Sundaland is a biogeographical region of Southeastern Asia corresponding to a larger landmass, exposed throughout the last 2.6 million years during periods when sea levels were lower. It includes the Malay Peninsula on the Asian mainland, as well as the large islands of Borneo and Sumatra and their surrounding small islands; the area of Sundaland encompasses the Sunda Shelf, a tectonically stable extension of Southeast Asia's continental shelf, exposed during glacial periods of the last 2 million years. The extent of the Sunda Shelf is equal to the 120 meter isobath. In addition to the Malay Peninsula and the islands of Borneo and Sumatra, it includes the Java Sea, the Gulf of Thailand, portions of the South China Sea. In total, the area of Sundaland is 1,800,000 km2, The area of exposed land in Sundaland has fluctuated during the past recent 2 million years; the western and southern borders of Sundaland are marked by the deeper water of the Indian Ocean. The eastern boundary of Sundaland is the Wallace Line, identified by Alfred Russel Wallace as the eastern boundary of the range of Asia's land mammal fauna, thus the boundary of the Indomalaya and Australasia ecozones.
The islands east of the Wallace line are known as Wallacea, a separate biogeographical region, considered part of Australasia. The Wallace Line corresponds to a deep-water channel that has never been crossed by any land bridges; the northern border of Sundaland is more difficult to define in bathymetric terms. Greater portions of Sundaland were most exposed during the last glacial period from 110,000 to 12,000 years ago; when sea level was decreased by 30–40 meters or more, land bridges connected the islands of Borneo and Sumatra to the Malay Peninsula and mainland Asia. Because sea level has been 30 meters or more lower throughout much of the last 800,000 years, the current state of Borneo and Sumatra as islands has been a rare occurrence throughout the Pleistocene. In contrast, sea level was higher during the late Pliocene, the exposed area of Sundaland was smaller than what is observed at present. During the Last Glacial Maximum sea level fell by 120 meters, the entire Sunda Shelf was exposed.
All of Sundaland is within the tropics. Like elsewhere in the tropics, rather than temperature, is the major determinant of regional variation. Most of Sundaland is classified as perhumid, or everwet, with over 2,000 millimeters of rain annually; the warm and shallow seas of the Sunda Shelf are part of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool/Western Pacific Warm Pool and an important driver of the Hadley circulation and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in January when it is a major heat source to the atmosphere. ENSO has a major influence on the climate of Sundaland; the high rainfall supports closed canopy evergreen forests throughout the islands of Sundaland, transitioning to deciduous forest and savanna woodland with increasing latitude. Remaining primary lowland forest is known for giant dipterocarp orangutans. Dipterocarps are notable for mast fruiting events, where tree fruiting is synchronized at unpredictable intervals resulting in predator satiation. Higher elevation forests are shorter and dominated by trees in the oak family.
Botanists include Sundaland, the adjacent Philippines and New Guinea in a single floristic province of Malesia, based on similarities in their flora, predominantly of Asian origin. During the last glacial period, sea levels were lower and all of Sundaland was an extension of the Asian continent; as a result, the modern islands of Sundaland are home to many Asian mammals including elephants, apes, tigers and rhinoceros. The flooding of Sundaland separated species. One example is the river threadfin, which once thrived in a river system now called "North Sunda River" or "Molengraaff river"; the fish is now found in the Kapuas River on the island of Borneo, in the Musi and Batanghari rivers in Sumatra. Selective pressure has operated differently on each of the islands of Sundaland, as a consequence, a different assemblage of mammals is found on each island. However, the current species assemblage on each island is not a subset of a universal Sundaland or Asian fauna, as the species that inhabited Sundaland before flooding did not all have ranges encompassing the entire Sunda Shelf.
