which form immense filaments and voids in space, creating a vast foam-like structure. Discoveries in the early 20th century have suggested that the Universe had a beginning and that space has been expanding since and is still expanding at an increasing rate; the Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development of the Universe. Under this theory and time emerged together 13.799±0.021 billion years ago and the energy and matter present have become less dense as the Universe expanded. After an initial accelerated expansion called the inflationary epoch at around 10−32 seconds, the separation of the four known fundamental forces, the Universe cooled and continued to expand, allowing the first subatomic particles and simple atoms to form.
Dark matter gathered forming a foam-like structure of filaments and voids under the influence of gravity. Giant clouds of hydrogen and helium were drawn to the places where dark matter was most dense, forming the first galaxies and everything else seen today, it is possible to see objects that are now further away than 13.799 billion light-years because space itself has expanded, it is still expanding today. This means that objects which are now up to 46.5 billion light-years away can still be seen in their distant past, because in the past when their light was emitted, they were much closer to the Earth. From studying the movement of galaxies, it has been discovered that the universe contains much more matter than is accounted for by visible objects; this unseen matter is known as dark matter. The ΛCDM model is the most accepted model of our universe, it suggests that about 69.2%±1.2% of the mass and energy in the universe is a cosmological constant, responsible for the current expansion of space, about 25.8%±1.1% is dark matter.
Ordinary matter is therefore only 4.9% of the physical universe. Stars and visible gas clouds only form about 6% of ordinary matter, or about 0.3% of the entire universe. There are many competing hypotheses about the ultimate fate of the universe and about what, if anything, preceded the Big Bang, while other physicists and philosophers refuse to speculate, doubting that information about prior states will be accessible; some physicists have suggested various multiverse hypotheses, in which our universe might be one among many universes that exist. The physical Universe is defined as all of their contents; such contents comprise all of energy in its various forms, including electromagnetic radiation and matter, therefore planets, stars and the contents of intergalactic space. The Universe includes the physical laws that influence energy and matter, such as conservation laws, classical mechanics, relativity; the Universe is defined as "the totality of existence", or everything that exists, everything that has existed, everything that will exist.
In fact, some philosophers and scientists support the inclusion of ideas and abstract concepts – such as mathematics and logic – in the definition of the Universe. The word universe may refer to concepts such as the cosmos, the world, nature; the word universe derives from the Old French word univers, which in turn derives from the Latin word universum. The Latin word was used by Cicero and Latin authors in many of the same senses as the modern English word is used. A term for "universe" among the ancient Greek philosophers from Pythagoras onwards was τὸ πᾶν, tò pân, defined as all matter and all space, τὸ ὅλον, tò hólon, which did not include the void. Another synonym was ho kósmos. Synonyms are found in Latin authors and survive in modern languages, e.g. the German words Das All and Natur for Universe. The same synonyms are found in English, such as everything, the cosmos, the world (as in the many-worlds interpr
In religion and folklore, Hell is an afterlife location, sometimes a place of torment and punishment. Religions with a linear divine history depict hells as eternal destinations while religions with a cyclic history depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations; these traditions locate hell in another dimension or under the Earth's surface and include entrances to Hell from the land of the living. Other afterlife destinations include Heaven, Purgatory and Limbo. Other traditions, which do not conceive of the afterlife as a place of punishment or reward describe Hell as an abode of the dead, the grave, a neutral place located under the surface of Earth; the modern English word hell is derived from Old English hel, helle reaching into the Anglo-Saxon pagan period. The word has cognates in all branches of the Germanic languages, including Old Norse hel, Old Frisian helle, Old Saxon hellia, Old High German hella, Gothic halja. All forms derive from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic feminine noun *xaljō or *haljō.
In turn, the Proto-Germanic form derives from the o-grade form of the Proto-Indo-European root *kel-, *kol-:'to cover, save'. Indo-European cognates including Latin cēlāre and early Irish ceilid. Upon the Christianization of the Germanic peoples, extension of Proto-Germanic *xaljō were reinterpreted to denote the underworld in Christian mythology, for which see Gehenna. Related early Germanic terms and concepts include Proto-Germanic *xalja-rūnō, a feminine compound noun, *xalja-wītjan, a neutral compound noun; this form is reconstructed from the Latinized Gothic plural noun *haliurunnae, Old English helle-rúne, Old High German helli-rūna'magic'. The compound is composed of two elements: *xaljō and *rūnō, the Proto-Germanic precursor to Modern English rune; the second element in the Gothic haliurunnae may however instead be an agent noun from the verb rinnan, which would make its literal meaning "one who travels to the netherworld". Proto-Germanic *xalja-wītjan is reconstructed from Old Norse hel-víti'hell', Old English helle-wíte'hell-torment, hell', Old Saxon helli-wīti'hell', the Middle High German feminine noun helle-wīze.
