Charles Robert Redford Jr. is a retired American actor, director and businessman. He is the founder of the Sundance Film Festival. Redford began acting on television in the late 1950s, including an appearance on The Twilight Zone on January 5, 1962, he earned an Emmy nomination as Best Supporting Actor for his performance in The Voice of Charlie Pont. His greatest Broadway success was as the stuffy newlywed husband of co-star Elizabeth Ashley's character in Neil Simon's Barefoot in the Park. Redford made his film debut in War Hunt, his role in Inside Daisy Clover won him a Golden Globe for best new star. He starred in Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, a huge success and made him a major star, he had a critical and box office hit with Jeremiah Johnson, in 1973 he had the greatest hit of his career, the blockbuster crime caper The Sting, for which he was nominated for an Academy Award. The popular and acclaimed All the President's Men was a landmark film for Redford. In the 1980s, Redford began as a director with Ordinary People, one of the most critically and publicly acclaimed films of the decade, winning four Oscars including Best Picture and the Academy Award for Best Director for Redford.
He continued acting and starred in Brubaker, as well as playing the male lead in Out of Africa, an enormous box office success and won seven Oscars including Best Picture. He released his third film as a director, A River Runs Through It, in 1992, he went on to receive Best Picture nominations in 1995 for Quiz Show. He received a second Academy Award—for Lifetime Achievement—in 2002. In 2010, he was made a chevalier of the Légion d'Honneur, he has won BAFTA, Directors Guild of America, Golden Globe, Screen Actors Guild awards. In April 2014, Time magazine included Redford in their annual Time 100 as one of the "Most Influential People in the World", declaring him the "Godfather of Indie Film". In 2016, Redford was honored with a Presidential Medal of Freedom. Redford retired from acting after completing the film The Old Man & the Gun, released in October 2018. Redford was born on August 18, 1936, in Santa Monica, California, to Martha W. and Charles Robert Redford Sr. a milkman-turned-accountant.
He has a stepbrother, from his father's remarriage. Redford is of English, Scottish and Scots-Irish ancestry, his paternal great-great grandfather, English-born Elisha Redford, married Irish-Catholic Mary Ann McCreery in Manchester Cathedral. They had a son named the first in line to have been given the name. Redford's family moved to Van Nuys, while his father worked in El Segundo, he attended Van Nuys High School. He has described himself as having been a "bad" student, finding inspiration outside the classroom, being interested in art and sports, he hit tennis balls with Pancho Gonzales at the Los Angeles Tennis Club to warm him up. After graduating from high school in 1954, he attended the University of Colorado Boulder in Boulder, Colorado for a year and a half, where he was a member of the Kappa Sigma fraternity. While there, he worked at the restaurant/bar The Sink. While at Colorado, Redford began drinking and as a result lost his half-scholarship and was kicked out of school, he traveled in Europe, living in France and Italy.
He studied painting at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn and took classes at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City. Redford's career, like that of many major stars who emerged in the 1950s, began in New York City, where an actor could find work both on stage and in television, his Broadway debut was in a small role in Tall Story, followed by parts in The Highest Tree and Sunday in New York. His biggest Broadway success was as the stuffy newlywed husband of Elizabeth Ashley in Neil Simon's Barefoot in the Park. Starting in 1960, Redford appeared as a guest star on numerous television drama programs, including Naked City, The Untouchables, The Americans, Whispering Smith, Perry Mason, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Route 66, Dr. Kildare, Playhouse 90, The Twilight Zone, Captain Brassbound's Conversion with a young Christopher Plummer, among others. In 1960, Redford was cast as Danny Tilford, a mentally disturbed young man trapped in the wreckage of his family garage, in "Breakdown", one of the last episodes of the syndicated adventure series, Rescue 8, starring Jim Davis and Lang Jeffries.