Island area and number of terrestrial mammal species are positively correlated, with the largest islands of Sundaland having the highest diversity. Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Borneo lowland rain forests Borneo montane rain forests Borneo peat swamp forests Eastern Java–Bali montane rain forests Eastern Java–Bali rain forests Mentawai Islands rain forests Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests Peninsular Malaysi
A vacation, or holiday, is a leave of absence from a regular occupation, or a specific trip or journey for the purpose of recreation or tourism. People take a vacation during specific holiday observances, or for specific festivals or celebrations. Vacations are spent with friends or family. Traveling together creates chemistry. A person may take a longer break from work, such as gap year, or career break; the concept of taking a vacation is a recent invention, has developed through the last two centuries. The idea of travel for recreation was a luxury that only wealthy people could afford. In the Puritan culture of early America, taking a break from work for reasons other than weekly observance of the Sabbath was frowned upon. However, the modern concept of vacation was led by a religious movement encouraging spiritual retreat and recreation; the notion of breaking from work periodically took root among working class. In the United Kingdom, vacation once referred to the long summer break taken by the law courts and later the term was applied to universities.
The custom was introduced by William the Conqueror from Normandy where it facilitated the grape harvest. In the past, many upper-class families moved to a summer home for part of the year, leaving their usual home vacant. Recent developments in communication technology—internet, instant messaging, presence tracking, etc.— have begun to change the nature of vacation. Vacation today means absence from the workplace rather than temporary cession of work, it is now the norm in North America and the United Kingdom, to carry on working or remain on call while on vacation rather than abandon work altogether. Office employees telecommute whilst on vacation. Workers may choose to unplug for a portion of a day and thus create the feeling of a "vacation" by separating themselves from the demands of constant digital communications. Antithetically, workers may take time out of the office to go on vacation, but remain plugged-in to work-related communications networks. While remaining plugged-in over vacation may generate short-term business benefits, the long-term psychological impacts of these developments are only beginning to be understood.
Vacation, in English-speaking North America, describes recreational travel, such as a short pleasure trip, or a journey abroad. People in Commonwealth countries use the term holiday to describe absence from work as well as to describe a vacation or journey. Vacation can mean either going somewhere. Canadians use vacation and holiday interchangeably referring to a trip away from home or time off work. In Australia and the UK, holiday can refer to a public holiday; the Vanderbilts, Carnegies and other fabulously wealthy industrialists built their own spectacular "great camps" in the Adirondacks of upstate New York where they could spend time with their families in private luxury. The scions of New York City took to declaring that they would "vacate" their city homes for their lakeside summer retreats, the term "vacation" replaced the British "holiday" in common parlance. In Hungarian, the word vakáció can mean both a recreational trip, an granted absence from work, the summer school break. For absence from work, the word szabadság can be used as betegszabadság when the reason of absence is medical in nature.
Family vacation refers to recreation taken together by the family. The intended purpose of family vacation is for family to get away from day-to-day chores and to devote time for the relaxation and unity of family members. Family vacation can be ritual—for example, annually around the same time—or it can be a one-time event, it can involve travel to a far-flung spot or, for families on a tight budget, a stay-at-home staycation. Some examples of favorite family vacations might include family cruises, trips to popular theme parks, ski vacations, beach vacations, food vacations or similar types of family trips. In nearly all countries worldwide, there are minimum requirements as to the annual leave that must be afforded to an employee. In the United States, where no federal requirements as to minimum annual leave exist, many large corporations have generous vacation policies, some allowing employees to take weeks off and some allowing unlimited vacation. Unlimited vacation arrangements may nonetheless come with implicit expectations, for instance, it may be implied that an employee should not take more than about the average number of vacation days taken by others.
They also have the consequence that employees who leave the company receive no monetary compensation for leave days not taken. According to the U. S. Travel Association, Americans collectively did not use 662 million vacation days in 2016. More than half of all working people in the United States forfeited paid time off at the end of the year. Two-thirds of people still do work. Family vacation and vacation in general has become a common theme in many books and movies. Writers draw on common occurrences that take place during a vacation such as bonding and disasters
William Harold Nelson was a New Zealand long-distance runner who won two medals at the 1950 British Empire Games in Auckland. Born in Dunedin on 26 April 1923, Nelson was the son of Grace Ledingham Stewart—daughter of artist Eliza Anscombe—and William Alexander Anthony Nelson, he was educated at Otago Boys' High School, was inspired to take up athletics after seeing a film in 1938 about the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin that included New Zealander Jack Lovelock's winning the 1500 m gold medal. Nelson served with the Royal New Zealand Air Force during World War II. On 20 March 1948, Nelson married Margaret Joyce Calder, the couple went on to have four children. Nelson graduated from the University of Otago in 1952 with a Bachelor of Arts. Coached by Bernie McKernan, Nelson first came to national prominence as an athlete when he won the under-19 one-mile title at the New Zealand junior championships in 1941, in a national junior record time of 4:30.0. His athletics career was interrupted by World War II, but during the war he won a number of services athletics events.
