Church of Holmen
The Church of Holmen is a Parish church in central Copenhagen in Denmark, on the street called Holmens Kanal. First built as a forge in 1563, it was converted into a naval church by Christian IV. It is famous for having hosted the wedding between Margrethe II of Denmark, current queen of Denmark, and Prince Henrik in 1967, the appearance of the Church of Holmen today closely resembles that of the renovation in 1872, except for the colour. The windows are in glass and predominantly set in iron. The spire is dressed in copper just like small spire on the confessionals roof, the church is of Lutheran denomination. The churchs pipe organ was made by Lambert Daniel Kastens and installed in 1738. The actual organ, however, is from 1956, the current pulpit was installed in 1662 and was carved by Abel Schrøder and stands in the natural colour of its oak, except for the kings monogram which is gilded. It is the oldest preserved pulpit in Copenhagen, and the most richly decorated and it stands from floor to ceiling, and depicts Christian history from Moses holding the basket up to Jesus Christ.
The oldest baptismal font in the church is in wrought iron, a white marble font was installed in 1756, created by Carl Frederik Stanley in classicist style, but is no longer in the church. The new baptismal font from 1872 was made by the sculptor Evens by Ludvig Fengers design, in black marble, a model of Niels Juels ship Christianus Quintus hangs from the ceiling in the church. In medieval Copenhagen, Holmen was an actual island, however, in the 16th century, city restructuring made it less of an island and more of a peninsula surrounded by Holmens Canal. On this peninsula, Christian III of Denmark founded a shipyard which became synonymous with the name Holmen, when the shipyard moved to Nyholm on Christianshavn, the name Holmen followed, and Bremerholm became Gammelholm, a name which is rarely used today. Holmens Canal was filled in the 1860s, but the lives on as a street. In 1562–63, Frederick II of Denmark built a forge for Holmen. The building was shaped, as special consideration was given not to spoil the view from the kings castle.
The actual forge was hidden behind a building, called the tower, which was given a handsome front in Italian style facing the castle. In 1617, Christian IV of Denmark has built houses for the navys personnel between the Church of Saint Nikolaj and Holmen and this created an influx in population which made it necessary to build a larger church, which the king had set up in the former anchor forge. At first, the reconstruction into a church caused no redesign of the buildings blueprints, the church was consecrated on September 5,1619, but craftsmen were still working on the church during 1620
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Sundby is a neighbourhood on Amager in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is often referred to as Sundbyerne since a distinction is traditionally made between Sundbyvester and Sundbyøster, located on each their side of Amagerbrogade. Sundbyvester and Sundbyøster were originally two villages known from about 1100, in the second half of the 18th century, the area changed character when sailors and workers began to settle in the community which spread along the main road. Administratively, Sundby belonged to the parish of Tårnby. The differences between urban Sundby and rural Tårnby grew still larger and led to conflicts over such as schools, sewers. In the 1890 census, Sundbyerne had a population of 13,310, in 1895 when Sundby was finally disjoined from Tårnby. Sundbys status as an independent civil parish only lasted for seven years
In architecture, a tympanum is the semi-circular or triangular decorative wall surface over an entrance, door or window, bounded by a lintel and arch. It often contains sculpture or other imagery or ornaments, most architectural styles include this element. In ancient Greek and Christian architecture, tympana usually contain religious imagery, a tympanum over a doorway is very often the most important, or only, location for monumental sculpture on the outside of a building. These shapes naturally influence the typical compositions of any sculpture within the tympanum, bands of molding surrounding the tympanum are referred to as the archivolt. In medieval French architecture the tympanum is often supported by a pillar called a trumeau. Gable Pediment Portal Sculpted tympanums Chartres Cathedral, West Front, Central Portal Tympanum of the last Judgment - western portal of the abbey-church of Saint Foy
Church of Denmark
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark or National Church, sometimes called Church of Denmark, is the established, state-supported church in Denmark. The reigning monarch is the secular authority in the church. As of 1 January 2017,75. 9% of the population of Denmark are members, Christianity was introduced to Denmark in the 9th century by Ansgar, Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. In the 10th century, King Harald Bluetooth became a Christian and began organizing the church, since the Reformation in Denmark, the Church has been Evangelical Lutheran, while retaining much of its pre-Reformation liturgical traditions. The 1849 Constitution of Denmark designated the church the Danish peoples church, the Church of Denmark continues to maintain the historical episcopate. Theological authority is vested in bishops, ten bishops in mainland Denmark and one in Greenland, there is no archbishop, the Bishop of Copenhagen acts as a primus inter pares. The Church of Denmark is organized in dioceses, each led by a bishop.