Redford earned an Emmy nomination as Best Supporting Actor for his performance in The Voice of Charlie Pont. One of his last television appearances was on October 7, 1963, on Breaking Point, an ABC medical drama about psychiatry. Redford made his screen debut in Tall Story in a minor role; the film's stars were Anthony Perkins, Jane Fonda, Ray Walston. After his Broadway success, he was cast in larger feature roles in movies. In 1962 Redford got his second film role in War Hunt, was soon after cast alongside screen legend Alec Guinness in the war comedy Situation Hopeless... But Not Serious, in which he played a soldier who spends years of his life hiding behind enemy lines. In Inside Daisy Clover, which won him a Golden Globe for best new star, he played a bisexual movie star who marries starlet Natalie Wood, rejoined her along with Charles Bronson for Sydney Pollack's This Property Is Condemned —again, as her lover, though this time in a film which achieved greater success; the same year saw h
John S. and James L. Knight Foundation
The John S. and James L. Knight Foundation is an American non-profit foundation dedicated to fostering "informed and engaged communities" which the foundation believes are "essential for a healthy democracy." The foundation "supports ideas that promote quality journalism, advance media innovation, engage communities and foster the arts."The John S. and James L. Knight Foundation began as the Knight Memorial Education Fund in 1940. For its first decade, most contributions came from the Akron Beacon Miami Herald, it was incorporated as Knight Foundation in 1950 in Ohio, reincorporated as the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation in Florida in 1993, its first grant in the area of journalism was to the Inter American Press Association in Miami. After Creed Black assumed the presidency in 1988, the foundation's national presence grew. In 1990 the board of trustees voted to relocate the foundation's headquarters from Akron, Ohio, to Miami, Florida; the Foundation's website describes grant-making programs in journalism and the arts.
Communities which had Knight-Ridder Newspapers in 1991, at the time of the last founder James L. Knight's death, are considered to be among the 26 "Knight Communities" which are eligible for funding through the Foundation's community and arts programs. Knight works in 26 communities in the United States. In eight communities, a local program director leads the work: Another 18 communities have'Knight Donor Advised Funds' guided by Knight Foundation via local community foundations. In those communities, the local community foundation is the first point of contact for funding: The foundation endows Knight Chairs who are journalists in tenured positions at universities across the United States. Journalism-technology labs in various universities are funded by Knight Foundation. Knight Foundation funds multimedia training in newsrooms such as National Public Radio and through programs like Knight-Mozilla OpenNews. Knight Foundation presidents have been: John S. Knight, James L. Knight, Lee Hills, Creed C.
Black, Hodding Carter III and Alberto Ibargüen. Any individual or U. S.-based organization may apply for a grant. The process of asking for a grant begins with a letter of inquiry describing the project concept. In addition to the foundation's regular granting program, there are three contests: The Knight News Challenge, the Knight Arts Challenge and the Knight Community Information Challenge. In 2011 the Foundation added the Black Male Engagement Challenge. In 2015 a grant agreement was reached with Wikimedia Foundation to build a search engine called Knowledge Engine. From 1907 to 1933, Charles Landon Knight published the Akron Beacon Journal. One of his practices was helping out financially strapped college students with their tuition. Following their father's death, John S. and James L. Knight created the Knight Memorial Education Fund in 1940 to continue the mission of helping poor Akron college students pay for college; the Akron Beacon Journal contributed some money to the education fund.
In December 1950, Knight Foundation was created with $9,047 transferred from that education fund. Knight Foundation incorporated in the state of Ohio with the goal of carrying out the work of the education fund. At its start, the foundation funded education, social services, cultural organizations and some journalism-related causes. In its first decade, the foundation's money came from contributions from the Akron Beacon Journal and the Miami Herald, as well as personal gifts by John and James Knight. Other Knight newspapers contributed in the early 1960s. Despite several family ties, the foundation was independent of Knight-owned newspapers. Newspaper contributions to the foundation stopped five years when Clara I. Knight, the Knights' mother, who died 12 November 1965, left her inheritance of 180,000 shares of Knight stock valued at $5.2 million, to the foundation. Two years in 1974, Knight Newspapers merged with Ridder Publications to create Knight-Ridder Inc. at the time the largest newspaper company in the country.