The compound is a compound of * * wītjan. Hell appears in several religions, it is inhabited by demons and the souls of dead people. A fable about Hell which recurs in folklore across several cultures is the allegory of the long spoons. Hell is depicted in art and literature most famously in Dante's Divine Comedy. Punishment in Hell corresponds to sins committed during life. Sometimes these distinctions are specific, with damned souls suffering for each sin committed, but sometimes they are general, with condemned sinners relegated to one or more chamber of Hell or to a level of suffering. In many religious cultures, including Christianity and Islam, Hell is depicted as fiery and harsh, inflicting suffering on the guilty. Despite these common depictions of Hell as a place of fire, some other traditions portray Hell as cold. Buddhist - and Tibetan Buddhist - descriptions of Hell feature an equal number of hot and cold Hells. Among Christian descriptions Dante's Inferno portrays the innermost circle of Hell as a frozen lake of blood and guilt.
But cold played a part in earlier Christian depictions of Hell, beginning with the Apocalypse of Paul from the early third century. The Sumerian afterlife was a dark, dreary cavern located deep below the ground, where inhabitants were believed to continue "a shadowy version of life on earth"; this bleak domain was known as Kur, was believed to be ruled by the goddess Ereshkigal. All souls went to the same afterlife, a person's actions during life had no effect on how the person would be treated in the world to come; the souls in Kur were believed to eat nothing but dry dust and family members of the deceased would ritually pour libations into the dead person's grave through a clay pipe, thereby allowing the dead to drink. Nonetheless, funerary evidence indicates that some people believed that the goddess Inanna, Ereshkigal's younger sister, had the power to award her devotees with special favors in the afterlife. During the Third Dynasty of Ur, it was believed that a person's treatment in the afterlife depended on how he or she was buried.
The entrance to Kur was believed to be located in the Zagros mountains in the far east. It had seven gates; the god Neti was the gatekeeper. Ereshkigal's sukkal, or messenger, was the god Namtar. Galla were a class of demons, they are fr
The Baduy are a traditional Bantenese community living in the southeastern part of the Indonesian province of Banten, near Rangkasbitung. They are considered an uncontacted people, a group who are completely isolated from the outside world; the Baduy region is geographically located at coordinates 6°27’27" – 6°30’0" south latitude and 108°3’9" – 106°4’55" east longitude. Their population of 11,700 is centered at the foothill of Kendeng mountains at the Kanekes settlement, Leuwidamar district, Lebak Regency, Banten with a distance of 40 km from Rangkasbitung; this region, part of the Kendeng mountains with an elevation of 300–500 meters above sea level. The average temperature is 20 °C, their homeland in Banten, Java is contained in just 50 km2 of hilly forest area 120 km from Jakarta, Indonesia's capital. The three main settlements of the Kanekes people are Cikeusik and Cibeo. Ethnically the Baduys belong to the Sundanese ethnic group, their racial and linguistic traits bear much resemblance to the rest of the Sundanese people.
Baduy people resist foreign influences and vigorously preserve their ancient way of life, while modern Sundanese are more open to foreign influences and a majority are Muslims. The Baduy are divided into two sub-groups. No foreigners were allowed to meet the Inner Baduy, though the Outer Baduy do foster some limited contacts with the outside world; the word Baduy is a name given by outsiders to refer to this community of people, beginning from the Dutch East Indies observers that might have thought to equate them with the nomadic community of the Bedouin Arabs. Another possibility of the origin of the word Baduy may come from the term "Bedouin", although other sources claim the source is a name of a local river. However, they themselves would prefer to be referred to as Orang Kanekes; the Baduy speak a dialect derived from archaic Sundanese. However, modern Sundanese and Javanese influences in their archaic dialect can be heard in their speech. In order to communicate with outsiders, they speak Indonesian language fluently though they did not have formal learning of the language in schools.