There are no archbishops, the most senior bishop is the Bishop of Copenhagen, the further subdivision includes 111 deaneries and 2,200 parishes. Each parish has a council, elected by church members in four-year terms. The parochial council leads the business of the local church and decides employment of personnel. The vicar is subordinate to the council, except in matters such as conducting church services. Both parochial councils and vicars are, subordinate to bishops, a special feature is the possibility of creating voluntary congregations within the Church. These account for a few percent of church members and they are voluntary associations, electing their own parochial council and vicar, whom they agree to pay from their own pockets. In return, they are exempt from church tax, the voluntary congregation and its vicar are subordinate to bishops, and members remain full members of the Church. Historically, when a parish was dominated by a fundamentalist majority and rector, today the voluntary congregations are often a solution for people who find the idea of a free church appealing, but wish to keep some bonds to the church.
Another, less commonly used feature is parish optionality, according to official statistics from January 2017,75. 9% of Danes are members of the Church of Denmark. Membership rates vary from 58. 1% in the Diocese of Copenhagen to 85. 2% in the Diocese of Viborg, any person who is baptised into the Church of Denmark automatically becomes a member. Members may renounce their membership and if they wish
A church building, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly worship services. The term in its sense is most often used by Christians to refer to their religious buildings. In traditional Christian architecture, the church is arranged in the shape of a Christian cross. When viewed from plan view the longest part of a cross is represented by the aisle, towers or domes are often added with the intention of directing the eye of the viewer towards the heavens and inspiring church visitors. The earliest identified Christian church was a church founded between 233 and 256. During the 11th through 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals, a cathedral is a church, usually Roman Catholic, Oriental Orthodox or Eastern Orthodox, housing the seat of a bishop. In standard Greek usage, the word ecclesia was retained to signify both a specific edifice of Christian worship, and the overall community of the faithful. This usage was retained in Latin and the languages derived from Latin, as well as in the Celtic languages.
In the Germanic and some Slavic languages, the word kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón was adopted instead, in Old English the sequence of derivation started as cirice and eventually church in its current pronunciation. German Kirche, Scottish kirk, Russian церковь, etc. are all similarly derived, according to the New Testament, the earliest Christians did not build church buildings. Instead, they gathered in homes or in Jewish worship places like the Second Temple or synagogues, the earliest archeologically identified Christian church is a house church, the Dura-Europos church, founded between 233 and 256. During the 11th through 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals, in addition to being a place of worship, the cathedral or parish church was used by the community in other ways. It could serve as a place for guilds or a hall for banquets. Mystery plays were performed in cathedrals, and cathedrals might be used for fairs. The church could be used as a place to thresh and store grain, a common architecture for churches is the shape of a cross.
These churches often have a dome or other large vaulted space in the interior to represent or draw attention to the heavens. Other common shapes for churches include a circle, to represent eternity, or an octagon or similar star shape, another common feature is the spire, a tall tower on the west end of the church or over the crossing. The Latin word basilica was used to describe a Roman public building
In church architecture, the chancel is the space around the altar, including the choir and the sanctuary, at the liturgical east end of a traditional Christian church building. It may terminate in an apse and it is generally the area used by the clergy and choir during worship, while the congregation is in the nave. Direct access may be provided by a door, usually on the south side of the church. In smaller churches, where the altar is backed by the outside east wall and there is no distinct choir, in churches with a retroquire area behind the altar, this may only be included in the broader definition of chancel. In a cathedral or other large church there may be a choir area at the start of the chancel, before reaching the sanctuary. All these may be included in the chancel, at least in architectural terms, in churches with less traditional plans the term may not be useful in either architectural or ecclesiastical terms. The chancel may be a step or two higher than the level of the nave, and the sanctuary is often raised still further and this is an arch which separates the chancel from the nave and transept of a church.
As well as the altar, the sanctuary may house a credence table, in some churches, the congregation may gather on three sides or in a semicircle around the chancel. In some churches, the pulpit and lectern may be in the chancel, the word chancel derives from the French usage of chancel from the Late Latin word cancellus. This refers to the form of rood screens. The chancel was formerly known as the presbytery, because it was reserved for the clergy, a large chancel made most sense in monasteries and cathedrals where there was a large number of singing clergy and boys from a choir school to occupy the choir. These usually sat in the nave, with any lay congregation, however the screen enjoyed a small revival in the 19th century, after the passionate urgings of Augustus Pugin, who wrote A Treatise on Chancel Screens and Rood Lofts, and others. After the Reformation Protestant churches generally moved the forward, typically to the front of the chancel. The rear of deep chancels became little used in churches surviving from the Middle Ages, with the emphasis on sermons, and their audibility, some churches simply converted their chancels to seat part of the congregation.