Lee Hills, former president of Knight Newspapers, became Knight-Ridder chairman and CEO. Hills, a foundation trustee since 1960, was the first person outside the family to head Knight Newspapers. In April 1975, John Knight signed his final will, leaving the bulk of his Knight-Ridder shares to Knight Foundation; the foundation opened its first office in Akron with two full-time employees: President Ben Maidenburg, former Akron Beacon Journal executive editor and his secretary, Shirley Follo. More than a year after taking the reins, Maidenburg fell ill; the foundation's headquarters moved from Akron to Miami in 1990. At that time, the foundation's portfolio was valued at $522 million and staff had grown to 14 employees. On 5 February 1991, James Knight died, leaving a bulk of his estate, $200 million, to the foundation. Hills succeeded as chairman of the board. With the foundation besieged by requests in the early 1990s for emergency funding to "save our symphony," Penelope McPhee, director of the Arts Program, designed the Magic of Music initiative.
In 1992, Knight launched the five-year initiative with $5.4 million in grants to build the connection between orchestras and their audiences. In 1999, the foundation approved a second phase, expanding the program to a total of $13 million over 12 years. Knight-Ridder newspapers and the foundation held ties to 26 U. S. cities and in 1998, the foundation's board of trustees voted to permanently fund these 26 cities, independent from where Knight-Ridder bought or sold their newspaper business in the future. Across the 26 cities, the
Saul Bass was an American graphic designer and Academy Award-winning filmmaker, best known for his design of motion-picture title sequences, film posters, corporate logos. During his 40-year career Bass worked for some of Hollywood's most prominent filmmakers, including Alfred Hitchcock, Otto Preminger, Billy Wilder, Stanley Kubrick and Martin Scorsese. Among his most famous title sequences are the animated paper cut-out of a heroin addict's arm for Preminger's The Man with the Golden Arm, the credits racing up and down what becomes a high-angle shot of a skyscraper in Hitchcock's North by Northwest, the disjointed text that races together and apart in Psycho. Bass designed some of the most iconic corporate logos in North America, including the Bell System logo in 1969, as well as AT&T's globe logo in 1983 after the breakup of the Bell System, he designed Continental Airlines' 1968 jet stream logo and United Airlines' 1974 tulip logo, which became some of the most recognized airline industry logos of the era.
He died from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Los Angeles on April 25, 1996, at the age of 75. Saul Bass was born on May 8, 1920 in the Bronx, New York, United States, to Eastern European Jewish immigrant parents, he graduated from James Monroe High School in the Bronx and studied part-time at the Art Students League in Manhattan until attending night classes with György Kepes at Brooklyn College. In 1938, Saul married Ruth Cooper and they had two children, Robert in 1942 and Andrea in 1946, he began his time in Hollywood in the 1940s, designing print advertisements for films including Champion, Death of a Salesman and The Moon Is Blue, directed by Otto Preminger. His next collaboration with Preminger was to design a film poster for his 1954 film Carmen Jones. Preminger was so impressed with Bass's work; this was when Bass first saw the opportunity to create a title sequence which would enhance the experience of the audience and contribute to the mood and the theme of the movie within the opening moments.
Bass was one of the first to realize the creative potential of the opening and closing credits of a movie. Bass became known in the film industry after creating the title sequence for Otto Preminger's The Man with the Golden Arm; the subject of the film was a jazz musician's struggle to overcome his heroin addiction, a taboo subject in the mid-1950s. Bass decided to create an innovative title sequence to match the film's controversial subject, he chose the arm as the central image. The titles featured an animated, white on black paper cut-out arm of a heroin addict; as he hoped, it caused quite a sensation. For Alfred Hitchcock, Bass provided effective, memorable title sequences, inventing a new type of kinetic typography, for North by Northwest, working with John Whitney, Psycho, it was this kind of revolutionary work that made Bass a revered graphic designer. Before the advent of Bass's title sequences in the 1950s, titles were static, separate from the movie, it was common for them to be projected onto the cinema curtains, the curtains only being raised right before the first scene of the movie.