Following an accident while serving with the RNZAF, Nelson was invalided home and he feared that he may never run again. However, after an operation, he was able to resume his running career. In 1946, Nelson won the national cross-country championship, in 1947 he won the New Zealand one-mile and three-mile titles at the national championships in Auckland; the same year, he captured the one- and three-mile titles at the New South Wales amateur athletics championships at the Sydney Cricket Ground. At the New Zealand athletics championships in 1948, Nelson won both the three- and six-mile events, his time of 29:57.4 over six miles was a New Zealand record, made him the second-fastest athlete in the world over the distance at that time. Nelson was subsequently selected as team captain and flagbearer for the New Zealand team at the 1948 Olympic Games in London. Competing in the 10,000 m, he had to withdraw after 17 laps. In the heats of the 5000 m, he recorded a time of 15:34.4, finishing sixth and not progressing to the final.
At the 1950 British Empire Games in Auckland, Nelson won the gold medal in the 6 miles, in a time of 30:29.6. He competed in the 3 miles, winning the silver medal with a time of 14:28.8, behind Englishman Len Eyre. Nelson won his final national championship title, the cross country, in 1951. A schoolteacher and his family moved to Nelson in 1951, where he taught at Nelson College for 12 years, he taught for six years at Waimea College, where he coached the young Rod Dixon. Nelson completed his teaching career at Nelson Polytechnic, retiring in 1983. Nelson remained active in athletics as a official in the Nelson area, he organised the athletics at the 1983 South Pacific Games in Apia, was a track official at the 1990 Commonwealth Games in Auckland. He participated in the 2000 Summer Olympics torch relay, he served two terms as president of the New Zealand Amateur Athletics Coaches' Association, was a various times director of athletics coaching in Western Samoa, the Cook Islands and the Solomon Islands.
In the 1986 Queen's Birthday Honours, Nelson was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire, for services to athletics. In 2006 he was the inaugural inductee into the Nelson Legends of Sport gallery, he was recognised as New Zealand's oldest living Olympian in 2009. Nelson suffered a stroke in 1988, in 2006 his wife, died. Nelson died at Richmond on 1 July 2011, his ashes were buried with those of his wife at Marsden Valley Cemetery. Since November 2011, an annual athletics meet at Nelson's Saxton Field has been called the Harold Nelson Classic; the southern entrance to the Saxton Field athletics track was renamed Harold Nelson Way in 2012. Harold Nelson at the International Olympic Committee
Vera Esther Burt was a New Zealand cricketer and field hockey player, representing her country in both codes. She went on to be hockey umpire and administrator. Burt was born in Patea on 14 January 1927, educated at Epsom Girls' Grammar School in Auckland, she studied at Auckland Teachers' Training College from 1944 to 1945, at Dunedin Teachers' College in 1946, becoming a physical education teacher. In 1952, she married Halstead Burt, the couple went on to have three children. Burt represented Auckland at a provincial level, played in three Test matches between 1948 and 1969. Beginning her hockey career in Auckland in the mid-1940s, Burt represented Otago briefly, she subsequently returned to Auckland and represented that province from 1947 to 1958. She gained national honours, playing for New Zealand against Australia in 1960. Burt went on to be an umpire for 34 years, was an A-grade international umpire during the 1970s. During the 1980s she served on the New Zealand Hockey Umpires' Council, she was a successful coach, taking the North Shore women's hockey team to the K Cup title in 1978.