Fleming, Honour, Pevsner, Dictionary of Architecture,1980, Nikolaus, Priscilla Metcalf, The Cathedrals of England, Southern England,1985, Viking White, James F. The Cambridge Movement, The Ecclesiologists and the Gothic Revival,1962, Wipf and Stock Publishers, ISBN1592449379,9781592449378, google books Chancel
Passion of Jesus
Those parts of the four Gospels that describe these events, as well as the non-canonical Gospel of Peter, are known as the Passion narratives. In the liturgical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church, the Passion is commemorated in Holy Week, beginning on Friday of Sorrows, the Palm Sunday and culminating on his death on Good Friday. The word passion has taken on a more general application and now may apply to accounts of the suffering and death of Christian martyrs. The accounts of the Passion are found in the four gospels, Mark, Luke. Three of these, Matthew and Luke, known as the Synoptic Gospels, the Gospel of John accounts varies slightly. The events include, The conspiracy against Jesus by the Jewish Sanhedrin priests, triumphal entry into Jerusalem, his anger and outburst at the Cleansing of the Temple A meal a few days before Passover. He says that for this she always be remembered. In Jerusalem, the Last Supper shared by Jesus and his disciples, Jesus gives final instructions, predicts his betrayal, and tells them all to remember him.
On the path to Gethsemane after the meal, Jesus tells them they will all fall away that night, after Peter protests he will not, Jesus says Peter will deny him three times before the cock crows. Gethsemane, that night, Jesus prays, the disciples rest, during the arrest in Gethsemane, someone takes a sword and cuts off the ear of the high priests servant, Malchus. The high priests palace, that night, According to Matthews Gospel, the court spat in his face and struck him with their fists. They send him to Pontius Pilate, According to the synoptic gospels, the high priest who examines Jesus is Caiaphas, in John, Jesus is interrogated by Annas, Caiaiphas father-in-law. The courtyard outside the high palace, the same time. Peter has followed Jesus and joined the mob awaiting Jesus’ fate, they suspect he is a sympathizer, the cock crows and Peter remembers what Jesus had said. Pilate, the Roman governor, examines Jesus, decides he is innocent, the Jewish leaders and the crowd demand Jesus’ death, Pilate gives them the choice of saving Barabbas, in response to the screaming mob Pilate sends Jesus out to be crucified.
According to the Gospel of Matthew, the betrayer, is filled with remorse, when the high priests say that that is his affair, Judas throws the money into the temple, goes off, and hangs himself. Golgotha, a hill outside Jerusalem, morning through mid afternoon, the Gospel of Luke states that Pilate sends Jesus to be judged by Herod Antipas because as a Galilean he is under his jurisdiction. Herod is excited at first to see Jesus and hopes Jesus will perform a miracle for him, he asks Jesus several questions, Herod mocks him and sends him back to Pilate after giving him an elegant robe to wear
Church of Our Lady (Copenhagen)
The Church of Our Lady is the cathedral of Copenhagen. It is situated on Frue Plads and next to the building of the University of Copenhagen. The present day version of the church was designed by the architect Christian Frederik Hansen in the style and was completed in 1829. Construction of the original Collegiate Church of St. Mary, began no than 1187 under Bishop Absalon, the church was located on the highest point near the new town of Havn, Copenhagen. Bishop Absalon was Bishop of Roskilde, Denmarks capital of that era and he built many churches and monasteries, while founding Copenhagen as Denmarks Baltic port city. Named Archbishop of Lund in 1178, Absalon accepted only under threat of excommunication, the church was built in Romanesque style with its half-rounded arches inside and out. In 1314, a fire destroyed the church so completely that it was rebuilt in the popular new building material of the day. The style of building was Gothic, with its pointed arches. The rebuilding of the church with a long nave and choir continued until 1388.
Due to a lack of money, the tower was not built until the reign of Christian II. It was as high as the church was long, and from artwork of the day, a school was established early on. In 1479, parts of the school received a charter. Professors were brought from Cologne, the international faculty widened Denmarks exposure to the great ideas and philosophies of the day. The university challenged the growth of the Protestant movement, but was eventually closed, by 1537 it reopened as a centre for Lutheran studies. The Protestant Reformation was hard on St Marys, citizens of Copenhagen had elected to follow Luther, but Catholic officials at St Marys tried to maintain the church as a centre of Catholic resistance to change in Copenhagen. By royal decree both Catholic priests and Lutheran preachers were commanded to use the church jointly, which incensed the majority of Copenhagens population, on 27 December 1530 hundreds of citizens stormed St Marys, destroying every statue and dismantling the choir stalls.
The 17 richly gilt altars were stripped of jewels and gold and smashed, as were reliquaries, even the name St Marys became Vor Frue Kirke, keeping the historic reference to Mary without the use of the un-Lutheran Saint appellation. Just a year Our Lady Church celebrated the acceptance of the Lutheran Order presided over by Johan Bugenhagen,1539 saw the installation of the first Lutheran superintendents, bishops, of Denmark