In 1960, Bass wrote an article for Graphis magazine called "Film Titles – a New Field for the Graphic Designer,", revered as a milestone for "the consecration of the movie credit sequence as a design object." One of the most studied film credit designers, Bass is known for integrating a stylistic coherence between the designs and the films in which they appear. Bass once described his main goal for his title sequences as being to "try to reach for a simple, visual phrase that tells you what the picture is all about and evokes the essence of the story". Another philosophy that Bass described as influencing his title sequences was the goal of getting the audience to see familiar parts of their world in an unfamiliar way. Examples of this or what he described as "making the ordinary extraordinary" can be seen in Walk on the Wild Side where an ordinary cat becomes a mysterious prowling predator, in Nine Hours to Rama where the interior workings of a clock become an expansive new landscape. In the 1950s, Saul Bass used a variety of techniques, from cut-out animation for Anatomy of a Murder, to animated mini-movies such as the epilogue for Around the World in 80 Days, live-action sequences.
In 1955, Elaine Makatura came to work with Bass in his Los Angeles office. By 1960, with the opening to Spartacus, she was directing and producing title sequences, in 1961 the two married, beginning more than 40 years of close collaboration. After the birth of their children, Jennifer in 1964 and Jeffrey in 1967, they concentrated on their family, film directing, title sequences. Saul and Elaine designed title sequences for more than 40 years, continuously experimenting with a variety of innovative techniques and effects, from Bunraku-style maneuvers in Spartacus, live-action sequences in Walk On The Wild Side, to time-lapse photography in The Age of Innocence, chopped liver in Mr. Saturday Night, their live-action opening title sequences served as prologues to their films and transitioned seamlessly into their opening scenes. These "time before" title sequences either expand time with startling results; the title sequence to Grand Prix portrays the moments before the opening race in Monte Carlo, the title sequence to The Big Country depicts the days it takes a stage coach to travel to a remote Western town, the opening montage title sequence to The Victors chronicles the twenty-seven years between World Wa
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Thomas Montgomery Newman is an American composer best known for his many film scores. Newman has been nominated for fourteen Academy Awards and three Golden Globes, has won two BAFTAs, six Grammys and an Emmy Award. Newman was honored with the Richard Kirk award at the 2000 BMI TV Awards; the award is given annually to a composer who has made significant contributions to film and television music. Born in Los Angeles, California, he is the youngest son of Martha Louis Montgomery and composer Alfred Newman, who won the Academy Award for Best Original Score nine times, he is a member of a film-scoring dynasty in Hollywood that includes his father Alfred, brother David Newman, sister Maria Newman, uncles Lionel Newman and Emil Newman, cousin Randy Newman, his first cousin, once removed, Joey Newman. His paternal grandparents were Russian immigrants, his mother was from Mississippi. During their upbringing, Martha herded her sons into violin lessons in the San Fernando Valley every weekend. Newman studied composition and orchestration for two years at the University of Southern California, before transferring to Yale University, where he graduated as a Bachelor of Arts in 1977 and a Master of Music in 1978.
While at Yale, he met composer Stephen Sondheim. Newman and his wife, Ann Marie, have three children, they reside in the Pacific Palisades neighborhood of Los Angeles. At first, Newman was more interested in musical theater than in film composition, working with Sondheim in Broadway plays. Lionel, who succeeded Alfred as music director for 20th Century Fox, gave Thomas his first scoring assignment on a 1979 episode of the series The Paper Chase. In 1983, John Williams, a friend of both Alfred and Lionel, invited Newman to work on Return of the Jedi, orchestrating the scene where Darth Vader dies. Afterwards Newman met in New York producer Scott Rudin, who invited him to compose the score for Reckless. Newman said that he thought "it was a tough job, at first" for requiring him to "develop vocabularies and a sense of procedure", only getting comfortable with writing scores "and not fraudulent in my efforts" after 8 years. In 1992, Newman composed the score to Martin Brest's film Scent of a Woman.