As an administrator, Burt served on the executive of the Auckland Women's Hockey Association for 21 years, was instrumental in the establishment of the North Shore Women's Hockey Association in 1972. Burt was made a life member of Auckland Hockey in 1983, the New Zealand Women's Hockey Association in 1985, the New Zealand Umpires' Federation in 1988, the North Shore Women's Hockey Association in 1988. In the 1990 New Year Honours, Burt was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire, for services to sport women's hockey, the community. In 2009, Burt was an inaugural inductee into Harbour Sport's hall of fame. Burt died at Takapuna on 21 September 2017
The U. S. Open is the most prestigious squash tournament in the United States, one of the most significant in the world, it is a major international display of supreme talent in the sport, showcases the top players from around the world. In 2012 the U. S. Open squash championships was held from October 4-12 at Drexel University in Philadelphia, PA; the event forms part of the World Series for both the Professional Squash Association and the Women's Squash Association, is organized by the national governing body for squash in the United States, U. S. Squash; the championship was inaugurated in 1954 as an opportunity for professionals and amateurs to compete against each other. Prior to the mid-1980s, the tournament was held using the hardball squash format. In 1966, the championship became the North American Open; the North American Open continued to use the hardball format and came to establish itself as the most prestigious event in the hardball game. In 1985, the United States Open was reinstituted as a "softball" squash event using the international format.
A separate North American Open competition has continued to run as a hardball event. The first championship final in 1954 saw the Boston amateur player Henri Salaun defeat the great Pakistani player Hashim Khan in Hashim's first foray to North America. Subsequently the championship came to be dominated by members of the Khan family for the next three decades. Hashim won the title three times between 1956 and 1963, his son Sharif Khan captured the title a record 12 times in the 13-year period between 1969 and 1981. Four other members of their extended family won the championship – Roshan Khan, Azam Khan, Mo Khan, Jahangir Khan. Sharif's younger brother Aziz Khan finished runner-up in 1981. Another Khan, Jansher Khan won three titles in the 1980s and 1990s. Jansher's last win in 1995 marks the last time. In recent years, players from the United Kingdom and Canada have enjoyed success at the event. United States Open Championship United States Open Championship North American Open Championship United States Open Championship U.
S. Squash US Junior Open squash championship British Open Squash World Open 1 The 2001 United States Open was played in January 2002 as the Memorial Open in honor of those who died in the September 11 2001 attacks; the event was postponed following the attacks. U. S. Open Squash website USsquash.com tournament list Historical information at squashtalk.com
Large-cell carcinoma is a heterogeneous group of undifferentiated malignant neoplasms that lack the cytologic and architectural features of small cell carcinoma and glandular or squamous differentiation. LCC is categorized as a type of NSCLC. Patients present with a non-productive cough and weight loss. LCC is, in effect, a "diagnosis of exclusion", in that the tumor cells lack light microscopic characteristics that would classify the neoplasm as a small-cell carcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or other more specific histologic type of lung cancer. LCC is differentiated from small-cell lung carcinoma by the larger size of the anaplastic cells, a higher cytoplasmic-to-nuclear size ratio, a lack of "salt-and-pepper" chromatin; the newest revisions of the World Health Organization "Histological Typing of Lung Cancer schema" include several variants of LCC, including: Giant-cell carcinoma of the lung Basaloid large cell carcinoma of the lung Clear cell carcinoma of the lung Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung Large-cell lung carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung One clinically significant subtype is "large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma", believed to derive from neuroendocrine cells.
In addition, a "subvariant", called "combined large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma", is recognized under the new system. To be designated a c-LCNEC, the tumor must contain at least 10% LCNEC cells, in combination with at least 10% of other forms of NSCLC. In most series, LCLC's comprise between 5% and 10% of all lung cancers. According to the Nurses' Health Study, the risk of large cell lung carcinoma increases with a previous history of tobacco smoking, with a previous smoking duration of 30 to 40 years giving a relative risk of 2.3 compared to never-smokers, a duration of more than 40 years giving a relative risk of 3.6. Another study concluded, it estimated that the odds ratio associated with smoking two or more packs/day for current smokers is 37.0 in men and 72.9 in women. American comedian Andy Kaufman was a notable sufferer of the disease, which took his life in 1984.. World Health Organization Histological Classification of Lung and Pleural Tumours. 4th Edition