The Inner Kanekes people are illiterate, hence their customary, religious belief system and ancestral folktales are preserved in a form of oral tradition. Formal education for the children of Baduy people is against their traditional customs, they reject government proposal to build educational facilities in the villages. Up till today, since the Suharto era, governmental efforts to force them to change their lives and build modern schools in their territory, the Baduy still opposed the government; as a result few Baduy people are able to read or write. According to belief system that they practice, Kanekes people regard themselves as descendants of Batara Cikal, one of the seven deities or gods, sent to earth; that origin is associated with Adam, as the first man of mankind. In their belief system and his descendants, including the Kanekes people have been given the task to meditate or practice asceticism in order to preserve the harmony of the world; the opinion of the mythological origins of the Kanekes people differs from the opinions of historians, who base their opinions by the synthesis of some historical evidence in the form of inscriptions, written records of Portuguese and Chinese sailors, as well as the'Tatar Sunda' folklore which few had remained in existence.
Some people believe that the Baduy are the descendants of the aristocracy of the Sunda Kingdom of Pajajaran who lived near Batutulis in the hills around Bogor but there is no strong evidence to support this belief yet. Pakuwan Pajajaran port known as Sunda Kelapa, was destroyed by invading Faletehan Muslim soldiers in 1579, Dayeuh Pakuan the capital of Pajajaran, was invaded by Banten Sultanate some time later. Before the establishment of the Banten Sultanate, the end of the western tip region in Java Island plays an important role for the Sunda Kingdom. Banten was a large trading port. Various types of vessel entered the Ciujung River, most of them are used to transport crops that were harvested from the interior regions. Therefore, the ruler of the region, Prince Pucuk Umun considers that the sustainability of the river needs to be maintained. So an army of trained royal troops was commanded to guard and to manage the dense and hilly jungle areas in the region of Mount Kendeng; the existence of the troops with their specific duties to that area seems to be the pioneer of the Kanekes community which still inhabit the upstream of Ciujung River at Gunung Kendeng.
The disagreement of this theory led to the notion that in the past, their identity and historicity had been intentionally concealed, to protect the Kanekes community themselves from the attacks of the Sunda Kingdom of Pajajaran's enemies. Van Tricht, a doctor who had done medical research in 1928, denied the theory. According to him, the Kanekes people are natives of the region who have strong resistance to external influences; the Kanekes people themselves refuse to acknowledge that they are from the fugitives of Pajajaran, the capital of the Kingdom of Sunda. According to Danasasmita an
National Library of Indonesia
The National Library of Indonesia is the legal deposit library of Indonesia. It is located at Gambir, on the south side of Merdeka Square, Jakarta, it serves as a humanities library alongside several others holding national responsibilities for science and agriculture. The national library was established in 1980 through a decree of the Ministry of Education and Culture and the consolidation of four different libraries, it maintains the status of a non-departmental government institution and is responsible to the President of Indonesia. The earliest collections originated from the library of the National Museum, opened in 1868 and operated by the Royal Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences; the previous library building was opened in 1988 with financial support from Tien Suharto. The new one hundred twenty seven meters tall building is claimed to be the tallest library building in the world, it was inaugurated by Indonesian president Joko Widodo on 14 September, 2017. The origins of the national library date back to the 1778 foundation of the Royal Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences, the first of its kind in Asia.
Through its promotion of scholarship in the Dutch East Indies, the society created numerous publications and accumulated a number of collections, including establishing a library. After increasing its collections during the first half of the 19th century, the society and its library moved in 1868 to a new location at the current National Museum at Merdeka Square. Attempts to divert some collections to the new Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies were resisted by members. Between 1846 and 1920, the library's collection grew from 1,115 items to over 100,000; the Society's library survived the years of conflict during and following World War II. Japanese forces occupying Indonesia during the war years were impressed by the number Japanese scholars in the society and did not interfere with the affairs of the museum; because authorities upheld the library's powers of legal deposit, it holds a substantial collection of official wartime publication. Following independence, the society was renamed the Indonesian Institute of Culture before being dissolved in 1962.