In 1994, he got his first Academy Award nominations with the scores to The Shawshank Redemption and Little Women. He scored the film The War. In 1996, he scored Diane Keaton's Unstrung Heroes. In 1998, he scored Robert Redford's The Horse Whisperer as well as Meet Joe Black. In 1999, Newman composed the score to Sam Mendes' first feature film American Beauty, created using percussion instruments. Newman believed the score helped move the film along without disturbing the "moral ambiguity" of the script, saying "It was a real delicate balancing act in terms of what music worked to preserve that." This was his first collaboration with Mendes, he would go on to score all of the director's subsequent films except for the comedy-drama Away We Go, which featured songs instead of a score. He received a fourth Oscar nomination for this score, although he lost again, he did receive a Grammy and a BAFTA, his critical and commercial success has continued in the following years with his scores for films such as Meet Joe Black, The Green Mile, Erin Brockovich, In the Bedroom and The Salton Sea.
He was nominated consecutively for a further three Academy Awards, for Road to Perdition, Finding Nemo, Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events. However, he lost on each occasion to Elliot Goldenthal, Howard Shore, Jan A. P. Kaczmarek respectively, he was again nominated for an Oscar for scoring Steven Soderbergh's The Good German. At the Oscar ceremony, he appeared in the opening segment by Errol Morris, who jokingly stated that Newman had been nominated for and failed to win an Oscar eight times. Newman replied: "No, I've failed seven but this will be my eighth", indeed, he again lost, this time to Gustavo Santaolalla for Babel, his first score since The Good German was for the 2008 animated film WALL-E, collaborating for the second time with director Andrew Stanton. The film won the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Newman received two Oscar nominations: one for Best Original Score, another for Best Original Song for "Down to Earth", which he co-wrote with Peter Gabriel, he was nominated in the Original Score category with two other veteran composers, James Newton-Howard and Danny Elfman, both of whom have been nominated for several Oscars but each time unsuccessfully.
Newman lost both the song nominations to A R Rahman for his work on Slumdog Millionaire. He and Peter Gabriel did however win a Grammy for "Down to Earth". In 2008, Newman scored Towelhead and Sam Mendes' Revolutionary Road and in 2009 he scored Brothers. In 2011 he scored The Help, The Debt, The Iron Lady, The Adjustment Bureau. In 2012, Newman scored The Best Exotic Marigold Hotel, he scored the 23rd James Bond movie Skyfall, directed by his longtime collaborator Sam Mendes, which celebrates the film franchise's 50th anniversary. His work on this film earned him a second BAFTA win. During 2013, he Saving Mr. Banks; the latter score was well received by film music critics, earning Newman BAFTA and Oscar nominations for the second consecutive year, both of which he lost to Steven Price for Gravity. Newman's 2014 projects Get on Up, he scored 2015's The Second Best E
James Newton Howard
James Newton Howard is an American composer and music producer. He has scored over 100 films and is the recipient of a Grammy Award, Emmy Award, eight Academy Award nominations, his film scores include Pretty Woman, Grand Canyon, The Fugitive, The Devil's Advocate, Atlantis: The Lost Empire, Treasure Planet, King Kong, Batman Begins, Blood Diamond, The Dark Knight, The Bourne Legacy, The Hunger Games series and Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them. He has collaborated with directors M. Night Shyamalan, having scored nine of his films since The Sixth Sense, Francis Lawrence, having scored all of his films since I Am Legend. Howard was born in Los Angeles, he is from a musical family. Howard began taking classical piano lessons at the age of four, he went on to attend the Thacher School in Ojai and the Music Academy of the West in Santa Barbara, California with Reginald Stewart and Leon Fleischer. He attended the University of Southern California, studying at the School of Music as a piano performance major, but dropped out after 6 weeks because "He wanted to do other things than practicing the piano."After Howard left college, he joined a short-lived rock band called Mama Lion.