The library was placed under the museum's jurisdiction. Although a plan for a national library was included in the 1961 First National Development Plan, it was not sustained in the following years. In 1973, Mastini Hardjoprakoso, an employee of the National Museum library, developed a concept for the national library, but it was not adopted by the Ministry of Education and Culture. However, the plan caught the attention of the National Development Planning Agency and other information services; when a new culture director took office in 1978, the ministry gave its support for the project. Funding for the library was provided by Madam Tien Suharto, impressed by a 1968 exhibition of colonial and national newspapers at the National Museum; the National Library of Indonesia was created through a 1980 decree by the Minister of Education and Culture Daoed Joesoef. Four libraries were consolidated in the process: two departments of the Library Development Centre. In addition to the establishment of a national library system, the decree granted the library powers of legal deposit.
The library was placed under the jurisdiction of the Directorate General for Culture within the ministry. The new library building opened in 1988. Under Presidential Decree 11 of 1989, the National Library subsumed the assets of the Library Development Centre and became a non-departmental government institution, it no longer reports to the ministry and is responsible to the President of Indonesia through the State Secretariat. The library's operations were once again revised through a 1997 decree in order to meet the needs of globalization; the new library building, which took three years to build, is 126.3 meters tall, has 24 floors. It was planned in line with "green building" concepts. Membership cards and books are equipped with Radio-frequency identification devices for security and to monitor the inventory; the new building of National Library consists of 24 operational floors. At the entrance of the main building, there is a plaza, four large rooms, two each on the right and left, displaying the history of Indonesian reading.
The script room displays a map of Indonesia on a digital screen on one side of the wall with a recording telling the story of literacy in people of Indonesia. Next to the script room, there is a room that presents an explanation of the development of writing media as well as items that bear witness to history, such as bamboo writing media, alim wood, lontar leaves, dluwang daluwang, European paper to Chinese paper. In the hallway to the new building, there are glass cases with displays of scripts from around Indonesia, such as the Nagarakretagama by Empu Prapanca, the Babad Diponegoro written by Prince Diponegoro. In the museum's pavilion there are books about and photographs of Indonesia's first president, Sukarno. There is a green open space with colorful flowers leading to the new building. At the main lobby, there is a giant bookshelf adorned with an Indonesian map in the upper area; some of the books available here include encyclopedias, novels and books on traditional fabrics. Rows of paintings of Indonesian presidents are hung in the lobby, which features a bookcase reaching to the fourth floor.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana. Most Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood. Buddhist schools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, their specific teachings and practices. Observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, monasticism and the cultivation of the Paramitas.
Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism and Tiantai, is found throughout East Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region and Kalmykia. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of the Buddha born Siddhārtha Gautama, known as the Tathāgata and Sakyamuni. Early texts have his personal name as "Gautama" or "Gotama" without any mention of "Siddhārtha," which appears to have been a kind of honorific title when it does appear; the details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. The evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born as Siddhārtha Gautama in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavasthu, a town in the plains region of the modern Nepal-India border, that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, he was born in Lumbini gardens. However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakyas community – one that gave him the title Shakyamuni, the Shakya community was governed by a small oligarchy or republic-like council where there were no ranks but where seniority mattered instead; some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a time into the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddhist sutras, Gautama was moved by the innate suffering of humanity and its endless repetition due to rebirth, he set out on a quest to end this repeated suffering. Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, learning meditation and ancient philosophies the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.
Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of asceticism. This too fell short of attaining his goal, he turned to the practice of dhyana, which he had discovered in his youth, he famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in the Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering from rebirths in Saṃsāra; as a enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India. Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 18 Buddhist sub-schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha.
The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, but there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path. The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things is dukkha, unsatisfactory. Dukkha can be translated as "incapable of satisfying," "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena". Dukkha is most translated as "suffering," but this is inaccurate, since it refers not to episodic suffering, but to the intrinsically unsat
Javanese culture is the culture of the Javanese ethnic group in Indonesia, part of the Indonesian culture. Javanese culture is centered in the Central Java and East Java provinces of Indonesia. Due to various migrations, it can be found in other parts of the world, such as Suriname, the broader Indonesian archipelago region, Cape Malay, Singapore and other countries; the migrants bring with them various aspects of Javanese cultures such as Gamelan music, traditional dances and art of Wayang kulit shadow play. The migration of Javanese people westward has created the coastal Javanese culture, distinct from inland Sundanese culture in West Java. Being the largest ethnic group, the Javanese culture and people influence Indonesian politics and culture, a process sometimes described as Javanization. Javanese literature tradition is among the earliest and the oldest surviving literature traditions in Indonesia; the translations of Hindu epic Ramayana and Mahabharata into old Javanese language took place during the era of Medang Kingdom and Kediri kingdom around 9th to 11th century.