The band was led by Neil Merryweather and featured vocalist Lynn Carey, Coffi Hall on bass, Rick Gaxiola on guitar. Mama Lion recorded two full-length albums. Members of Mama Lion formed the band Heavy Cruiser with Merryweather singing lead, recording two albums in the Heavy Prog Psyche genre, he worked for a couple of years as a session musician with artists including Diana Ross, Ringo Starr, Harry Nilsson. In the early 70s, he described himself as being "dirt poor", until his big break in 1975 when his manager got him an audition with Elton John, he toured with them as keyboardist during the late 70s and early 80s. He was part of the band that played Central Park, New York, on September 13, 1980. Howard arranged strings for several of John's songs during this period including the hits "Don't Go Breaking My Heart" and "Sorry Seems to Be the Hardest Word", played additional keyboards and synthesizers on studio albums including Rock of the Westies, Blue Moves, 21 at 33, The Fox. In 1982, Howard was featured on Toto IV as the strings conductor and orchestrator for "I Won't Hold You Back", "Afraid of Love", "Lovers in the Night".
A year he released the live album James Newton Howard and Friends, which featured Toto's David Paich, Steve Porcaro, Jeff Porcaro, Joe Porcaro. In 1983, Howard was co-producer and orchestrator of Riccardo Cocciante's album Sincerità. After touring with Crosby and Nash, he took an opportunity brought to him by his manager to write a film score for a small-time movie; this career move would lead to his becoming a successful film music composer. During this early foray into film music, he did not abandon his previous musical path and returned for a brief collaboration with Elton John on his Tour De Force of Australia in the fall of 1986, he conducted both his own and Paul Buckmaster's arrangements during the second half of the set, which focused on orchestrated performances of selected songs from the Elton John catalog. When delving into his family history, twenty-five years after the death of his father, Howard learned that his father was Jewish. Howard became a practicing Reconstructionist Jew.
Howard scored the surprise blockbuster romantic comedy Pretty Woman and received his first Academy Award nomination for his score for Barbra Streisand's drama The Prince of Tides. Setting the musical mood for numerous films throughout the decade, Howard's skills encompassed a plethora of genres, including four more best original score Oscar nominations, for the Harrison Ford action feature The Fugitive, the Julia Roberts romantic comedy My Best Friend's Wedding, M. Night Shyamalan's The Village, Michael Clayton. In addition, Howard scored the Western epic Wyatt Earp, Kevin Costner's Waterworld, Primal Fear, his collaborations on songs for One Fine Day and Junior garnered Oscar nominations for Best Song. Along with scoring small-scaled, independent films such as Five Corners, Glengarry Glen Ross, American Heart, Howard proved skilled at composing for big-budget Hollywood spectacles, including Space Jam, Dante's Peak, Collateral, he has scored three Disney animated feature films: Dinosaur, Atlantis: The Lost Empire and Treasure Planet.
Although he concentrates on films, Howard has contributed music for TV, earning an Emmy nomination in 1995 for his theme to NBC's ratings smash ER. He has scored all of Shyamalan's suspense thrillers, The Sixth Sense, Signs, The Village, Lady in the Water, The Happening, The Last Airbender, notably dropping the intense, yet subtle, opening credit music for The Sixth Sense from the corresponding soundtrack album. On October 14, 2005 Howard replaced Howard Shore as composer for King Kong, due to "differing creative aspirations for the score" between Shore and director Peter Jackson; the resultant score earned Howard his first Golden Globe nomination for Best
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were