The Smaradhana is composed during Kediri kingdom, it became the prelude of Panji cycles that spread as far as Siam and Cambodia. Other literary works include, Ken Arok and Ken Dedes, based upon Pararaton, the story of the orphan who usurped his king, married the queen of the ancient Javanese kingdom. During the reign of Majapahit several notable works was produced. Nagarakretagama describes Majapahit during its height. Tantu Pagelaran dated from Majapahit period explained the mythical origin of the island and its volcanic nature. Kakawin Sutasoma, written by Mpu Tantular during the reign of the Majapahit, it is the source of the motto of Indonesia, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, translated as Unity in Diversity, although it means' in pieces, yet One'. The kakawin teaches religious tolerance between the Hindu and Buddhist religions. Other works includes Babad Tanah Jawi is a literature which relates to the spread of Islam in Java and Babad Dipanagara which tells the story of Prince Diponegoro. Javanese follow a syncretic form of Hinduism and Kebatinan.
The Majapahit empire religious tolerance in their society can be summed as Bhinnêka tunggal ika tan hana dharma mangrwa or They are indeed different, but they are of the same kind, as there is no duality in Truth. Starting from the 15th century and Christianity came to Java and spread. Due to internal and external conflicts, Majapahit collapsed in the 16th century. Islam spread under the new Islamic monarchs. While the spread of Christianity was supervised by colonial powers. All the new religions were not taken but instead interpreted by the Javanese according to the Javanese traditional values, creating a new set of religious beliefs unique to local culture; the introduction of orthodox Islam to the island by the new Muslim monarchs was not always peaceful however, Javanese and peasants who rejected the new rulers were either conquered or fled to neighboring Bali where they contributed to the Balinese Hindu religion and culture. Some Hindus who remained in Java retreated themself to more remote area such as Tenger near the Mount Bromo to avoid proselytizion.
During the islamization of Java, Sunan Kalijaga was one of the Walisanga, active in promoting a more moderate form of Islam in Java, he was appointed as advisor in the new Mataram Sultanate. Today, most Javanese follow a moderate form of Islam as their religion, while only 5-10 percent of Javanese follow orthodox Islamic traditions. Orthodox Muslims are the strongest in northern coast bordering the Java Sea, where Islam was first brought to the island. Islam first came in contact with Java during Majapahit periods, when they traded or made tributary relations with various states like Perlak and Samudra Pasai in modern-day Aceh. A minority of Javanese follow Christianity, which are rather concentrated in Central Java. Another minority are Buddhists and Hindus, they are found in East Java, The Javanese Tengger tribe is still practicing Javanese-Hindu till today. Kebatinan are principles embodying a search for the inner self but at the core is the concept of the peace of mind, connection with the universe, with an Almighty God.
Although Kebatinan is not a religious affiliation, it addresses ethical and spiritual values as inspired by Javanese tradition. It is not a religion in usual sense of the word, like Judaism, or Christianity. There are there prophets. During the Soeharto era, this minority is acknowledged and protected as "penganut kepercayaan". Many traditional Javanese customs or festivals such as meditation, naloni mitoni, patangpuluhdinanan, nyewu have their roots in the kebatinan belief. Javanese of other beliefs modify them accordingly, incorporating Muslims, Christian or Hindu prayers instead. Details of the ceremonies differ from one community to the other. Grebeg Maulud is a traditional ceremony held by the royal court of Keraton Surakarta and Jogjakarta, to commemorate the birth of Islam's holy messenger, Muhammad; this ceremony was first held during the reign of the Demak Dynasty dating back to the 15th century. The ceremony starts with prayers in a parade and a carnival of the people. There are several variations of Javanese wedding, depending on the custom and social standing of the couple.
Popular variation includes Surakartan, Paes Kesatrian, Paes Ageng. The wedding rituals will include Siraman, Peningsetan
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental